Lovastatin for adult patients with dengue: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral infection of man, with approximately 2 billion people living in areas at risk. Infection results in a range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection through to life-threatening shock and haemorrhage. One of the hallmarks of severe dengue is vascular endothelial disruption. There is currently no specific therapy and clinical management is limited to supportive care. Statins are a class of drug initially developed for lipid lowering. There has been considerable recent interest in their effects beyond lipid lowering. These include anti-inflammatory effects at the endothelium. In addition, it is possible that lovastatin may have an anti-viral effect against dengue. Observational data suggest that the use of statins may improve outcomes for such conditions as sepsis and pneumonia. This paper describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating a short course of lovastatin therapy in adult patients with dengue.A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will investigate the effects of lovastatin therapy in the treatment of dengue. The trial will be conducted in two phases with an escalation of dose between phases if an interim safety review is satisfactory. This is an exploratory study focusing on safety and there are no data on which to base a sample size calculation. A target sample size of 300 patients in the second phase, enrolled over two dengue seasons, was chosen based on clinical judgement and feasibility considerations. In a previous randomised trial in dengue, about 10% and 30% of patients experienced at least one serious adverse event or adverse event, respectively. With 300 patients, we will have 80% power to detect an increase of 12% (from 10% to 22%) or 16% (from 30% to 46%) in the frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, this sample size ensures some power to explore the efficacy of statins.The development of a dengue therapeutic that can attenuate disease would be an enormous advance in global health. The favourable effects of statins on the endothelium, their good safety profile and their low cost make lovastatin an attractive therapeutic candidate.International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN03147572.
Project description:Dengue endangers billions of people in the tropical world, yet no therapeutic is currently available. In part, the severe manifestations of dengue reflect inflammatory processes affecting the vascular endothelium. In addition to lipid lowering, statins have pleiotropic effects that improve endothelial function, and epidemiological studies suggest that outcomes from a range of acute inflammatory syndromes are improved in patients already on statin therapy.Following satisfactory review of a short pilot phase (40 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 30 cases), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5 days of 80 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 300 Vietnamese adults with a positive dengue NS1 rapid test presenting within 72 hours of fever onset. The primary outcome was safety. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of disease progression rates, fever clearance times, and measures of plasma viremia and quality of life between the treatment arms.Adverse events occurred with similar frequency in both groups (97/151 [64%] placebo vs 82/149 [55%] lovastatin; P = .13), and were in keeping with the characteristic clinical and laboratory features of acute dengue. We also observed no difference in serious adverse events or any of the secondary outcome measures.We found lovastatin to be safe and well tolerated in adults with dengue. However, although the study was not powered to address efficacy, we found no evidence of a beneficial effect on any of the clinical manifestations or on dengue viremia. Continuing established statin therapy in patients who develop dengue is safe.Chinese Clinical Trials Registration.?ISRCTN03147572.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitors (statins) are standard treatment for hyperlipidaemia. In addition to lipid-lowering abilities, statins exhibit multiple anti-inflammatory effects. The objectives of this study were to determine whether treatment of patients with RA with lovastatin decreased CRP or reduced disease activity. METHODS:We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 12 week trial of lovastatin vs placebo in 64 RA patients with mild clinical disease activity but an elevated CRP. The primary efficacy end point was the reduction in mean log CRP. Secondary end points included disease activity, RF and anti-CCP antibody titres. Mechanistic end points included levels of serum cytokines. Safety was assessed; hepatic and muscle toxicities were of particular interest. RESULTS:Baseline features were similar between groups. No significant difference in mean log CRP reduction between the two groups was observed, and disease activity did not change from baseline in either treatment group. Mechanistic analyses did not reveal significant changes in any biomarkers. A post hoc analysis of subjects not using biologic therapy demonstrated a significantly greater proportion achieving ?20% reduction in CRP from baseline in the lovastatin group compared with placebo (P-value = 0.007). No difference was observed in subjects receiving biologics. Lovastatin was well tolerated with no serious safety concerns. CONCLUSION:This study showed no anti-inflammatory or clinical effects on RA disease activity after 12 weeks of treatment with lovastatin. Lovastatin had a modest effect on CRP in subjects not using biologics, suggesting statins may be anti-inflammatory in selected patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00302952.
Project description:Objective:The drug efficacy may differ among different statins, and evidence from head-to-head comparisons is sparse and inconsistent. The study is aimed at comparing the lipid-lowering/increasing effects of 7 different statins in patients with dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, or diabetes mellitus by conducting systematic review and network meta-analyses (NMA) of the lipid changes after certain statins' use. Methods:In this study, we searched four electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through February 25, 2020, comparing the lipid-lowering efficacy of no less than two of the included statins (or statin vs. placebo). Three reviewers independently extracted data in duplicate. Firstly, mixed treatment overall comparison analyses, in the form of frequentist NMAs, were conducted using STATA 15.0 software. Then, subgroup analyses were conducted according to different baseline diseases. At last, sensitivity analyses were conducted according to age and follow-up duration. The trial was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42018108799). Results:As a result, seven statin monotherapy treatments in 50 studies (51956 participants) were used for the analyses. The statins included simvastatin (SIM), fluvastatin (FLU), atorvastatin (ATO), rosuvastatin (ROS), lovastatin (LOV), pravastatin (PRA), and pitavastatin (PIT). In terms of LDL-C lowering, rosuvastatin ranked 1st with a surface under cumulated ranking (SUCRA) value of 93.1%. The comparative treatment efficacy for LDL-C lowering was ROS>ATO>PIT>SIM>PRA>FLU>LOV>PLA. All of the other ranking and NMA results were reported in SUCRA plots and league tables. Conclusions:According to the NMAs, it can be concluded that rosuvastatin ranked 1st in LDL-C, ApoB-lowering efficacy and ApoA1-increasing efficacy. Lovastatin ranked 1st in TC- and TG-lowering efficacy, and fluvastatin ranked 1st in HDL-C-increasing efficacy. The results should be interpreted with caution due to some limitations in our review. However, they can provide references and evidence-based foundation for drug selection in both statin monotherapies and statin combination therapies.
Project description:Normal tissue damage limits the efficacy of anticancer therapy. For anthracyclines, the clinically most relevant adverse effect is cardiotoxicity. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood and putative cardioprotectants are controversially discussed. Here, we show that the lipid-lowering drug lovastatin protects rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts from doxorubicin in vitro. Protection by lovastatin is related to inhibition of the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1. It rests on a reduced formation of DNA double-strand breaks, resulting from the inhibition of topoisomerase II by doxorubicin. Doxorubicin transport and reactive oxygen species are not involved. Protection by lovastatin was confirmed in vivo. In mice, lovastatin mitigated acute doxorubicin-induced heart and liver damage as indicated by reduced mRNA levels of the pro-fibrotic cytokine connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Lovastatin also protected from doxorubicin-provoked subacute cardiac damage as shown by lowered mRNA levels of CTGF and atrial natriuretic peptide. Increase in the serum concentration of troponin I and cardiac fibrosis following doxorubicin treatment were also reduced by lovastatin. Whereas protecting the heart from harmful doxorubicin effects, lovastatin augmented its anticancer efficacy in a mouse xenograft model with human sarcoma cells. These data show that statins lower the incidence of cardiac tissue injury after anthracycline treatment in a Rac1-dependent manner, without impairing the therapeutic efficacy.
Project description:More than 100,000 people have participated in controlled trials of statins (lowering cholesterol drugs) since the introduction of lovastatin in the 1980s. Meta-analyses of this data have shown that statins have a beneficial effect on treated groups compared to control groups, reducing cardiovascular risk. Inhibiting the HMG-CoA reductase in the liver, statins can reduce cholesterol levels, thus reducing LDL levels in circulation. Published data from intravascular ultrasound studies (IVUS) was used in this work to develop and validate a unique integrative system model; this consisted of analyzing control groups from two randomized controlled statins trials (24/97 subjects respectively), one treated group (40 subjects, simvastatin trial), and 27 male subjects (simvastatin, pharmacokinetic study). The model allows to simulate the pharmacokinetics of statins and its effect on the dynamics of lipoproteins (e.g., LDL) and the inflammatory pathway while simultaneously exploring the effect of flow-related variables (e.g., wall shear stress) on atherosclerosis progression.
Project description:Statins are among the most widely prescribed drugs worldwide. Numerous studies have shown their beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular disease through cholesterol-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic properties. Although some statin patients may experience muscle-related symptoms, severe side effects of statin therapy are rare, primarily due to extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver. Skeletal muscles appear to be the main site of side effects; however, recently some statin-related adverse effects have been described in tendon. The mechanism behind these side effects remains unknown. This is the first study that explores tendon-specific effects of statins in human primary tenocytes. The cells were cultured with different concentrations of lovastatin for up to 1 week. No changes in cell viability or morphology were observed in tenocytes incubated with therapeutic doses. Short-term exposure to lovastatin concentrations outside the therapeutic range had no effect on tenocyte viability; however, cell migration was reduced. Simvastatin and atorvastatin, two other drug family members, also reduced the migratory properties of the cells. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of lovastatin induced changes in cytoskeleton leading to cell rounding and decreased levels of mRNA for matrix proteins, but increased BMP-2 expression. Gap junctional communication was impaired but due to cell shape change and separation rather than direct gap junction inhibition. These effects were accompanied by inhibition of prenylation of Rap1a small GTPase. Collectively, we showed that statins in a dose-dependent manner decrease migration of human tendon cells, alter their expression profile and impair the functional network, but do not inhibit gap junction function.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cholesterol management drugs known as statins are widely used and often well tolerated; however, a variety of muscle-related side effects can arise. These adverse events (AEs) can have serious impact, and form a significant barrier to therapy adherence. Surveillance of post-marketing AEs is of vital importance to understand real-world AEs and reporting differences between individual statin drugs. We conducted a review of post-approval muscle and tendon AE reports in association with statin use, to assess differences within the drug class. METHODS: We analyzed all case reports from the FDA AE Reporting System (AERS) database linking muscle-related AEs to statin use (07/01/2005-03/31/2011). Drugs examined were: atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin. RESULTS: Relative risk rates for rosuvastatin were consistently higher than other statins. Atorvastatin and simvastatin showed intermediate risks, while pravastatin and lovastatin appeared to have the lowest risk rates. Relative risk of muscle-related AEs, therefore, approximately tracked with per milligram LDL-lowering potency, with fluvastatin an apparent exception. Incorporating all muscle categories, rates for atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, and lovastatin were, respectively, 55%, 26%, 17%, and 7.5% as high, as rosuvastatin, approximately tracking per milligram potency (Rosuvastatin>Atorvastatin>Simvastatin>Pravastatin ? Lovastatin) and comporting with findings of other studies. Relative potency, therefore, appears to be a fundamental predictor of muscle-related AE risk, with fluvastatin, the least potent statin, an apparent exception (risk 74% vs rosuvastatin). INTERPRETATION: AE reporting rates differed strikingly for drugs within the statin class, with relative reporting aligning substantially with potency. The data presented in this report offer important reference points for the selection of statins for cholesterol management in general and, especially, for the rechallenge of patients who have experienced muscle-related AEs (for whom agents of lower expected potency should be preferred).
Project description:Statins, potent lipid-lowering drugs, were also shown to exert anti-proliferative activity. The aim of this study was to identify the biological pathways affected by changes in gene expression activity after statins treatment and to compare the results with observed anti-proliferative effects. The study was performed in vitro on a pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. The changes in gene expression were measured after 24 h of treatment by the statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, cerivastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and pitavastatin). The statins affected expression of a significant number of genes with mevalonate pathway, cell cycle regulation, and DNA replication being the most affected metabolic/signalling pathways.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that statins, which are widely used in lowering serum cholesterol and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, also exhibits anti-tumour properties. The underlying mechanisms by which statins-induced cancer cell death, however, remain incompletely understood. In this study, we explored the anti-tumour mechanisms of a lipophilic statin, lovastatin, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Lovastatin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Lovastatin caused p21 elevation while reduced cyclin D1 and survivin levels. Lovastatin also increased p53 phosphorylation, acetylation and its reporter activities. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that p53 binding to the survivin promoter region was increased, while Sp1 binding to the region was decreased, in MCF-7 cells after lovastatin exposure. These actions were associated with liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation. Lovastatin's enhancing effects on p53 activation, p21 elevation and survivin reduction were significantly reduced in the presence of p38MAPK signalling inhibitor. Furthermore, LKB1-AMPK signalling blockade abrogated lovastatin-induced p38MAPK and p53 phosphorylation. Together these results suggest that lovastatin may activate LKB1-AMPK-p38MAPK-p53-survivin cascade to cause MCF-7 cell death. The present study establishes, at least in part, the signalling cascade by which lovastatin induces breast cancer cell death.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are the major adverse effects of the class of widely used lipid-lowering agents, and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the potential contribution and molecular mechanism of increased lactate production to SAMS in mice. METHODS:C57BL/6?J mice were administrated with lovastatin and exercise capacity and blood and muscle lactate levels were measured. A variety of metabolic and molecular experiments were carried out on skeletal muscle cell lines A-204 and C2C12 to confirm the in vivo findings, and to delineate the molecular pathway regulating lactate production by statins. FINDINGS:Blood lactate levels of mice treated with lovastatin increased 23% compared to the control group, which was reproduced in type II predominant glycolytic muscles, accompanied with a 23.1% decrease of maximum swim duration time. The in vitro evidence revealed that statins increased the expression of muscle specific glycolytic enzyme ?-enolase through promoting the degradation of basal p53 proteins, resulting in increased of lactate production. Co-administered with dichloroacetate (DCA), a reagent effective in treating lactic acidosis, reverted the elevated lactate levels and the decreased exercise capacity. INTERPRETATION:Elevated lactate production by statins through the p53/?-enolase axis contributes to SAMS. FUND: This work was supported by grants from the Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau (Project codes: 034/2015/A1 and 0013/2019/A1).