Assessing eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in children: new methods using food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme.
ABSTRACT: Eating context is the immediate environment of each eating occasion (EO). There is limited knowledge on the effects of the eating context on food consumption in children, due to the difficulty in measuring the multiple eating contexts children experience throughout the day. This study applied ecological momentary assessment using food diaries to explore the relationships between eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children.Using 4 d unweighed food diaries, data were collected for 642 children aged 1.5-10y in two years of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Participants recorded all foods and drinks consumed at each EO, where and with whom the food was consumed, whether the TV was on and if eaten at a table. Mixed logistic regression and mixed multinomial logistic regression were used to calculate associations between eating contexts and fruit and vegetables (FV) consumed by quartiles.Of 16,840 EOs, 73% took place at home and 31% with parents only. Frequency of eating alone and with friends increased with age. Compared to eating at home, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit at care outside home (>10-50g OR:2.39; >50-100g OR:2.12); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:3.53; >100g OR:1.88) and vegetables at school (>30-60g OR:3.56). Compared to eating with parents only, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit with friends (>10-50g OR:2.69; >50-100g OR:3.49), and with carer and other children/others (>10-50g OR:2.25); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:1.96) and vegetables with friends (>30-60g OR:3.56). Children of all ages were more likely to eat vegetables when the TV was off than on and at a table than not at table.The use of food diaries to capture multiple eating contexts and detailed fruit and vegetable consumption data was demonstrated at a population level. Higher odds of FV consumption were seen from structured settings such as school and care outside home than at home, as well as when eating at a table and the TV off. This study highlights eating contexts where provision of fruit and vegetables could be improved, especially at home. Future research should take eating context into consideration when planning interventions to target children's food consumption and eating behaviour.
Project description:Objectives: Home environment may influence children's health behaviors associated with obesity. In this study, we examined home environment factors associated with diet and physical activity behaviors of overweight or obese youth. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from child and parent/caregiver dyads enrolled in an urban family weight management program. Multivariable logistic regression examined how home environment (parenting practices, family meal habits, and home availability of fruits/vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), screen media, and physical activity resources) are related to children's intake of fruit, vegetables, and SSBs, and moderate-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time (ST) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Children were more likely to consume fruit if their families frequently ate meals together and infrequently watched TV during meals, and more likely to consume vegetables with high fruit/vegetable availability and low SSB availability. Children were more likely to engage in ST if parents practiced monitoring and frequently watched TV during meals. Conclusions: Overweight or obese children appear to have healthier habits if their families eat meals together without watching TV and if healthy food choices are available in the home. Encouraging parents to focus these practices may promote healthier body weight in children.
Project description:Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p < .05). Whether descriptive social norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study.
Project description:(i) To examine associations between young adults' meal routines and practices (e.g. food preparation, meal skipping, eating on the run) and key dietary indicators (fruit/vegetable, fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes) and (ii) to develop indices of protective and risky meal practices most strongly associated with diet.Cross-sectional survey.Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota (USA).A diverse sample of community college and public university students (n 1013).Meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy dietary patterns were related to home food preparation (i.e. preparing meals at home, preparing meals with vegetables) and meal regularity (i.e. routine consumption of evening meals and breakfast). In contrast, factors most strongly associated with poor dietary patterns included eating on the run, using media while eating and purchasing foods/beverages on campus. A Protective Factors Index, summing selected protective meal routines and practices, was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and negatively associated with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (P<0·001). A Risky Factors Index yielded significant, positive associations with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (P<0·001). The probability test for the association between the Risky Factors Index and fruit/vegetable intake was P=0·05.Meal routines and practices were significantly associated with young adults' dietary patterns, suggesting that ways in which individuals structure mealtimes and contextual characteristics of eating likely influence food choice. Thus, in addition to considering specific food choices, it also may be important to consider the context of mealtimes in developing dietary messaging and guidelines.
Project description:There is limited evidence in Japan regarding the psychosocial determinants of fruit/vegetable intake. We performed a cross-sectional study of people aged 18 years or older in four regions of Japan; 2308 (men: 1012, women: 1296) individuals who completed the questionnaires were included. We found that 24.8% of people were aware of the current recommendations for vegetables and 13.2% for fruit and that "ability to design meals" and "availability when eating outside of the home" were the most important factors related to self-efficacy and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake, respectively. People with high self-efficacy (OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.17, 4.60 for fruit; OR: 4.52; 95% CI: 3.08, 6.64 for vegetables) were more likely to consume more fruit and vegetables. People with high scores on attitude (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.24) and social support (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.27) were more likely to consume more fruit. People with high perceived barriers (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.98) were less likely to consume fruit. This study suggests a need to increase the general population's awareness of the fruit and vegetable intake recommendations; facilitating positive attitudes, self-efficacy, and social support for individuals and strengthening the ability of individuals to design meals with more vegetables and fruit might be useful intervention programs.
Project description:Dietary behaviours may be influenced by perceptions of barriers to healthy eating. Using data from a large cross-European study (N = 5900), we explored associations between various perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours among adults from urban regions in five European countries and examined whether associations differed across regions and socio-demographic backgrounds.Frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, breakfast and home-cooked meals were split by the median into higher and lower consumption. We tested associations between barriers (irregular working hours; giving up preferred foods; busy lifestyle; lack of willpower; price of healthy food; taste preferences of family and friends; lack of healthy options and unappealing foods) and dietary variables using multilevel logistic regression models. We explored whether associations differed by age, sex, education, urban region, weight status, household composition or employment.Respondents who perceived any barrier were less likely to report higher consumption of healthier foods and more likely to report higher consumption of fast food. 'Lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were most consistently associated with consumption. For example, those perceiving lack of willpower ate less fruit [odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.64], and those with a busy lifestyle ate less vegetables (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.62). Many associations differed in size, but not in direction, by region, sex, age and household composition.Perceived 'lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were barriers most strongly related to dietary behaviours, but the association between various barriers and lower intake of fruit and vegetables was somewhat more pronounced among younger participants and women.
Project description:Reported associations between preparing and eating home cooked food, and both diet and health, are inconsistent. Most previous research has focused on preparing, rather than eating, home cooked food; used small, non-population based samples; and studied markers of nutrient intake, rather than overall diet quality or health. We aimed to assess whether frequency of consuming home cooked meals was cross-sectionally associated with diet quality and cardio-metabolic health.We used baseline data from a United Kingdom population-based cohort study of adults aged 29 to 64 years (n = 11,396). Participants self-reported frequency of consuming home cooked main meals. Diet quality was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, fruit and vegetable intake calculated from a 130-item food frequency questionnaire, and plasma vitamin C. Markers of cardio-metabolic health were researcher-measured body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cholesterol and hypertension. Differences across the three exposure categories were assessed using linear regression (diet variables) and logistic regression (health variables).Eating home cooked meals more frequently was associated with greater adherence to DASH and Mediterranean diets, greater fruit and vegetable intakes and higher plasma vitamin C, in adjusted models. Those eating home cooked meals more than five times, compared with less than three times per week, consumed 62.3 g more fruit (99% CI 43.2 to 81.5) and 97.8 g more vegetables (99% CI 84.4 to 111.2) daily. More frequent consumption of home cooked meals was associated with greater likelihood of having normal range BMI and normal percentage body fat. Associations with HbA1c, cholesterol and hypertension were not significant in adjusted models. Those consuming home cooked meals more than five times, compared with less than three times per week, were 28% less likely to have overweight BMI (99% CI 8 to 43%), and 24% less likely to have excess percentage body fat (99% CI 5 to 40%).In a large population-based cohort study, eating home cooked meals more frequently was associated with better dietary quality and lower adiposity. Further prospective research is required to identify whether consumption of home cooked meals has causal effects on diet and health.
Project description:Understanding the factors that coexist with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors is prevalent and important for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between food involvement, eating restrictions, and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish adults. The study was conducted among a group of 1007 adults. Questions with the answers yes or no were used to obtain the data regarding eating restrictions. Data relating to food involvement were obtained with the Food Involvement Scale (FIS). Questions from the Beliefs and Eating Habits questionnaire were used to measure the frequency of consumption of different food groups. Five dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using principal component analysis (PCA), i.e., 'Fruit and vegetables', 'Wholemeal food', 'Fast foods and sweets', 'Fruit and vegetable juices' and "Meat and meat products'. In each of the DPs, three groups of participants were identified based on tertile distribution with the upper tertile denoting the most frequent consumption. Nearly two-thirds of the study sample declared some restrictions in food consumption. The probability of implementing restrictions in consumption of foods high in sugar, fat and high-fat foods increased in the upper tertile of 'Fruit and vegetables' and 'Wholemeal' DPs. Moreover, the probability of implementing restrictions in consumption of meat and high-starch products increased in 'Wholemeal' DP. The probability of using eating restrictions decreased in the upper tertile of 'Fast foods and sweets' and Meat and meat products' DPs. In conclusion, individuals characterized by high food involvement were more inclined to use eating restrictions than individuals with lower food involvement. Their DPs were also healthier compared to those of individuals manifesting low food involvement. Therefore, promoting personal commitment to learning about and experiencing food may be an effective way of inducing a change of eating habits, and therefore a healthier diet.
Project description:Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595) in 2005-2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t-tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories (P ? 0.018). Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice (P ? 0.038). Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score (P ? 0.027). Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables (P ? 0.017), but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.
Project description:Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children.This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake.In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3-5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired.Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P < 0.0001); children chose some pieces in 94% of snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P < 0.0002); the mean (±SEM) increase was 31 ± 5 g, about one-sixth the recommended daily amount. Independent of the variety effect, children were less likely to select vegetables than fruit (P < 0.0001), and the mean intake was substantially less for vegetables than for fruit (22 ± 1 compared with 84 ± 3 g).Providing a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Since January 2010, the U.S. has experienced economic recovery, including a 39% increase in home prices nationally. While higher home prices represent a wealth increase for some homeowners, it may decrease real purchasing power for others. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between local area housing values and consumption of four food categories. DESIGN:Observational study using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2011 and 2015. Outcomes included number of times per week food was consumed and binary measures denoting consumption ?2 times per day for four categories: vegetables, fruit, legumes and fruit juice. The primary explanatory variables were metropolitan/micropolitan statistical area home and rental price indices from Zillow. Differential associations by home ownership, age, race/ethnicity and education were examined. RESULTS:Overall, housing values were not associated with intake of vegetables or fruit juice. Among homeowners, a $10,000 increase in home price was associated with small, but statistically significant reductions in fruit and legume consumption. These inverse associations were pronounced among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black adults. CONCLUSIONS:Lower fruit and legume consumption associated with greater housing values may represent one of several explanations including a decrease in purchasing power, given increases in home prices and limited wage growth since 2010.