Cohesin is required for activation of MYC by estradiol.
ABSTRACT: Cohesin is best known as a multi-subunit protein complex that holds together replicated sister chromatids from S phase until G2. Cohesin also has an important role in the regulation of gene expression. We previously demonstrated that the cohesin complex positively regulates expression of the oncogene MYC. Cell proliferation driven by MYC contributes to many cancers, including breast cancer. The MYC oncogene is estrogen-responsive and a transcriptional target of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). Estrogen-induced cohesin binding sites coincide with ER? binding at the MYC locus, raising the possibility that cohesin and ER? combine actions to regulate MYC transcription. The objective of this study was to investigate a putative role for cohesin in estrogen induction of MYC expression. We found that siRNA-targeted depletion of a cohesin subunit, RAD21, decreased MYC expression in ER-positive (MCF7 and T47D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines. In addition, RAD21 depletion blocked estradiol-mediated activation of MYC in ER-positive cell lines, and decreased ER? binding to estrogen response elements (EREs) upstream of MYC, without affecting total ER? levels. Treatment of MCF7 cells with estradiol caused enrichment of RAD21 binding at upstream enhancers and at the P2 promoter of MYC. Enriched binding at all sites, except the P2 promoter, was dependent on ER?. Since RAD21 depletion did not affect transcription driven by an exogenous reporter construct containing a naked ERE, chromatin-based mechanisms are likely to be involved in cohesin-dependent MYC transcription. This study demonstrates that ER? activation of MYC can be modulated by cohesin. Together, these results demonstrate a novel role for cohesin in estrogen-mediated regulation of MYC and the first evidence that cohesin plays a role in ER? binding.
Project description:Contact between sister chromatids from S phase to anaphase depends on cohesin, a large multi-subunit protein complex. Mutations in sister chromatid cohesion proteins underlie the human developmental condition, Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Roles for cohesin in regulating gene expression, sometimes in combination with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), have emerged. We analyzed zebrafish embryos null for cohesin subunit rad21 using microarrays to determine global effects of cohesin on gene expression during embryogenesis. This identified Rad21-associated gene networks that included myca (zebrafish c-myc), p53 and mdm2. In zebrafish, cohesin binds to the transcription start sites of p53 and mdm2, and depletion of either Rad21 or CTCF increased their transcription. In contrast, myca expression was strongly downregulated upon loss of Rad21 while depletion of CTCF had little effect. Depletion of Rad21 or the cohesin-loading factor Nipped-B in Drosophila cells also reduced expression of myc and Myc target genes. Cohesin bound the transcription start site plus an upstream predicted CTCF binding site at zebrafish myca. Binding and positive regulation of the c-Myc gene by cohesin is conserved through evolution, indicating that this regulation is likely to be direct. The exact mechanism of regulation is unknown, but local changes in histone modification associated with transcription repression at the myca gene were observed in rad21 mutants.
Project description:RAD21 is a subunit of cohesin. Cohesin is maninly known for its role in holding sister chromatids together during cell-division but it also plays a role in gene regulation. Genome wide study in MCF7 cells have shown that cohesin co-binds with estrogen receptor alpha at numerous sites. To identify estrogen sensitive genes that are influenced by cohesin, a microarray expression analysis was conducted in MCF7 cells lacking the cohesin subunit RAD21. Global changes in gene expression were identified in cells treated with Control/RAD21 siRNA and stimulated with estrogen/vehicle thereafter. Overall design: MCF7 cells growing in hormone depleted conditions for 24 hours were transfected with RAD21 or control siRNA and cultured in hormone-depleted conditions for a further 48 hours. Cells were subsequently treated with 100 nM 17-β estradiol or vehicle for 3 and 6 hours. Cells were harvested for RNA and protein at both time points. Knockdown of RAD21 message and protein were verified by quantitative PCR and western blotting respectively. For each time point, RNA from three independent biological experiments were used for analyses
Project description:The functional importance of gene enhancers in regulated gene expression is well established. In addition to widespread transcription of long non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts in mammalian cells, bidirectional ncRNAs referred to as eRNAs are present on enhancers. However, it has remained unclear whether these eRNAs are functional, or merely a reflection of enhancer activation. Here, we report that 17 ?-estradiol (E2)-bound estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) on enhancers causes a global increase in eRNA transcription on enhancers adjacent to E2 upregulated coding genes. These induced eRNAs, as functional transcripts, appear to exert important roles for the observed ligand-dependent induction of target coding genes, causing an increased strength of specific enhancer:promoter looping initiated by ER? binding. Cohesin, present on many ER?-regulated enhancers even prior to ligand treatment, apparently contributes to E2-dependent gene activation by stabilizing E2/ER?/eRNA-induced enhancer:promoter looping. Our data indicate that eRNAs are likely to exert important functions in many regulated programs of gene transcription. The ChIP-seqs in this study measure the binding landscape of master transcription regulator of estrogen signaling - ER?, together with common histone marks including H3K27ac and H3K4me1 in MCF7 cells. These data serve as the basis to understand the enhancer map and subsequent analysis of eRNA expression using GRO-seq. The GRO-seq measures the trancription of nascent RNAs in the genome. From MCF7 cells treated with veichle or estrodial, we could identify estrogen-regulated eRNAs and subsequently could study their functions.
Project description:Cohesin is a well-known mediator of sister chromatid cohesion, but it also influences gene expression and development. These non-canonical roles of cohesin are not well understood, but are vital: gene expression and development are altered by modest changes in cohesin function that do not disrupt chromatid cohesion. To clarify cohesin’s roles in transcription, we measured how cohesin controls RNA polymerase II (Pol II) activity by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and precision global run-on sequencing. On average, cohesin-binding genes have more transcriptionally active Pol II and promoter-proximal Pol II pausing than non-binding genes, and are more efficient, producing higher steady state levels of mRNA per transcribing Pol II complex. Cohesin depletion frequently increases pausing at cohesin-binding genes, indicating that cohesin often facilitates transition of paused Pol II to elongation. In many cases this likely reflects a role for cohesin in transcriptional enhancer function. Strikingly, more than 95% of predicted extragenic enhancers bind cohesin, and cohesin depletion can reduce their association with Pol II, indicating that cohesin facilitates enhancer-promoter contact. Cohesin directly promotes transcription of the myc gene, and cohesin depletion reduces Pol II activity at most Myc target genes. The multiple transcriptional roles of cohesin revealed by these studies likely underlie the growth and developmental deficits caused by minor changes in cohesin activity. The PRO-seq method was used to measure transcriptionally engaged Pol II genome-wide in two replicates each of mock RNAi-treated, Nipped-B RNAi-treated, and Rad21 RNAi-treated ML-DmBG3-c2 cells.
Project description:Cohesin is a well-known mediator of sister chromatid cohesion, but it also influences gene expression and development. These non-canonical roles of cohesin are not well understood, but are vital: gene expression and development are altered by modest changes in cohesin function that do not disrupt chromatid cohesion. To clarify cohesinM-bM-^@M-^Ys roles in transcription, we measured how cohesin controls RNA polymerase II (Pol II) activity by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and precision global run-on sequencing. On average, cohesin-binding genes have more transcriptionally active Pol II and promoter-proximal Pol II pausing than non-binding genes, and are more efficient, producing higher steady state levels of mRNA per transcribing Pol II complex. Cohesin depletion frequently increases pausing at cohesin-binding genes, indicating that cohesin often facilitates transition of paused Pol II to elongation. In many cases this likely reflects a role for cohesin in transcriptional enhancer function. Strikingly, more than 95% of predicted extragenic enhancers bind cohesin, and cohesin depletion can reduce their association with Pol II, indicating that cohesin facilitates enhancer-promoter contact. Cohesin directly promotes transcription of the myc gene, and cohesin depletion reduces Pol II activity at most Myc target genes. The multiple transcriptional roles of cohesin revealed by these studies likely underlie the growth and developmental deficits caused by minor changes in cohesin activity. We performed ChIP-chip of Rpb3 (representing total Pol II), Ser2P-Pol II (representing elongating Pol II), and Cdk12 and CycT Pol II kinase components in Mock RNAi-treated and cohesin subunit Rad21 RNAi-treated ML-DmBG3-c2 cells, which revealed that cohesin depletion has a variety of effects on Pol II occupancy and modification, as well as on occupancy of Pol II kinases.
Project description:Cohesins, which mediate sister chromatin cohesion, and CTCF, which functions at chromatin boundaries, play key roles in the structural and functional organization of chromosomes. We examined the binding of these two factors on the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) episome during latent infection and found a striking colocalization within the control region of the major latency transcript responsible for expressing LANA (ORF73), vCyclin (ORF72), vFLIP (ORF71), and vmiRNAs. Deletion of the CTCF-binding site from the viral genome disrupted cohesin binding, and crippled colony formation in 293 cells. Clonal instability correlated with elevated expression of lytic cycle gene products, notably the neighbouring promoter for K14 and vGPCR (ORF74). siRNA depletion of RAD21 from latently infected cells caused an increase in K14 and ORF74, and lytic inducers caused a rapid dissociation of RAD21 from the viral genome. RAD21 and SMC1 also associate with the cellular CTCF sites at mammalian c-myc promoter and H19/Igf2 imprinting control region. We conclude that cohesin subunits associate with viral and cellular CTCF sites involved in complex gene regulation and chromatin organization.
Project description:MYC proteins bind globally to active promoters and promote transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). To identify effector proteins that mediate this function, we performed mass spectrometry on N-MYC complexes in neuroblastoma cells. The analysis shows that N-MYC forms complexes with TFIIIC, TOP2A, and RAD21, a subunit of cohesin. N-MYC and TFIIIC bind to overlapping sites in thousands of Pol II promoters and intergenic regions. TFIIIC promotes association of RAD21 with N-MYC target sites and is required for N-MYC-dependent promoter escape and pause release of Pol II. Aurora-A competes with binding of TFIIIC and RAD21 to N-MYC in vitro and antagonizes association of TOP2A, TFIIIC, and RAD21 with N-MYC during S phase, blocking N-MYC-dependent release of Pol II from the promoter. Inhibition of Aurora-A in S phase restores RAD21 and TFIIIC binding to chromatin and partially restores N-MYC-dependent transcriptional elongation. We propose that complex formation with Aurora-A controls N-MYC function during the cell cycle.
Project description:For self-renewal, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) require the expression of specific transcription factors accompanied by a particular chromosome organization to maintain a balance between pluripotency and the capacity for rapid differentiation. However, how transcriptional regulation is linked to chromosome organization in ESCs is not well understood. Here we show that the cohesin component RAD21 exhibits a functional role in maintaining ESC identity through association with the pluripotency transcriptional network. ChIP-seq analyses of RAD21 reveal an ESC specific cohesin binding pattern that is characterized by CTCF independent co-localization of cohesin with pluripotency related transcription factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Esrrb and Klf4. Upon ESC differentiation, most of these binding sites disappear and instead new CTCF independent RAD21 binding sites emerge, which are enriched for binding sites of transcription factors implicated in early differentiation. Furthermore, knock-down of RAD21 causes expression changes that are similar to expression changes after Nanog depletion, demonstrating the functional relevance of the RAD21--pluripotency transcriptional network association. Finally, we show that Nanog physically interacts with the cohesin or cohesin interacting proteins STAG1 and WAPL further substantiating this association. Based on these findings we propose that a dynamic placement of cohesin by pluripotency transcription factors contributes to a chromosome organization supporting the ESC expression program.
Project description:The cohesin complex is responsible for the fidelity of chromosomal segregation during mitosis. It consists of four core subunits, namely Rad21/Mcd1/Scc1, Smc1, Smc3, and one of the yeast Scc3 orthologs SA1 or SA2. Sister chromatid cohesion is generated during DNA replication and maintained until the onset of anaphase. Among the many proposed models of the cohesin complex, the 'core' cohesin subunits Smc1, Smc3, and Rad21 are almost universally displayed as tripartite ring. However, other than its supportive role in the cohesin ring, little is known about the fourth core subunit SA1/SA2. To gain deeper insight into the function of SA1/SA2 in the cohesin complex, we have mapped the interactive regions of SA2 and Rad21 in vitro and ex vivo. Whereas SA2 interacts with Rad21 through a broad region (301-750 aa), Rad21 binds to SA proteins through two SA-binding motifs on Rad21, namely N-terminal (NT) and middle part (MP) SA-binding motif, located at 60-81 aa of the N-terminus and 383-392 aa of the MP of Rad21, respectively. The MP SA-binding motif is a 10 amino acid, ?-helical motif. Deletion of these 10 amino acids or mutation of three conserved amino acids (L(385), F(389), and T(390)) in this ?-helical motif significantly hinders Rad21 from physically interacting with SA1/2. Besides the MP SA-binding motif, the NT SA-binding motif is also important for SA1/2 interaction. Although mutations on both SA-binding motifs disrupt Rad21-SA1/2 interaction, they had no apparent effect on the Smc1-Smc3-Rad21 interaction. However, the Rad21-Rad21 dimerization was reduced by the mutations, indicating potential involvement of the two SA-binding motifs in the formation of the two-ring handcuff for chromosomal cohesion. Furthermore, mutant Rad21 proteins failed to significantly rescue precocious chromosome separation caused by depletion of endogenous Rad21 in mitotic cells, further indicating the physiological significance of the two SA-binding motifs of Rad21.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human gammaherpesvirus recognized as the principal causative agent of KS and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). KSHV establishes persistent latent infection in B lymphocytes where viral gene expression is restricted, in part, by a cohesin-dependent chromosome conformation. Here, we show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces a rapid, caspase-dependent cleavage of cohesin subunit RAD21. ER stress-induced cleavage of RAD21 correlated with a rapid and strong viral lytic transcriptional activation. This effect was observed in several KSHV positive PEL cells, but not in other B-cells or non-B-cell models of KSHV latency. The cleaved-RAD21 does not dissociate from viral genomes, nor disassemble from other components of the cohesin complex. However, RAD21 cleavage correlated with the disruption of the latency genome conformation as revealed by chromosome conformation capture (3C). Ectopic expression of C-terminal RAD21 cleaved form could partially induce KSHV lytic genes transcription in BCBLI cells, suggesting that ER-stress induced RAD21 cleavage was sufficient to induce KSHV reactivation from latency in PEL cells. Taken together our results reveal a novel aspect for control and maintenance of KSHV genome latency conformation mediated by stress-induced RAD21 cleavage. Our studies also suggest that RAD21 cleavage may be a general regulatory mechanism for rapid alteration of cellular chromosome conformation and cohesin-dependent transcription regulation.