Spermine attenuates the action of the DNA intercalator, actinomycin D, on DNA binding and the inhibition of transcription and DNA replication.
ABSTRACT: The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion.
Project description:HeLa cells depleted of polyamines by treatment with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) or a combination of the two, were examined for sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease, DNAase I and DNAase II. The degrees of chromatin accessibility to DNAase I and II appeared enhanced somewhat in all three treatment groups, and the released digestion products differed from those in non-depleted cells. DNA released from MGBG- and DFMO/MGBG-treated cells by DNAase II digestion was enriched 4-7-fold for Mg2+-soluble species relative to controls. DNA released by micrococcal nuclease digestion from all three treatment groups was characterized as consisting of higher-order nucleosomal structure than was DNA released from untreated cells. At least some of the altered chromatin properties were abolished by a brief treatment of cells with polyamines, notably spermine. These studies provide the first demonstration in vivo of altered chromatin structure in cells treated with inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis.
Project description:HeLa cells were synchronized for S-phase DNA synthesis by the double thymidine-block procedure. A comparison was made of the polyamine content and S-phase DNA synthesis in cells from control cultures and cultures to which an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine, was added to the synchronization medium. Control cells showed a peak of synchronous DNA synthesis at 3 h and a maximum concentration of polyamines at 6-9 h after release of the second thymidine block. Cells from cultures containing the inhibitor were severely inhibited in the synthesis of DNA and contained no putrescine and only traces of spermidine while the spermine content was lowered by as much as 80%. Supplementation of cultures containing alpha-difluoromethylornithine with a polyamine, at the time of release of the second thymidine block, replenished the intracellular pool of the administered polyamine and partially restored S-phase DNA synthesis, with a lag of 3-6 h. Almost complete restoration of DNA synthesis in cells depleted of polyamines was achieved by the addition of a polyamine to cultures at least 10 h before release of the second thymidine block. The lag in initiation of synchronous S-phase DNA synthesis was eliminated in these cells. It is concluded that reversal by polyamines of the deficiency in S-phase DNA synthesis, in polyamine-depleted HeLa cells, is a time-dependent process indicative of the necessity for the replenishment of replication factors or their organization into an active replication complex.
Project description:Polyamines are essential for various cell functions and are produced in most cells, as well as being taken up from extracellular sources. Polyamines, especially spermine, in blood cells increase when polyamines are supplied from the digestive tract. Altered polyamine metabolism has an impact on substrate concentrations and enzyme activities involved in gene methylation, and may affect gene expression. Therefore, we investigated the effect of decreased polyamine synthesis and extracellular spermine supply on substrate concentrations and enzyme activities involved in gene methylation and on changes of methylation in promoter regions using methylation arrays. In Jurkat cells and human mammary epithelial cells, changes in polyamine concentrations differed after polyamine synthesis inhibition. However, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity and the decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine ratio were decreased by spermine addition in both cells. After inhibiting polyamine synthesis in Jurkat cells by D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine, the protein levels of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1, 3A and 3B were not changed, but the activity of the three enzymes markedly decreased. The protein levels of these enzymes were not changed by addition of spermine; however, DNMT 3B was markedly activated and DNMT 3A was also activated. DNMT 1 was not activated. Effects on methylation of promoter regions included significant changes for tumor suppressor genes in response to altered polyamine metabolism. However, no significant changes in methylation status were found on genes of which methylation status and their related protein levels were affected by spermine. When considering these results, there are many genes for which polyamines have an impact on expression via methylation of promoter regions. Overall design: In order to asess the methylation status under depletion or supplementation of polyamine (Spermine), four DNA samples obtained from Jurkat cells cultured in were analyzed in four different conditon as follows; Control, D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)(+), Spermine (+), DFMO+Spermine
Project description:Blocks of potential Z-DNA-forming (dA-dC)n.(dG-dT)n sequences are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. We examined whether naturally occurring polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, could provoke the Z-DNA conformation in plasmids pDHf2 and pDHf14 with 23 and 60 bp inserts respectively of (dA-dC)n.(dG-dT)n sequences using an e.l.i.s.a. Spermidine and spermine could provoke Z-DNA conformation in these plasmids, but putrescine was ineffective. For pDHf2 and pDHf14, the concentration of spermidine at the midpoint of B-DNA to Z-DNA transition was 25 microM, whereas that of spermine was 16 microM. Polyamine structural specificity was evident in the ability of spermidine homologues to induce Z-DNA. Inorganic cations, Co(NH3)6(3+) and Ru(NH3)6(3+), were ineffective. Our experiments also showed increased binding of anti-DNA autoantibodies from lupus patients as well as autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice to pDHf2 and pDHf14 in the presence of polyamines. These data demonstrate that small blocks of (dA-dC)n.(dG-dT)n sequences could assume the Z-DNA conformation in the presence of natural polyamines. Increased concentrations of polyamines in the sera of lupus patients might facilitate immune complex-formation involving circulating DNA and anti-Z-DNA antibodies.
Project description:Polyamines (spermine and spermidine) play many important roles in cellular function and are supplied from the intestinal lumen. We have shown that continuous high polyamine intake inhibits age-associated pathologies in mice. The mechanism by which polyamines elicit these effects was examined. Twenty-four week old Jc1:ICR male mice were fed one of three experimental chows containing different polyamine concentrations. Lifetime intake of high polyamine chow, which had a polyamine content approximately three times higher than regular chow, elevated polyamine concentrations in whole blood, suppressed age-associated increases in pro-inflammatory status, decreased age-associated pathological changes, inhibited age-associated global alteration in DNA methylation status and reduced the mortality in aged mice. Exogenous spermine augmented DNA methyltransferase activity in Jurkat and HT-29 cells and inhibited polyamine deficiency-induced global alteration in DNA methylation status in vitro. In addition, increased polyamine intake was associated with a decreased incidence of colon tumors in BALB/c mice after 1,2-demethylhydrazine administration; 12 mice (60%) in the low polyamine group developed tumors, compared with only 5 mice (25%) in the high polyamine group (Fisher's exact probability?=?0.027, p?=?0.025). However, increased polyamine intake accelerated the growth of established tumors; maximal tumor diameter in the Low and High groups was 3.85±0.90 mm and 5.50±1.93 mm, respectively (Mann-Whitney test, p?=?0.039). Spermine seems to play important roles in inhibiting age-associated and polyamine-deficient induced abnormal gene methylation as well as pathological changes including tumorigenesis.
Project description:The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are essential polycations, intimately involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation. Although polyamines exert dynamic effects on the conformation of nucleic acids and macromolecular synthesis in vitro, their specific functions in vivo are poorly understood. We investigated the cellular function of polyamines by overexpression of a key catabolic enzyme, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) in mammalian cells. Transient cotransfection of HeLa cells with GFP and SAT1 vectors suppressed GFP protein expression without lowering its mRNA level, an indication that the block in GFP expression was not at transcription, but at translation. Fluorescence single-cell imaging also revealed specific inhibition of endogenous protein synthesis in the SAT1 overexpressing cells, without any inhibition of synthesis of DNA or RNA. Overexpression of SAT1 using a SAT1 adenovirus led to rapid depletion of cellular spermidine and spermine, total inhibition of protein synthesis, and growth arrest within 24 h. The SAT1 effect is most likely due to depletion of spermidine and spermine, because stable polyamine analogs that are not substrates for SAT1 restored GFP and endogenous protein synthesis. Loss of polysomes with increased 80S monosomes in the polyamine-depleted cells suggests a direct role for polyamines in translation initiation. Our data provide strong evidence for a primary function of polyamines, spermidine and spermine, in translation in mammalian cells.
Project description:Mosquitoes transmit a number of diseases in animals and humans, including Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses that affect millions of people each year. Controlling the disease-transmitting mosquitoes has proven to be a successful strategy to reduce the viruses transmission. Polyamines are required for the life cycle of the RNA viruses, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus, and a depletion of spermidine and spermine in the host via induction of spermine N-acetyltransferase restricts their replication. Spermine N-acetyltransferase is a key catabolic enzyme in the polyamine pathway, however there is no information of the enzyme identification in any insects. Aliphatic polyamines play a fundamental role in tissue growth and development in organisms. They are acetylated by spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT). In this study we provided a molecular and biochemical identification of SAT from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Screening of purified recombinant proteins against polyamines established that aaNAT5b, named previously based on sequence similarity with identified aaNAT1 in insects, is active to spermine and spermidine. A crystal structure was determined and used in molecular docking in this study. Key residues were identified to be involved in spermine binding using molecular docking and simulation. In addition, SAT transcript was down regulated by blood feeding using a real time PCR test. Based on its substrate profile and transcriptional levels after blood feeding, together with previous reports for polyamines required in arboviruses replication, SAT might be potentially used as a target to control arboviruses with human interference.
Project description:Polyamines are involved in various biological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, gene regulation, etc. Recently, it was found that polyamines exhibit biphasic effects on gene expression: promotion and inhibition at low and high concentrations, respectively. Here, we compared the effects of three naturally occurring tetravalent polyamines, spermine (SPM), thermospermine (TSPM), and <i>N</i><sup>4</sup>-aminopropylspermidine (BSPD). Based on the single DNA observation with fluorescence microscopy together with measurements by atomic force microscopy revealed that these polyamines induce shrinkage and then compaction of DNA molecules, at low and high concentrations, respectively. We also performed the observation to evaluate the effects of these polyamine isomers on the activity of gene expression by adapting a cell-free luciferase assay. Interestingly, the potency of their effects on the DNA conformation and also on the inhibition of gene expression activity indicates the highest for TSPM among spermine isomers. A numerical evaluation of the strength of the interaction of these polyamines with negatively charged double-strand DNA revealed that this ordering of the potency corresponds to the order of the strength of the attractive interaction between phosphate groups of DNA and positively charged amino groups of the polyamines.
Project description:According to previous research, natural polyamines exert a role in regulating cell committment and differentiation from stemness during skeletal development. In order to assess whether distinct polyamine patterns are associated with different skeletal cell types, primary cultures of stem cells, chondrocytes or osteoblasts were dedicated for HPLC analysis of intracellular polyamines. Spermine (SPM) and Spermidine (SPD) levels were higher in adipose derived stem cells (ASC) compared to mature skeletal cells, i.e. chondrocytes and osteoblasts, confirming the connection of polyamine content with stemness. To establish whether polyamines can protect ASC against oxidative DNA damage in a 3-D differentiation model, the level of γH2AX was measured by western blot, and found to correlate with age and BMI of patients. Addition of either polyamine to ASC was able to hinder DNA damage in the low micromolecular range, with marked reduction of γH2AX level at 10 µM SPM and 5 µM SPD. Molecular analysis of the mechanisms that might underlie the protective effect of polyamine supplementation evidences a possible involvement of autophagy. Altogether, these results support the idea that polyamines are able to manage both stem cell differentiation and cell oxidative damage, and therefore represent appealing tools for regenerative and cell based applications.
Project description:The antizyme protein, Oaz1, regulates synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine by controlling stability of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase. Antizyme mRNA translation depends upon a polyamine-stimulated +1 ribosomal frameshift, forming a complex negative feedback system in which the translational frameshifting event may be viewed in engineering terms as a feedback controller for intracellular polyamine concentrations. In this article, we present the first systems level study of the characteristics of this feedback controller, using an integrated experimental and modeling approach. Quantitative analysis of mutant yeast strains in which polyamine synthesis and interconversion were blocked revealed marked variations in frameshift responses to the different polyamines. Putrescine and spermine, but not spermidine, showed evidence of co-operative stimulation of frameshifting and the existence of multiple ribosome binding sites. Combinatorial polyamine treatments showed polyamines compete for binding to common ribosome sites. Using concepts from enzyme kinetics and control engineering, a mathematical model of the translational controller was developed to describe these complex ribosomal responses to combinatorial polyamine effects. Each one of a range of model predictions was successfully validated against experimental frameshift frequencies measured in S-adenosylmethionine-decarboxylase and antizyme mutants, as well as in the wild-type genetic background.