Histone H3K4 demethylation is negatively regulated by histone H3 acetylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is a hallmark of transcription initiation, but how H3K4me3 is demethylated during gene repression is poorly understood. Jhd2, a JmjC domain protein, was recently identified as the major H3K4me3 histone demethylase (HDM) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although JHD2 is required for removal of methylation upon gene repression, deletion of JHD2 does not result in increased levels of H3K4me3 in bulk histones, indicating that this HDM is unable to demethylate histones during steady-state conditions. In this study, we showed that this was due to the negative regulation of Jhd2 activity by histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation (H3K14ac), which colocalizes with H3K4me3 across the yeast genome. We demonstrated that loss of the histone H3-specific acetyltransferases (HATs) resulted in genome-wide depletion of H3K4me3, and this was not due to a transcription defect. Moreover, H3K4me3 levels were reestablished in HAT mutants following loss of JHD2, which suggested that H3-specific HATs and Jhd2 serve opposing functions in regulating H3K4me3 levels. We revealed the molecular basis for this suppression by demonstrating that H3K14ac negatively regulated Jhd2 demethylase activity on an acetylated peptide in vitro. These results revealed the existence of a general mechanism for removal of H3K4me3 following gene repression.
Project description:Histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) is a hallmark of transcription initiation, but how H3K4me3 is demethylated during gene repression is poorly understood. Jhd2, a JmjC domain protein, was recently identified as the major H3K4me3 histone demethylase (HDM) in S. cerevisiae. While JHD2 is required for removal of methylation upon gene repression, deletion of JHD2 does not result in increased levels of H3K4me3 in bulk histones, indicating that this HDM is unable to demethylate histones during steady state conditions. In this study, we showed that this was due to the negative regulation of Jhd2 activity by histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation, which co-localizes with H3K4me3 across the yeast genome. We demonstrated that loss of the histone H3-specific acetyltransferases (HATs) resulted in genome-wide-depletion of H3K4me3, and this was not due to a transcription defect. Moreover, H3K4me3 levels were reestablished in HAT mutants following loss of JHD2, which suggested that H3-specific HATs and Jhd2 served opposing functions in regulating H3K4me3 levels. We revealed the molecular basis for this suppression by demonstrating that histone H3K14 acetylation negatively regulated Jhd2 demethylase activity on an acetylated peptide in vitro. These results revealed the existence of a general mechanism for removal of H3K4me3 following gene repression. Examination of H3K4me3 in WT, ada2sas3, ada2sas3jhd2, and jhd2 strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Transcription regulation in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells is a complex process that involves multitude of regulatory layers, one of which is post-translational modification of histones. Acetylation of specific lysine residues of histones plays a key role in regulating gene expression. RESULTS: Here we have investigated the genome-wide occurrence of two histone marks, acetylation of histone H3K9 and K14 (H3K9ac and H3K14ac), in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Genome-wide H3K9ac and H3K14ac show very high correlation between each other as well as with other histone marks (such as H3K4me3) suggesting a coordinated regulation of active histone marks. Moreover, the levels of H3K9ac and H3K14ac directly correlate with the CpG content of the promoters attesting the importance of sequences underlying the specifically modified nucleosomes. Our data provide evidence that H3K9ac and H3K14ac are also present over the previously described bivalent promoters, along with H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. Furthermore, like H3K27ac, H3K9ac and H3K14ac can also differentiate active enhancers from inactive ones. Although, H3K9ac and H3K14ac, a hallmark of gene activation exhibit remarkable correlation over active and bivalent promoters as well as distal regulatory elements, a subset of inactive promoters is selectively enriched for H3K14ac. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that chromatin modifications, such as H3K9ac and H3K14ac, are part of the active promoter state, are present over bivalent promoters and active enhancers and that the extent of H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation could be driven by cis regulatory elements such as CpG content at promoters. Our study also suggests that a subset of inactive promoters is selectively and specifically enriched for H3K14ac. This observation suggests that histone acetyl transferases (HATs) prime inactive genes by H3K14ac for stimuli dependent activation. In conclusion our study demonstrates a wider role for H3K9ac and H3K14ac in gene regulation than originally thought.
Project description:Histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation is a dynamic modification. In budding yeast, H3K4 methylation is catalyzed by the Set1-COMPASS methyltransferase complex and is removed by Jhd2, a JMJC domain family demethylase. The catalytic JmjC and JmjN domains of Jhd2 have the ability to remove all three degrees (mono-, di-, and tri-) of H3K4 methylation. Jhd2 also contains a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger required for its chromatin association and H3K4 demethylase functions. The Jhd2 PHD finger associates with chromatin independent of H3K4 methylation and the H3 N-terminal tail. Therefore, how Jhd2 associates with chromatin to perform H3K4 demethylation has remained unknown. We report a novel interaction between the Jhd2 PHD finger and histone H2A. Two residues in H2A (Phe-26 and Glu-57) serve as a binding site for Jhd2 in vitro and mediate its chromatin association and H3K4 demethylase functions in vivo. Using RNA sequencing, we have identified the functional target genes for Jhd2 and the H2A Phe-26 and Glu-57 residues. We demonstrate that H2A Phe-26 and Glu-57 residues control chromatin association and H3K4 demethylase functions of Jhd2 during positive or negative regulation of transcription at target genes. Importantly, we show that H2B Lys-123 ubiquitination blocks Jhd2 from accessing its binding site on chromatin, and thereby, we have uncovered a second mechanism by which H2B ubiquitination contributes to the trans-histone regulation of H3K4 methylation. Overall, our study provides novel insights into the chromatin binding dynamics and H3K4 demethylase functions of Jhd2.
Project description:Histone modifications affect DNA-templated processes ranging from transcription to genomic replication. In this study, we examine the cell cycle dynamics of the trimethylated form of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3), a mark of active chromatin that is viewed as "long-lived" and that is involved in memory during cell state inheritance in metazoans. We synchronized yeast using two different protocols, then followed H3K4me3 patterns as yeast passed through subsequent cell cycles. While most H3K4me3 patterns were conserved from one generation to the next, we found that methylation patterns induced by alpha factor or high temperature were erased within one cell cycle, during S phase. Early-replicating regions were erased before late-replicating regions, implicating replication in H3K4me3 loss. However, nearly complete H3K4me3 erasure occurred at the majority of loci even when replication was prevented, suggesting that most erasure results from an active process. Indeed, deletion of the demethylase Jhd2 slowed erasure at most loci. Together, these results indicate overlapping roles for passive dilution and active enzymatic demethylation in erasing ancestral histone methylation states in yeast.
Project description:Transcription in eukaryotes is associated with two major changes in chromatin organization. Firstly, nucleosomal histones are continuously replaced by new histones, an event that in yeast occurs predominantly at transcriptionally active promoters. Secondly, histones become modified post-translationally at specific lysine residues. Some modifications, including histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and acetylation at lysines 9 (H3K9ac) and 14 (H3K14ac), are specifically enriched at active promoters where histones exchange, suggesting a possible causal relationship. Other modifications accumulate within transcribed regions and one of them, H3K36me3, is thought to prevent histone exchange. Here we explored the relationship between these four H3 modifications and histone turnover at a few selected genes. Using lysine-to-arginine mutants and a histone exchange assay, we found that none of these modifications plays a major role in either promoting or preventing histone turnover. Unexpectedly, mutation of H3K56, whose acetylation occurs prior to chromatin incorporation, had an effect only when introduced into the nucleosomal histone. Furthermore, we used various genetic approaches to show that histone turnover can be experimentally altered with no major consequence on the H3 modifications tested. Together, these results suggest that transcription-associated histone turnover and H3 modification are two correlating but largely independent events.
Project description:Epigenetic modifications can maintain or alter the inherent symmetry of the nucleosome. However, the mechanisms that deposit and/or propagate symmetry or asymmetry are not understood. Here we report that yeast Set1C/COMPASS (complex of proteins associated with Set1) is dimeric and, consequently, symmetrically trimethylates histone 3 Lys4 (H3K4me3) on promoter nucleosomes. Mutation of the dimer interface to make Set1C monomeric abolished H3K4me3 on most promoters. The most active promoters, particularly those involved in the oxidative phase of the yeast metabolic cycle, displayed H3K4me2, which is normally excluded from active promoters, and a subset of these also displayed H3K4me3. In wild-type yeast, deletion of the sole H3K4 demethylase, Jhd2, has no effect. However, in monomeric Set1C yeast, Jhd2 deletion increased H3K4me3 levels on the H3K4me2 promoters. Notably, the association of Set1C with the elongating polymerase was not perturbed by monomerization. These results imply that symmetrical H3K4 methylation is an embedded consequence of Set1C dimerism and that Jhd2 demethylates asymmetric H3K4me3. Consequently, rather than methylation and demethylation acting in opposition as logic would suggest, a dimeric methyltransferase and monomeric demethylase cooperate to eliminate asymmetry and focus symmetrical H3K4me3 onto selected nucleosomes. This presents a new paradigm for the establishment of epigenetic detail.
Project description:Fungi produce a plethora of secondary metabolites (SMs) involved in cellular protection, defense, and signaling. Like other metabolic processes, transcription of SM biosynthesis genes is tightly regulated to prevent an unnecessary use of resources. Genes involved in SM biosynthesis are usually physically linked, arranged in secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs). Research over the last decades has shown that chromatin structure and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histones represent important layers of SMGC regulation. For instance, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) is a PTM typically associated with promoter regions of actively transcribed genes. Previously, we have shown that the H3K4me3-specific, JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase KdmB functions not only in repression but also in activation of secondary metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans, suggesting that KdmB has additional functions apart from histone demethylation. In this study, we identified demethylase-independent functions of KdmB in transcriptional regulation of SM gene clusters. Furthermore, we show that this activating and demethylase-independent role of the H3K4 demethylase is also conserved in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Lack of FgKdm5 resulted in significant downregulation of five of seven analyzed SMs, whereby only one SMGC depends on a functional JmjC-domain. In A. nidulans strains deficient in H3K4 methylation, i.e., cclA?, largely phenocopied kdmB?, while this is not the case for most of the SMs analyzed in Fusarium spp. Notably, KdmB could not rescue the demethylase function in ?fgkdm5 but restored all demethylase-independent phenotypes.
Project description:Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of ?-ketoglutarate (?KG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated ?KG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated ?KG/succinate ratio. While jhd2? caused only limited gene expression defects in fermenting cells, transcript profiling and physiological measurements show that JHD2 restricts mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cells grown in non-fermentable carbon in an H3K4me-dependent manner. In association with these phenotypes, we find that JHD2 limits yeast proliferative capacity under physiologically challenging conditions as measured by both replicative lifespan and colony growth on non-fermentable carbon. JHD2's impact on nutrient response may reflect an ancestral role of its gene family in mediating mitochondrial regulation.
Project description:Small molecule inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs) are approved for clinical use in treatment of several diseases. Nuclear receptors, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) use lysine acetyltransferases (KATs or HATs) and KDACs to regulate transcription through acetylation and deacetylation of protein targets such as histones. Previously we have shown that KDAC1 activity facilitates GR-activated transcription at about half of all cellular target genes. In the current study we examine the role of Class I KDACs in glucocorticoid-mediated repression of gene expression. Inhibition of KDACs through two structurally distinct Class I-selective inhibitors prevented dexamethasone (Dex)-mediated transcriptional repression in a gene-selective fashion. In addition, KDAC activity is also necessary to maintain repression. Steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC2), which is known to play a vital role in GR-mediated repression of pro-inflammatory genes, was found to be dispensable for repression of glucocorticoid target genes sensitive to KDAC inhibition. At the promoters of these genes, KDAC inhibition did not result in altered nucleosome occupancy or histone H3 acetylation. Surprisingly, KDAC inhibition rapidly induced a significant decrease in H3K4Me2 at promoter nucleosomes with no corresponding change in H3K4Me3, suggesting the activation of the lysine demethylase, LSD1/KDM1A. Depletion of LSD1 expression via siRNA restored Dex-mediated repression in the presence of KDAC inhibitors, suggesting that LSD1 activation at these gene promoters is incompatible with transcriptional repression. Treatment with KDAC inhibitors does not alter cellular levels of LSD1 or its association with Dex-repressed gene promoters. Therefore, we conclude that Class I KDACs facilitate Dex-induced transcriptional repression by suppressing LSD1 complex activity at selected target gene promoters. Rather than facilitating repression of transcription, LSD1 opposes it in these gene contexts.
Project description:Epigenetic asymmetry has been shown to be associated with the first lineage allocation event in preimplantation development, that is, the formation of the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages in the blastocyst. Since parthenogenesis causes aberrant segregation between the TE and ICM lineages, we examined several development-associated histone modifications in parthenotes, including those involved in (i) transcriptional activation [acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Ac) and lysine 14 (H3K14Ac), trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4Me3), and dimethylated histone H3 arginine 26 (H3R26Me2)] and (ii) transcriptional repression [trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27Me3), and mono-ubiquitinated histone H2A lysine 119 (H2AK119u1)]. Here, we report that in parthenotes, H3R26Me2 expression decreased from the morula stage, while expression patterns and levels of H3K9Ac, H3K27Me3, and H2AK119u1 were unchanged until the blastocyst stage; whereas H3K14Ac, H3K4Me3, and H3K9Me3 showed normal patterns and levels of expressions. Relative to the decrease of H3K9Ac in the ICM and increase in the TE of parthenotes, we detected reduced expression of TAT-interactive protein 60 acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 1 deacetylase in the ICM and TE of parthenotes, respectively. Relative to the decrease of H3R26Me2, we also observed decreased expression of coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 methyltransferase and increased expression of the Wnt effector transcription factor 7L2 and miR-181c microRNA in parthenotes. Furthermore, relative to the decrease in H3K27Me3 and H2AK119u1, we found increased phosphorylation of Akt1 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in parthenogenetic TE. Therefore, our findings that histone signatures are impaired in parthenotes provide a mechanistic explanation for aberrant lineage segregation and TE defects.