Ghrelin contributes to derangements of glucose metabolism induced by rapamycin in mice.
ABSTRACT: Rapamycin impairs glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Our previous study demonstrated that rapamycin significantly increases the production of gastric ghrelin, which is critical in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated whether ghrelin contributes to derangements of glucose metabolism induced by rapamycin.The effects of rapamycin on glucose metabolism were examined in mice receiving ghrelin receptor antagonist or with Ghsr1a gene knockout. Changes in GLUT4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6) were investigated by immunofluorescent staining or western blotting. Related hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay kits.Rapamycin impaired glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity not only in normal C57BL/6J mice but also in both obese mice induced by a high fat diet and db/db mice. This was accompanied by elevation of plasma acylated ghrelin. Rapamycin significantly increased the levels of plasma acylated ghrelin in normal C57BL/6J mice, high-fat-diet-induced obese mice and db/db mice. Elevation in plasma acylated ghrelin and derangements of glucose metabolism upon administration of rapamycin were significantly correlated. The deterioration in glucose homeostasis induced by rapamycin was blocked by D: -Lys3-GHRP-6, a ghrelin receptor antagonist, or by deletion of the Ghsr1a gene. Ghrelin receptor antagonism and Ghsr1a knockout blocked the upregulation of JNK activity and downregulation of GLUT4 levels and translocation in the gastrocnemius muscle induced by rapamycin.The current study demonstrates that ghrelin contributes to derangements of glucose metabolism induced by rapamycin via altering the content and translocation of GLUT4 in muscles.
Project description:The G protein-coupled receptor 83 (Gpr83) is widely expressed in brain regions regulating energy metabolism. Here we report that hypothalamic expression of Gpr83 is regulated in response to nutrient availability and is decreased in obese mice compared with lean mice. In the arcuate nucleus, Gpr83 colocalizes with the ghrelin receptor (Ghsr1a) and the agouti-related protein. In vitro analyses show heterodimerization of Gpr83 with Ghsr1a diminishes activation of Ghsr1a by acyl-ghrelin. The orexigenic and adipogenic effect of ghrelin is accordingly potentiated in Gpr83-deficient mice. Interestingly, Gpr83 knock-out mice have normal body weight and glucose tolerance when fed a regular chow diet, but are protected from obesity and glucose intolerance when challenged with a high-fat diet, despite hyperphagia and increased hypothalamic expression of agouti-related protein, Npy, Hcrt and Ghsr1a. Together, our data suggest that Gpr83 modulates ghrelin action but also indicate that Gpr83 regulates systemic metabolism through other ghrelin-independent pathways.
Project description:Ghrelin is known to regulate appetite control and cellular metabolism. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family is also known to regulate energy balance. In this study, the links between ghrelin and the CRF family in C2C12 cells, a mouse myoblast cell line was investigated.C2C12 cells were treated with ghrelin in the presence or absence of CRF receptor antagonists and then subjected to different metabolic analyses.Ghrelin enhanced glucose uptake by C2C12 cells, induced GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface and decreased RBP4 expression. A CRF-R2 selective antagonist, anti-sauvagine-30, blocked ghrelin-induced glucose uptake, Ghrelin upregulated CRF-R2 but not CRF-R1 levels. Moreover, ghrelin-treated C2C12 cells displayed a cAMP and pERK activation in response to Ucn3, a CRF-R2 specific ligand, but not in response to CRF or stressin, CRF-R1 specific ligands. Ghrelin also induced UCP2 and UCP3 expression, which were blocked by anti- sauvagine-30. Ghrelin did not induce fatty acids uptake by C2C12 cells or ACC expression. Even though C2C12 cells clearly exhibited responses to ghrelin, the known ghrelin receptor, GHSR1a, was not detectable in C2C12 cells.The results suggest that, ghrelin plays a role in regulating muscle glucose and, raise the possibility that suppression of the CRF-R2 pathway might provide benefits in high ghrelin states.
Project description:We identified subsets of neurons in the brain that coexpress the dopamine receptor subtype-2 (DRD2) and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a). Combination of FRET confocal microscopy and Tr-FRET established the presence of GHSR1a:DRD2 heteromers in hypothalamic neurons. To interrogate function, mice were treated with the selective DRD2 agonist cabergoline, which produced anorexia in wild-type and ghrelin?/? mice; intriguingly, ghsr?/? mice were refractory illustrating dependence on GHSR1a, but not ghrelin. Elucidation of mechanism showed that formation of GHSR1a:DRD2 heteromers allosterically modifies canonical DRD2 dopamine signaling resulting in G?? subunit-dependent mobilization of [Ca²?](i) independent of GHSR1a basal activity. By targeting the interaction between GHSR1a and DRD2 in wild-type mice with a highly selective GHSR1a antagonist (JMV2959) cabergoline-induced anorexia was blocked. Inhibiting dopamine signaling in subsets of neurons with a GHSR1a antagonist has profound therapeutic implications by providing enhanced selectivity because neurons expressing DRD2 alone would be unaffected.
Project description:Although ghrelin has been demonstrated to stimulate energy intake and storage through a central mechanism, its effect on hepatic lipid metabolism remains largely uncharacterized. Ghrelin receptor antagonism or gene deletion significantly decreased obesity-associated hepatic steatosis by suppression of de novo lipogenesis, whereas exogenous ghrelin stimulated lipogenesis, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. The effects of ghrelin were mediated by direct activation of its receptor on hepatocytes. Cultured hepatocytes responded to ghrelin with increased lipid content and expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Ghrelin increased phosphorylation of S6, the downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in cultured hepatocytes, whereas ghrelin receptor antagonism reduced hepatic phosphorylation of S6 in db/db mice. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced up-regulation of lipogenesis in hepatocytes, whereas activation of hepatic mTOR signaling by deletion of TSC1 increased hepatic lipogenesis. By interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), mTOR mediates the ghrelin-induced up-regulation of lipogenesis in hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of ghrelin on hepatic lipogenesis was significantly attenuated by PPARγ antagonism in cultured hepatocytes and in PPARγ gene-deficient mice. Our study indicates that ghrelin activates its receptor on hepatocytes to promote lipogenesis via a mechanism involving the mTOR-PPARγ signaling pathway.
Project description:Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate food intake. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular fuel sensor critical for cellular energy homeostasis. Here we showed the reciprocal relationship of gastric mTOR signaling and ghrelin during changes in energy status. mTOR activity was down-regulated, whereas gastric preproghrelin and circulating ghrelin were increased by fasting. In db/db mice, gastric mTOR signaling was enhanced, whereas gastric preproghrelin and circulating ghrelin were decreased. Inhibition of the gastric mTOR signaling by rapamycin stimulated the expression of gastric preproghrelin and ghrelin mRNA and increased plasma ghrelin in both wild-type and db/db mice. Activation of the gastric mTOR signaling by l-leucine decreased the expression of gastric preproghrelin and the level of plasma ghrelin. Overexpression of mTOR attenuated ghrelin promoter activity, whereas inhibition of mTOR activity by overexpression of TSC1 or TSC2 increased its activity. Ghrelin receptor antagonist d-Lys-3-GH-releasing peptide-6 abolished the rapamycin-induced increment in food intake despite that plasma ghrelin remained elevated. mTOR is therefore a gastric fuel sensor whose activity is linked to the regulation of energy intake through ghrelin.
Project description:Enhanced activity of interleukin 17 (IL-17) producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells plays an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Significant loss of body weight and appetite is associated with chronic inflammation and immune activation, suggesting the cross talk between immune and neuroendocrine systems. Ghrelin has been shown to regulate the organism immune function. However, the effects of ghrelin on the differentiation of Th17 cells remain elusive. In the present study, we observed the enhanced differentiation of Th17 cells in spleens of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a)-/- mice. Treatment of ghrelin repressed Th17 cell differentiation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was increased in the spleens of GHSR1a-/- mice. Activation of mTOR signaling by injection of Cre-expressiong adenovirus into tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) loxp/loxp mice increased the differentiation of Th17 cells in spleen, which was associated with an increment in the phosphorylation of STAT3. Activation of mTOR signaling by leucine or overexpression of p70 ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1) activated mTOR signaling in isolated T cells, while reversed the ghrelin-induced inhibition of iTh17 cell differentiation. In conclusion, mTOR mediates the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on the differentiation of Th17 cells by interacting with STAT3.
Project description:Hypothalamic astrocytes can respond to metabolic signals, such as leptin and insulin, to modulate adjacent neuronal circuits and systemic metabolism. Ghrelin regulates appetite, adiposity and glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the response of astrocytes to this orexigenic hormone. We have used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that acylated ghrelin (acyl-ghrelin) rapidly stimulates glutamate transporter expression and glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Moreover, acyl-ghrelin rapidly reduces glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 levels and glucose uptake by these glial cells. Glutamine synthetase and lactate dehydrogenase decrease, while glycogen phosphorylase and lactate transporters increase in response to acyl-ghrelin, suggesting a change in glutamate and glucose metabolism, as well as glycogen storage by astrocytes. These effects are partially mediated through ghrelin receptor 1A (GHSR-1A) as astrocytes do not respond equally to desacyl-ghrelin, an isoform that does not activate GHSR-1A. Moreover, primary astrocyte cultures from GHSR-1A knock-out mice do not change glutamate transporter or GLUT2 levels in response to acyl-ghrelin. Our results indicate that acyl-ghrelin may mediate part of its metabolic actions through modulation of hypothalamic astrocytes and that this effect could involve astrocyte mediated changes in local glucose and glutamate metabolism that alter the signals/nutrients reaching neighboring neurons.
Project description:Ghrelin and the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family are known regulators of cellular metabolism and energy balance. We previously demonstrated that myoblast glucose metabolism is regulated by ghrelin and that this effect is mediated by CRF receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Here we explored the effect of des-acyl ghrelin, the major circulating isoform of ghrelin, on cellular metabolism in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, and examined whether CRF family receptors mediate its metabolic effects in muscle cells. C2C12 cells were exposed to des-acyl ghrelin with or without the CRF-R1- and CRF-R2-specific antagonists antalarmin or antisauvagine-30, respectively. Des-acyl ghrelin reduced glucose uptake and expression of the glucose transporter GLUT4, but induced retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression. Antalarmin and antisauvagine-30 inhibited the induction of glucose uptake by des-acyl ghrelin and its effect on GLUT4 and RBP4 expression. Moreover, treating C2C12 cells with des-acyl ghrelin resulted in cAMP activation in response to the CRF-R1-specific ligand stressin, and the CRF-R2-specific ligand Ucn3. Furthermore, des-acyl ghrelin reduced the expression of uncoupling proteins UCP2 and UCP3. Adding antalarmin or antisauvagine-30 to the medium reversed this effect. Finally, des-acyl ghrelin elevated lipid content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression in C2C12 cells. Our results suggest that during food deprivation, des-acyl ghrelin signals the muscle cells that glucose levels are low and that they should switch to fatty acids for their metabolic fuel.
Project description:Ghrelin is a hormone secreted by the stomach during fasting periods and acts through its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue 1a (GHSR1a), to promote food intake and prevent hypoglycemia. As such, GHSR1a is an important regulator of energy and glucose homeostasis and a target for the treatment of obesity. Here, we showed that the accessory protein MRAP2 altered GHSR1a signaling by inhibiting its constitutive activity, as well as by enhancing its G protein-dependent signaling and blocking the recruitment and signaling of ?-arrestin in response to ghrelin. In addition, the effects of MRAP2 on the G?q and ?-arrestin pathways were independent and involved distinct regions of MRAP2. These findings may have implications for the regulation of ghrelin function in vivo and the role of MRAP2 in energy homeostasis. They also show that accessory proteins can bias signaling downstream of GPCRs in response to their endogenous agonist.
Project description:The ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) and dopamine receptor-1 (DRD1) are coexpressed in hippocampal neurons, yet ghrelin is undetectable in the hippocampus; therefore, we sought a function for apo-GHSR1a. Real-time single-molecule analysis on hippocampal neurons revealed dimerization between apo-GHSR1a and DRD1 that is enhanced by DRD1 agonism. In addition, proximity measurements support formation of preassembled apo-GHSR1a:DRD1:G?q heteromeric complexes in hippocampal neurons. Activation by a DRD1 agonist produced non-canonical signal transduction via G?q-PLC-IP3-Ca(2+) at the expense of canonical DRD1 G?s cAMP signaling to result in CaMKII activation, glutamate receptor exocytosis, synaptic reorganization, and expression of early markers of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Remarkably, this pathway is blocked by genetic or pharmacological inactivation of GHSR1a. In mice, GHSR1a inactivation inhibits DRD1-mediated hippocampal behavior and memory. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized mechanism essential for DRD1 initiation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that is dependent on GHSR1a, and independent of cAMP signaling.