Draft genome sequence of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis G10.
ABSTRACT: Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis G10 is a spore-forming thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Indonesia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. kamchatkensis G10 that may reveal insights into aerobic/anaerobic metabolisms and carbon utilization in moderate thermophiles.
Project description:<i>Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis</i> NASTPD13 isolated from Paudwar hot spring of Myagdi, Nepal, upon morphological and biochemical analysis revealed to be Gram-positive, straight or slightly curved, rod-shaped, spore-forming, catalase, and oxidase-positive facultative anaerobes. It grows over a wide range of pH (5.0-11) and temperature (37-75°C), which showed growth in different reduced carbon sources such as starch raffinose, glucose, fructose, inositol, trehalose, sorbitol, mellobiose, and mannitol in aerobic conditions. Furthermore, the partial sequence obtained upon sequencing showed 99% sequence similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence with <i>A. kamchatkensis</i> JW/VK-KG4 and was suggested to be <i>Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis</i>. Moreover, whole-genome analysis of NASTPD13 revealed 2,866,796 bp genome with a G+C content of 41.6%. Analysis of the genome revealed the presence of 102 RNA genes, which includes sequences coding for 19 rRNA and 79 tRNA genes. While the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NASTPD13 showed high similarity (>99%) to those of <i>A. kamchatkensis</i> JW/VK-KG4, RAST analysis of NASTPD13 genome suggested that <i>A. kamchatkensis</i> G10 is actually the closest neighbor in terms of sequence similarity. The genome annotation by RAST revealed various genes encoding glycoside hydrolases supporting that it can utilize several reduced carbon sources as observed and these genes could be important for carbohydrate-related industries. Xylanase pathway, particularly the genomic region encoding key enzymes for xylan depolymerization and xylose metabolism, further confirmed the presence of the complete gene in xylan metabolism. In addition, the complete xylose utilization gene locus analysis of NASTPD13 genome revealed all including D-xylose transport ATP-binding protein XylG and XylF, the xylose isomerase encoding gene XylA, and the gene XylB coding for a xylulokinase supported the fact that the isolate contains a complete set of genes related to xylan degradation, pentose transport, and metabolism. The results of the present study suggest that the isolated <i>A. kamchatkensis</i> NASTPD13 containing xylanase-producing genes could be useful in lignocellulosic biomass-utilizing industries where pentose polymers could also be utilized along with the hexose polymers.
Project description:Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis NASTPD13 used herein as a source for thermostable alkaline xylanase were isolated from Paudwar Hot Springs, Nepal. NASTPD13 cultured at 60°C, pH 7 and in presence of inorganic (ammonium sulfate) or organic (yeast extract) nitrogen sources, produced maximum xylanase enzyme. Xylanase production in the cultures was monitored by following the ability of culture media to hydrolyze beech wood xylan producing xylooligosaccharide and xylose by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The extracellular xylanase was isolated from optimized A. kamchatkensis NASTPD13 cultures by ammonium sulfate (80%) precipitation; the enriched xylanase preparation was dialyzed and purified using Sephadex G100 column chromatography. The purified xylanaseshowed 11-fold enrichment with a specific activity of 33 U/mg and molecular weight were37 kDa based on SDS-PAGE and PAGE-Zymography. The optimum pH and temperature of purified xylanase was 9.0 and 65°C respectively retainingmore than 50% of its maximal activity over a broad range of pH (6-9) and temperature (30-65°C). With beech wood xylan, the enzyme showed Km 0.7 mg/ml and Vmax 66.64 ?M/min/mg The xylanase described herein is a secretory enzyme produced in large quantities by NASTPD13 and is a novel thermostable, alkaline xylanase with potential biotechnological applications.
Project description:Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Project description:Four closely related facultative anaerobe, moderately thermophilic, Gram positive rods (JS1(T), JS5, JS11, and JS15) were isolated from sediment samples from a hot spring at Suryakund, Jharkhand, India. Colonies were pale yellow, rough surface with uneven edges on TSA after 72 h incubation. Heterotrophic growth was observed at 40-60°C and pH 5.5-11.5; optimum growth occurred at 55°C and pH 7.5. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strains belong to genus Anoxybacillus. DNA-DNA homology values among strains were above 70% and showed distinct ERIC and REP PCR profile. On the basis of morphology and biochemical characteristics, strain JS1(T) was studied further. Strain JS1(T) showed 99.30% sequence similarity with A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis, 99.23% with A. mongoliensis, 99.16% with A. eryuanensis, 98.74% with A. flavithermus subsp. flavithermus, 98.54% with A. tengchongensis, 98.51% with A. pushchinoensis, 97.91% with A. thermarum, 97.82% with A. kaynarcensis, 97.77% with A. ayderensis and A. kamchatkensis, 97.63% with A. salavatliensis, 97.55% with A. kestanbolensis, 97.48% with A. contaminans, 97.27% with A. gonensis and 97.17% with A. voinovskiensis. In 16S rRNA secondary structure based phylogenetic comparison, strain JS1(T) was clustered with Anoxybacillus eryuanensis, A. mongoliensis, and A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis and showed 15 species specific base substitutions with maximum variability in helix 6. Moreover, DNA-DNA relatedness between JS1(T) and the closely related type strains were well below 70%. The DNA G+C content was 42.1 mol%. The major fatty acids were C(15:0 iso), C(16:0 iso) and C(17:0iso). The polar lipids were a phosphatidylgylycerol, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylethnolamine, a phosphatidylcholine, a phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine and four unknown lipids. Based on polyphasic approach, strain JS1(T) represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus for which Anoxybacillus suryakundensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS1(T) (= DSM 27374(T) = LMG 27616(T) =JCM19211(T)).
Project description:<i>Anoxybacillus amylolyticus</i> is a moderate thermophilic microorganism producing an exopolysaccharide and an extracellular α-amylase able to hydrolyze starch. The synthesis of several biomolecules is often regulated by a quorum sensing (QS) mechanism, a chemical cell-to-cell communication based on the production and diffusion of small molecules named "autoinducers", most of which belonging to the <i>N</i>-acyl homoserine lactones' (AHLs) family. There are few reports about this mechanism in extremophiles, in particular thermophiles. Here, we report the identification of a signal molecule, the <i>N</i>-butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), from the milieu of <i>A. amylolyticus</i>. Moreover, investigations performed by supplementing a known QS inhibitor, <i>trans</i>-cinnamaldehyde, or exogenous C4-HSL in the growth medium of <i>A. amylolyticus</i> suggested the involvement of QS signaling in the modulation of extracellular α-amylase activity. The data showed that the presence of the QS inhibitor <i>trans</i>-cinnamaldehyde in the medium decreased amylolytic activity, which, conversely, was increased by the effect of exogenous C4-HSL. Overall, these results represent the first evidence of the production of AHLs in thermophilic microorganisms, which could be responsible for a communication system regulating thermostable α-amylase activity.
Project description:Spores of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Anoxybacillus flavithermus TNO-09.006 from a milk-processing plant, and we report the complete genome of this isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 2.65 Mb.
Project description:The draft genome of Anoxybacillus sp. strain UARK-01, a novel lignin-utilizing thermophilic soil bacterium, represents the first sequence of an Anoxybacillus isolate from the United States. The genome was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform, de novo assembled using SeqMan NGen, and annotated at NCBI. The genome sequence revealed genes for laccase and lignocellulose degradation enzymes.