Myrosinases TGG1 and TGG2 from Arabidopsis thaliana contain exclusively oligomannosidic N-glycans.
ABSTRACT: In all eukaryotes N-glycosylation is the most prevalent protein modification of secretory and membrane proteins. Although the N-glycosylation capacity and the individual steps of the N-glycan processing pathway have been well studied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, little attention has been paid to the characterization of the glycosylation status of individual proteins. We report here the structural analysis of all N-glycans present on the endogenous thioglucoside glucohydrolases (myrosinases) TGG1 and TGG2 from A. thaliana. All nine glycosylation sites of TGG1 and all four glycosylation sites of TGG2 are occupied by oligomannosidic structures with Man?GlcNAc? as the major glycoform. Analysis of the oligomannosidic isomers from wild-type plants and mannose trimming deficient mutants by liquid chromatography with porous graphitic carbon and mass spectrometry revealed that the N-glycans from both myrosinases are processed by Golgi-located ?-mannosidases.
Project description:N-glycosylation is an essential protein modification that plays roles in many diverse biological processes including protein folding, quality control and protein interactions. Despite recent advances in characterization of the N-glycosylation and N-glycan processing machinery our understanding of N-glycosylation related processes in plant development is limited. In Arabidopsis thaliana, failure of mannose trimming from oligomannosidic N-glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cis/medial-Golgi leads to a defect in root development in the mns123 triple mutant. Here, we show that the severe root phenotype of mns123 is restored in asparagine-linked glycosylation (ALG)-deficient plants with distinct defects in the biosynthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor. The root growth of these ALG-deficient plants is not affected by the ?-mannosidase inhibitor kifunensine. Genetic evidence shows that the defect is uncoupled from the glycan-dependent ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway that removes misfolded glycoproteins with oligomannosidic N-glycans from the ER. Restoration of mannose trimming using a trans-Golgi targeted ?-mannosidase suppresses the defect of mns123 roots. These data suggest that processing of terminal mannose residues from oligomannosidic N-glycans is important for an unknown late-Golgi or post-Golgi process that is implicated in proper root formation.
Project description:While the defensive function of glucosinolates is well established, their possible role as a nutrient reservoir is poorly understood and glucosinolate turnover pathways have not been elucidated. Previous research showed that glucosinolate content in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) increases within the first two to four days on culture medium and then decreases below the level at day 0. In this study we used previously characterized T-DNA mutants to investigate if enzymes known to be involved in glucosinolate breakdown upon tissue damage affect the time course of glucosinolate content in germinating seeds. Besides dormant seeds, we analyzed seeds subjected to stratification in water for up to 72 h or germination on plates for up to ten days. Although seeds of tgg1 tgg2 (deficient in above-ground classical myrosinases) had higher glucosinolate levels than Col-0, the changes during germination were not different to those in seeds of Col-0. This demonstrates that TGG1/TGG2 are not responsible for the decline in glucosinolate content upon germination and suggests the involvement of other enzymes. Expression data extracted from publically available databases show a number of ?-glucosidases of the BGLU18-BGLU33 clade to be expressed at specific time points of seed maturation and germination identifying them as good candidates for a role in glucosinolate turnover. Although nitrile-specifier proteins (NSPs) act downstream of myrosinases upon glucosinolate breakdown in tissue homogenates, mutants deficient in either seed-expressed NSP2 or seedling-expressed NSP1 were affected in glucosinolate content in seeds and during stratification or germination when compared to Col-0 indicating a direct role in turnover. The mutant lines nsp1-1, nsp2-1 and nsp2-2 had significantly higher glucosinolate levels in dry seeds than Col-0. After 24 h of stratification in water, nsp2-2 seeds contained 2.3 fold higher levels of glucosinolate than Col-0 seeds. This might indicate downregulation of hydrolytic enzymes when nitrile formation following glucosinolate hydrolysis is impaired. The time course of total glucosinolate content during ten days of germination depended on functional NSP1. Based on the present data, we propose a number of experiments that might aid in establishing the pathway(s) of glucosinolate turnover in germinating A. thaliana seeds.
Project description:N-Glycosylation plays a fundamental role in many biological processes. Human diamine oxidase (hDAO), required for histamine catabolism, has multiple N-glycosylation sites, but their roles, for example in DAO secretion, are unclear. We recently reported that the N-glycosylation sites Asn-168, Asn-538, and Asn-745 in recombinant hDAO (rhDAO) carry complex-type glycans, whereas Asn-110 carries only mammalian-atypical oligomannosidic glycans. Here, we show that Asn-110 in native hDAO from amniotic fluid and Caco-2 cells, DAO from porcine kidneys, and rhDAO produced in two different HEK293 cell lines is also consistently occupied by oligomannosidic glycans. Glycans at Asn-168 were predominantly sialylated with bi- to tetra-antennary branches, and Asn-538 and Asn-745 had similar complex-type glycans with some tissue- and cell line-specific variations. The related copper-containing amine oxidase human vascular adhesion protein-1 also exclusively displayed high-mannose glycosylation at Asn-137. X-ray structures revealed that the residues adjacent to Asn-110 and Asn-137 form a highly conserved hydrophobic cleft interacting with the core trisaccharide. Asn-110 replacement with Gln completely abrogated rhDAO secretion and caused retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations of Asn-168, Asn-538, and Asn-745 reduced rhDAO secretion by 13, 71, and 32%, respectively. Asn-538/745 double and Asn-168/538/745 triple substitutions reduced rhDAO secretion by 85 and 94%. Because of their locations in the DAO structure, Asn-538 and Asn-745 glycosylations might be important for efficient DAO dimer formation. These functional results are reflected in the high evolutionary conservation of all four glycosylation sites. Human DAO is abundant only in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and placenta, and glycosylation seems essential for reaching high enzyme expression levels in these tissues.
Project description:Accessing different nitrogen (N) sources involves a profound adaptation of plant metabolism. In this study, a quantitative proteomic approach was used to further understand how the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana adjusts to different N sources when grown exclusively under nitrate or ammonium nutrition. Proteome data evidenced that glucosinolate metabolism was differentially regulated by the N source and that both TGG1 and TGG2 myrosinases were more abundant under ammonium nutrition, which is generally considered to be a stressful situation. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants displayed glucosinolate accumulation and induced myrosinase activity under ammonium nutrition. Interestingly, these results were also confirmed in the economically important crop broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). Moreover, these metabolic changes were correlated in Arabidopsis with the differential expression of genes from the aliphatic glucosinolate metabolic pathway. This study underlines the importance of nitrogen nutrition and the potential of using ammonium as the N source in order to stimulate glucosinolate metabolism, which may have important applications not only in terms of reducing pesticide use, but also for increasing plants' nutritional value.
Project description:Prolonged darkness leads to carbohydrate starvation, and as a consequence plants degrade proteins and lipids to oxidize amino acids and fatty acids as alternative substrates for mitochondrial ATP production. We investigated, whether the internal breakdown of glucosinolates, a major class of sulfur-containing secondary metabolites, might be an additional component of the carbohydrate starvation response in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). The glucosinolate content of A. thaliana leaves was strongly reduced after seven days of darkness. We also detected a significant increase in the activity of myrosinase, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step in glucosinolate breakdown, coinciding with a strong induction of the main leaf myrosinase isoforms TGG1 and TGG2. In addition, nitrilase activity was increased suggesting a turnover via nitriles and carboxylic acids. Internal degradation of glucosinolates might also be involved in diurnal or developmental adaptations of the glucosinolate profile. We observed a diurnal rhythm for myrosinase activity in two-week-old plants. Furthermore, leaf myrosinase activity and protein abundance of TGG2 varied during plant development, whereas leaf protein abundance of TGG1 remained stable indicating regulation at the transcriptional as well as post-translational level.
Project description:Microalgae of the genus Chlorella vulgaris are candidates for the production of lipids for biofuel production. Besides that, Chlorella vulgaris is marketed as protein and vitamin rich food additive. Its potential as a novel expression system for recombinant proteins inspired us to study its asparagine-linked oligosaccharides (N-glycans) by mass spectrometry, chromatography and gas chromatography. Oligomannosidic N-glycans with up to nine mannoses were the structures found in culture collection strains as well as several commercial products. These glycans co-eluted with plant N-glycans in the highly shape selective porous graphitic carbon chromatography. Thus, Chlorella vulgaris generates oligomannosidic N-glycans of the structural type known from land plants and animals. In fact, Man5 (Man5GlcNAc2) served as substrate for GlcNAc-transferase I and a trace of an endogenous structure with terminal GlcNAc was seen. The unusual more linear Man5 structure recently found on glycoproteins of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii occurred - if at all - in traces only. Notably, a majority of the oligomannosidic glycans was multiply O-methylated with 3-O-methyl and 3,6-di-O-methyl mannoses at the non-reducing termini. This modification has so far been neither found on plant nor vertebrate N-glycans. It's possible immunogenicity raises concerns as to the use of C. vulgaris for production of pharmaceutical glycoproteins.
Project description:L-fucose is a common constituent of Asn-linked glycans in vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants, but in fungal glycoproteins, fucose has not been found so far. However, by mass spectrometry we detected N-glycans and O-glycans containing one to six deoxyhexose residues in fruit bodies of several basidiomycetes. The N-glycans of chanterelles (Cantharellus cibarius) contained a deoxyhexose chromatographically identical to fucose and sensitive to ?-L-fucosidase. Analysis of individual glycan species by tandem MS, glycosidase digestion, and finally (1)H NMR revealed the presence of L-fucose in ?1,6-linkage to an ?1,6-mannose of oligomannosidic N-glycans. The substitution by ?1,6-mannose of ?1,2-mannosyl residues of the canonical precursor structure was yet another hitherto unknown modification. No indication for the occurrence of yet other modifications, e.g. bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, was seen. Besides fucosylated N-glycans, short O-linked mannan chains substituted with fucose were present on chanterelle proteins. Although undiscovered so far, L-fucose appears to represent a prominent feature of protein-linked glycans in the fungal kingdom.
Project description:GnTI (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I) is a Golgi-resident enzyme essential for the processing of high-mannose to hybrid and complex N-glycans. The Arabidopsis thaliana cgl mutant lacks GnTI activity and as a consequence accumulates oligomannosidic structures. Molecular cloning of cgl GnTI cDNA revealed a point mutation, which causes a critical amino acid substitution (Asp144-->Asn), thereby creating an additional N-glycosylation site. Heterologous expression of cgl GnTI in insect cells confirmed its lack of activity and the use of the N-glycosylation site. Remarkably, introduction of the Asp144-->Asn mutation into rabbit GnTI, which does not result in the formation of a new N-glycosylation site, led to a protein with strongly reduced, but still detectable enzymic activity. Expression of Asn144 rabbit GnTI in cgl plants could partially restore complex N-glycan formation. These results indicate that the complete deficiency of GnTI activity in cgl plants is mainly due to the additional N-glycan, which appears to interfere with the proper folding of the enzyme.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) is a signal molecule in plants and animals. Arabidopsis GSNO reductase1 (AtGSNOR1) catalyzes metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) which is a major biologically active NO species. The GSNOR1 loss-of-function mutant gsnor1-3 overaccumulates GSNO with inherent high S-nitrosylation level and resistance to the oxidative stress inducer paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride). Here, we report the characterization of dgl1-3 as a genetic suppressor of gsnor1-3. DGL1 encodes a subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferse (OST) complex which catalyzes the formation of N-glycosidic bonds in N-glycosylation. The fact that dgl1-3 repressed the paraquat resistance of gsnor1-3 meanwhile gsnor1-3 rescued the embryo-lethal and post-embryonic development defect of dgl1-3 reminded us the possibility that S-nitrosylation and N-glycosylation crosstalk with each other through co-substrates. By enriching glycoproteins in gsnor1-3 and mass spectrometry analysis, TGG2 (thioglucoside glucohydrolase2) was identified as one of co-substrates with high degradation rate and elevated N-glycosylation level in gsnor1-3 ost3/6. The S-nitrosylation and N-glycosylation profiles were also modified in dgl1-3 and gsnor1-3. Thereby, we propose a linkage between S-nitrosylation and N-glycosylation through co-substrates.
Project description:Myrosinases are ?-thioglucoside glucohydrolases and serve as defense mechanisms against insect pests and pathogens by producing toxic compounds. AtTGG6 in Arabidopsis thaliana was previously reported to be a myrosinase pseudogene but specifically expressed in pollen. However, we found that AlTGG6, an ortholog to AtTGG6 in A. lyrata (an outcrossing relative of A. thaliana) was functional, suggesting that functional AtTGG6 alleles may still exist in A. thaliana. AtTGG6 alleles in 29 A. thaliana ecotypes were cloned and sequenced. Results indicate that ten alleles were functional and encoded Myr II type myrosinase of 512 amino acids, and myrosinase activity was confirmed by overexpressing AtTGG6 in Pichia pastoris. However, the 19 other ecotypes had disabled alleles with highly polymorphic frame-shift mutations and diversified sequences. Thirteen frame-shift mutation types were identified, which occurred independently many times in the evolutionary history within a few thousand years. The functional allele was expressed specifically in pollen similar to the disabled alleles but at a higher expression level, suggesting its role in defense of pollen against insect pests such as pollen beetles. However, the defense function may have become less critical after A. thaliana evolved to self-fertilization, and thus resulted in loss of function in most ecotypes.