Low-diversity bacterial community in the gut of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster.
ABSTRACT: The bacteria in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster of different life stages was quantified by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The sequence reads were dominated by 5 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at ? 97% sequence identity that could be assigned to Acetobacter pomorum, A. tropicalis, Lactobacillus brevis, L. fructivorans and L. plantarum. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicated that the sampling (85,000-159,000 reads per sample) was comprehensive. Parallel diagnostic PCR assays revealed only minor variation in the complement of the five bacterial species across individual insects and three D. melanogaster strains. Other gut-associated bacteria included 6 OTUs with low %ID to previously reported sequences, raising the possibility that they represent novel taxa within the genera Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. A developmental change in the most abundant species, from L. fructivorans in young adults to A. pomorum in aged adults was identified; changes in gut oxygen tension or immune system function might account for this effect. Host immune responses and disturbance may also contribute to the low bacterial diversity in the Drosophila gut habitat.
Project description:The gut microbiota shapes animal growth trajectory in stressful nutritional environments, but the molecular mechanisms behind such physiological benefits remain poorly understood. The gut microbiota is mostly composed of bacteria, which construct metabolic networks among themselves and with the host. Until now, how the metabolic activities of the microbiota contribute to host juvenile growth remains unknown. Here, using Drosophila as a host model, we report that two of its major bacterial partners, Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter pomorum, engage in a beneficial metabolic dialogue that boosts host juvenile growth despite nutritional stress. We pinpoint that lactate, produced by L. plantarum, is utilized by A. pomorum as an additional carbon source, and A. pomorum provides essential amino acids and vitamins to L. plantarum. Such bacterial cross-feeding provisions a set of anabolic metabolites to the host, which may foster host systemic growth despite poor nutrition.
Project description:There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum (AP) or Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP-infected males had longer mating duration and induced higher short-term offspring production in females compared with AP-infected males. Furthermore, females of either re-inoculation state mated with AP-infected males were more likely to have zero offspring after mating, suggesting a negative effect of AP on male fertility. Finally, we found that the effects of male and female gut bacteria interacted to modulate their daughters', but not sons' body mass, revealing a new trans-generational effect of parental gut microbiota. In conclusion, this study shows direct and trans-generational effects of the gut microbiota on mating and reproduction.
Project description:The impact of commensal bacteria on the host arises from complex microbial-diet-host interactions. Mapping metabolic interactions in gut microbial communities is therefore key to understand how the microbiome influences the host. Here we use an interdisciplinary approach including isotope-resolved metabolomics to show that in Drosophila melanogaster, Acetobacter pomorum (Ap) and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) a syntrophic relationship is established to overcome detrimental host diets and identify Ap as the bacterium altering the host's feeding decisions. Specifically, we show that Ap uses the lactate produced by Lp to supply amino acids that are essential to Lp, allowing it to grow in imbalanced diets. Lactate is also necessary and sufficient for Ap to alter the fly's protein appetite. Our data show that gut bacterial communities use metabolic interactions to become resilient to detrimental host diets. These interactions also ensure the constant flow of metabolites used by the microbiome to alter reproduction and host behaviour.
Project description:Acetobacter pomorum Oregon-R-modENCODE strain BDGP5 was isolated from Drosophila melanogaster for functional host-microbe interaction studies. The complete genome is composed of a single chromosomal circle of 2,848,089 bp, with a G+C content of 53% and three plasmids of 131,455 bp, 19,216 bp, and 9,160 bp.
Project description:The gut microorganisms in some animals are reported to include a core microbiota of consistently associated bacteria that is ecologically distinctive and may have coevolved with the host. The core microbiota is promoted by positive interactions among bacteria, favoring shared persistence; its retention over evolutionary timescales is evident as congruence between host phylogeny and bacterial community composition. This study applied multiple analyses to investigate variation in the composition of gut microbiota in drosophilid flies. First, the prevalence of five previously described gut bacteria (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) in individual flies of 21 strains (10 Drosophila species) were determined. Most bacteria were not present in all individuals of most strains, and bacterial species pairs co-occurred in individual flies less frequently than predicted by chance, contrary to expectations of a core microbiota. A complementary pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the gut microbiota of 11 Drosophila species identified 209 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with near-saturating sampling of sequences, but none of the OTUs was common to all host species. Furthermore, in both of two independent sets of Drosophila species, the gut bacterial community composition was not congruent with host phylogeny. The final analysis identified no common OTUs across three wild and four laboratory samples of D. melanogaster. Our results yielded no consistent evidence for a core microbiota in Drosophila. We conclude that the taxonomic composition of gut microbiota varies widely within and among Drosophila populations and species. This is reminiscent of the patterns of bacterial composition in guts of some other animals, including humans.
Project description:The microbial population that live within the gut of animals influences their physiology. We used axenic and recolonized flies to identify genes whose expression is modulated by the presence of a bacterial flora in the gut. We identified several up regulated genes, most of which are described as enriched in the midgut, and related either to immunity or to metabolism. This work also suggests that most microbiota regulated genes are Relish dependent. We raised axenic Flies and either : (1) kept them germ free or (2) recolonized their environment with a set of 4 known commensal bacteria of lab-raised drosophila (Commensalibacter intestini, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Acetobacter pomorum). Flies were maintained in their respective (axenic or recolonized) environment from emergence to 7 days of age. Then females were collected, and total RNA extraction was performed on groups of 20 whole bodies.
Project description:Most associations between animals and their gut microbiota are dynamic, involving sustained transfer of food-associated microbial cells into the gut and shedding of microorganisms into the external environment with feces, but the interacting effects of host and microbial factors on the composition of the internal and external microbial communities are poorly understood. This study on laboratory cultures of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster reared in continuous contact with their food revealed time-dependent changes of the microbial communities in the food that were strongly influenced by the presence and abundance of Drosophila. When germfree Drosophila eggs were aseptically added to nonsterile food, the microbiota in the food and flies converged to a composition dramatically different from that in fly-free food, showing that Drosophila has microbiota-independent effects on the food microbiota. The microbiota in both the flies that developed from unmanipulated eggs (bearing microorganisms) and the associated food was dominated by the bacteria most abundant on the eggs, demonstrating effective vertical transmission via surface contamination of eggs. Food coinoculated with a four-species defined bacterial community of Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species revealed the progressive elimination of Lactobacillus from the food bearing few or no Drosophila, indicating the presence of antagonistic interactions between Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Drosophila at high densities ameliorated the Acetobacter/Lactobacillus antagonism, enabling Lactobacillus to persist. This study with Drosophila demonstrates how animals can have major, coordinated effects on the composition of microbial communities in the gut and immediate environment.
Project description:Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food. Furthermore, commensal bacteria buffer the animal from the lack of dietary eAAs: both increased yeast appetite and decreased reproduction induced by eAA deprivation are rescued by the presence of commensals. Surprisingly, these effects do not seem to be due to changes in AA titers, suggesting that gut bacteria act through a different mechanism to change behavior and reproduction. Thus, eAAs and commensal bacteria are potent modulators of feeding decisions and reproductive output. This demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavioral decisions and life history traits.
Project description:Understanding the honeybee gut bacteria is an essential aspect as honeybees are the primary pollinators of many crops. In this study, the honeybee-associated gut bacteria were investigated by targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA genes using the Illumina MiSeq. The adult worker was captured in an urban area in a dense settlement. In total, 83,018 reads were obtained, revealing six phyla from 749 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The gut was dominated by Proteobacteria (58% of the total reads, including Enterobacteriaceae 28.2%, Erwinia 6.43%, and Klebsiella 4.90%), Firmicutes (29% of the total reads, including Lactococcus garvieae 13.45%, Lactobacillus spp. 8.19%, and Enterococcus spp. 4.47%), and Actinobacteria (8% of the total reads, including Bifidobacterium spp. 7.96%). Many of these bacteria belong to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which was claimed to be composed of beneficial bacteria involved in maintaining a healthy host. The honeybee was identified as Apis nigrocincta based on an identity BLAST search of its COI region. This study is the first report on the gut microbial community structure and composition of A. nigrocincta from Indonesia.
Project description:Gut microbiota impacts the host metabolome and affects its health span. How bacterial species in the gut influence age-dependent metabolic alteration has not been elucidated. Here we show in Drosophila melanogaster that allantoin, an end product of purine metabolism, is increased during aging in a microbiota-dependent manner. Allantoin levels are low in young flies but are commonly elevated upon lifespan-shortening dietary manipulations such as high-purine, high-sugar, or high-yeast feeding. Removing Acetobacter persici in the Drosophila microbiome attenuated age-dependent allantoin increase. Mono-association with A. persici, but not with Lactobacillus plantarum, increased allantoin in aged flies. A. persici increased allantoin via activation of innate immune signaling IMD pathway in the renal tubules. On the other hand, analysis of bacteria-conditioned diets revealed that L. plantarum can decrease allantoin by reducing purines in the diet. These data together demonstrate species-specific regulations of host purine levels by the gut microbiome.