ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic processes of nucleosome assembly and disassembly govern chromatin dynamics, in which histones exchange in a highly regulated manner to promote genome accessibility for all DNA-dependent processes. This regulation is partly carried out by histone chaperones, which serve multifaceted roles in co-ordinating the interactions of histone proteins with modification enzymes, nucleosome remodellers, other histone chaperones and nucleosomal DNA. The molecular details of the processes by which histone chaperones promote delivery of histones among their many functional partners are still largely undefined, but promise to offer insights into epigenome maintenance. In the present paper, we review recent findings on the histone chaperone interactions that guide the assembly of histones H3 and H4 into chromatin. This evidence supports the concepts of histone post-translational modifications and specific histone chaperone interactions as guiding principles for histone H3/H4 transactions during chromatin assembly.
Project description:Chromatin assembly involves the combined action of histone chaperones and ATP-dependent motor proteins. Here, we investigate the mechanism of nucleosome assembly with a purified chromatin assembly system containing the histone chaperone NAP1 and the ATP-dependent motor protein ACF. These studies revealed the rapid formation of a stable nonnucleosomal histone-DNA intermediate that is converted into canonical nucleosomes by ACF. The histone-DNA intermediate does not supercoil DNA like a canonical nucleosome, but has a nucleosome-like appearance by atomic force microscopy. This intermediate contains all four core histones, lacks NAP1, and is formed by the initial deposition of histones H3-H4. Conversion of the intermediate into histone H1-containing chromatin results in increased resistance to micrococcal nuclease digestion. These findings suggest that the histone-DNA intermediate corresponds to nascent nucleosome-like structures, such as those observed at DNA replication forks. Related complexes might be formed during other chromatin-directed processes such as transcription, DNA repair, and histone exchange.
Project description:Histone chaperones physically interact with histones to direct proper assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes regulating diverse nuclear processes such as DNA replication, promoter remodeling, transcription elongation, DNA damage, and histone variant exchange. Currently, the best-characterized chaperone-histone interaction is that between the ubiquitous chaperone Asf1 and a dimer of H3 and H4. Nucleosome assembly proteins (Nap proteins) represent a distinct class of histone chaperone. Using pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) measurements and protein crosslinking, we show that two members of this class, Nap1 and Vps75, bind histones in the tetrameric conformation also observed when they are sequestered within the nucleosome. Furthermore, H3 and H4 trapped in their tetrameric state can be used as substrates in nucleosome assembly and chaperone-mediated lysine acetylation. This alternate mode of histone interaction provides a potential means of maintaining the integrity of the histone tetramer during cycles of nucleosome reassembly.
Project description:Histone chaperones have been implicated in nucleosome assembly and disassembly as well as histone modification. ASF1 is a highly conserved histone H3/H4 chaperone that synergizes in vitro with two other histone chaperones, chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) and histone repression A factor (HIRA), in DNA synthesis-coupled and DNA synthesis-independent nucleosome assembly. Here, we identify mutants of histones H3.1 and H3.3 that are unable to interact with human ASF1A and ASF1B isoforms but that are still competent to bind CAF-1 and HIRA, respectively. We show that these mutant histones are inefficiently deposited into chromatin in vivo. Furthermore, we found that both ASF1A and ASF1B participate in the DNA synthesis-independent deposition of H3.3 in HeLa cells, thus highlighting an unexpected role for ASF1B in this pathway. This pathway does not require interaction of ASF1 with HIRA. We provide the first direct determination that ASF1A and ASF1B play a role in the efficiency of nucleosome assembly in vivo in human cells.
Project description:Maintenance of epigenetic integrity relies on coordinated recycling and partitioning of parental histones and deposition of newly synthesized histones during DNA replication. This process depends upon a poorly characterized network of histone chaperones, remodelers, and binding proteins. Here we implicate the POLE3-POLE4 subcomplex of the leading-strand polymerase, Pol?, in replication-coupled nucleosome assembly through its ability to selectively bind to histones H3-H4. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and physical mapping, we define minimal domains necessary for interaction between POLE3-POLE4 and histones H3-H4. Biochemical analyses establish that POLE3-POLE4 is a histone chaperone that promotes tetrasome formation and DNA supercoiling in vitro. In cells, POLE3-POLE4 binds both newly synthesized and parental histones, and its depletion hinders helicase unwinding and chromatin PCNA unloading and compromises coordinated parental histone retention and new histone deposition. Collectively, our study reveals that POLE3-POLE4 possesses intrinsic H3-H4 chaperone activity, which facilitates faithful nucleosome dynamics at the replication fork.
Project description:The association of histones with specific chaperone complexes is important for their folding, oligomerization, post-translational modification, nuclear import, stability, assembly and genomic localization. In this way, the chaperoning of soluble histones is a key determinant of histone availability and fate, which affects all chromosomal processes, including gene expression, chromosome segregation and genome replication and repair. Here, we review the distinct structural and functional properties of the expanding network of histone chaperones. We emphasize how chaperones cooperate in the histone chaperone network and via co-chaperone complexes to match histone supply with demand, thereby promoting proper nucleosome assembly and maintaining epigenetic information by recycling modified histones evicted from chromatin.
Project description:Chromatin remodelling factors and histone chaperones were previously shown to cooperatively affect nucleosome assembly and disassembly processes in vitro. Here, we show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe CHD remodellers, the Hrp1 and Hrp3 paralogs physically interact with the histone chaperone Nap1. Genome-wide analysis of Hrp1, Hrp3 and Nap1 occupancy, combined with nucleosome density measurements revealed that the CHD factors and Nap1 colocalized in particular to promoter regions where they remove nucleosomes near the transcriptional start site. Hrp1 and Hrp3 also regulate nucleosome density in coding regions, where they have redundant roles to stimulate transcription. Previously, DNA replication-dependent and -independent nucleosome disassembly processes have been described. We found that nucleosome density increased in the hrp1 mutant in the absence of DNA replication. Finally, regions where nucleosome density increased in hrp1, hrp3 and nap1 mutants also showed nucleosome density and histone modification changes in HDAC and HAT mutants. Thus, this study revealed an important in vivo role for CHD remodellers and Nap1 in nucleosome disassembly at promoters and coding regions, which are linked to changes in histone acetylation.
Project description:Nucleosome assembly following DNA replication and gene transcription is important to maintain genome stability and epigenetic information. Newly synthesized histones H3-H4 first bind histone chaperone Asf1 and are then transferred to other chaperones for nucleosome assembly. However, it is unknown how H3-H4 is transferred from the Asf1-H3-H4 complex to other chaperones because Asf1 binds H3-H4 with high affinity. Here, we show that yeast Rtt101(Mms1) E3 ubiquitin ligase preferentially binds and ubiquitylates new histone H3 acetylated at lysine 56. Inactivation of Rtt101 or mutating H3 lysine residues ubiquitylated by the Rtt101(Mms1) ligase impairs nucleosome assembly and promotes Asf1-H3 interactions. Similar phenotypes occur in human cells in which the ortholog of Rtt101(Mms1), Cul4A(DDB1), is depleted. These results indicate that the transfer of H3-H4 from the Asf1-H3-H4 complex to other histone chaperones is regulated by a conserved E3 ligase and provide evidence for crosstalk between histone acetylation and ubiquitylation in nucleosome assembly.
Project description:Anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1) is a highly conserved chaperone of histones H3/H4 that assembles or disassembles chromatin during transcription, replication, and repair. The structure of the globular domain of Asf1 bound to H3/H4 determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.7 Angstroms shows how Asf1 binds the H3/H4 heterodimer, enveloping the C terminus of histone H3 and physically blocking formation of the H3/H4 heterotetramer. Unexpectedly, the C terminus of histone H4 that forms a mini-beta sheet with histone H2A in the nucleosome undergoes a major conformational change upon binding to Asf1 and adds a beta strand to the Asf1 beta sheet sandwich. Interactions with both H3 and H4 were required for Asf1 histone chaperone function in vivo and in vitro. The Asf1-H3/H4 structure suggests a "strand-capture" mechanism whereby the H4 tail acts as a lever to facilitate chromatin disassembly/assembly that may be used ubiquitously by histone chaperones.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The assembly of nucleosomes to higher-order chromatin structures is finely tuned by the relative affinities of histones for chaperones and nucleosomal binding sites. The myeloid leukaemia protein SET/TAF-Ibeta belongs to the NAP1 family of histone chaperones and participates in several chromatin-based mechanisms, such as chromatin assembly, nucleosome reorganisation and transcriptional activation. To better understand the histone chaperone function of SET/TAF-Ibeta, we designed several SET/TAF-Ibeta truncations, examined their structural integrity by circular Dichroism and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively the histone binding properties of wild-type protein and mutant forms using GST-pull down experiments and fluorescence spectroscopy-based binding assays. RESULTS: Wild type SET/TAF-Ibeta binds to histones H2B and H3 with Kd values of 2.87 and 0.15 microM, respectively. The preferential binding of SET/TAF-Ibeta to histone H3 is mediated by its central region and the globular part of H3. On the contrary, the acidic C-terminal tail and the amino-terminal dimerisation domain of SET/TAF-Ibeta, as well as the H3 amino-terminal tail, are dispensable for this interaction. CONCLUSION: This type of analysis allowed us to assess the relative affinities of SET/TAF-Ibeta for different histones and identify the domains of the protein required for effective histone recognition. Our findings are consistent with recent structural studies of SET/TAF-Ibeta and can be valuable to understand the role of SET/TAF-Ibeta in chromatin function.
Project description:A huge amount of information is stored in genomic DNA and this stored information resides inside the nucleus with the aid of chromosomal condensation factors. It has been reported that the repeat nucleosome core particle (NCP) consists of 147-bp of DNA and two copies of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Regulation of chromosomal structure is important to many processes inside the cell. In vivo, a group of histone chaperones facilitate and regulate nucleosome assembly. How NCPs are constructed with the aid of histone chaperones remains unclear. In this study, the histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome assembly process was investigated using single-molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments. It was found that Asf1 is able to exert more influence than Nap1 and poly glutamate acid (PGA) on the nucleosome formation process, which highlights Asf1's specific role in tetrasome formation. Thermodynamic parameters supported a model whereby energetically favored nucleosomal complexes compete with non-nucleosomal complexes. In addition, our kinetic findings propose the model that histone chaperones mediate nucleosome assembly along a path that leads to enthalpy-favored products with free histones as reaction substrates.