MEG network differences between low- and high-grade glioma related to epilepsy and cognition.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To reveal possible differences in whole brain topology of epileptic glioma patients, being low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. We studied functional networks in these patients and compared them to those in epilepsy patients with non-glial lesions (NGL) and healthy controls. Finally, we related network characteristics to seizure frequency and cognitive performance within patient groups. METHODS: We constructed functional networks from pre-surgical resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 13 LGG patients, 12 HGG patients, 10 NGL patients, and 36 healthy controls. Normalized clustering coefficient and average shortest path length as well as modular structure and network synchronizability were computed for each group. Cognitive performance was assessed in a subset of 11 LGG and 10 HGG patients. RESULTS: LGG patients showed decreased network synchronizability and decreased global integration compared to healthy controls in the theta frequency range (4-8 Hz), similar to NGL patients. HGG patients' networks did not significantly differ from those in controls. Network characteristics correlated with clinical presentation regarding seizure frequency in LGG patients, and with poorer cognitive performance in both LGG and HGG glioma patients. CONCLUSION: Lesion histology partly determines differences in functional networks in glioma patients suffering from epilepsy. We suggest that differences between LGG and HGG patients' networks are explained by differences in plasticity, guided by the particular lesional growth pattern. Interestingly, decreased synchronizability and decreased global integration in the theta band seem to make LGG and NGL patients more prone to the occurrence of seizures and cognitive decline.
Project description:Language deficits following brain tumors should consider the dynamic interactions between different tumor growth kinetics and functional network reorganization. We measured the resting-state functional connectivity of 126 patients with left cerebral gliomas involving language network areas, including 77 patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 49 patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG). Functional network mapping for language was performed by construction of a multivariate machine learning-based prediction model of individual aphasia quotient (AQ), a summary score that indicates overall severity of language impairment. We found that the AQ scores for HGG patients were significantly lower than those of LGG patients. The prediction accuracy of HGG patients (R2 = 0.27, permutation P = 0.007) was much higher than that of LGG patients (R2 = 0.09, permutation P = 0.032). The rsFC regions predictive of LGG's AQ involved the bilateral frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, subcortical regions, and bilateral cerebro-cerebellar connections, mainly in regions belonging to the canonical language network. The functional network of language processing for HGG patients showed strong dependence on connections of the left cerebro-cerebellar connections, limbic system, and the temporal, occipital, and prefrontal lobes. Together, our findings suggested that individual language processing of glioma patients links large-scale, bilateral, cortico-subcortical, and cerebro-cerebellar functional networks with different network reorganizational mechanisms underlying the different levels of language impairments in LGG and HGG patients.
Project description:The role of cerebellum and cerebro-cerebellar system in neural plasticity induced by cerebral gliomas involving language network has long been ignored. Moreover, whether or not the process of reorganization is different in glioma patients with different growth kinetics remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we utilized preoperative structural and resting-state functional MRI data of 78 patients with left cerebral gliomas involving language network areas, including 46 patients with low-grade glioma (LGG, WHO grade II), 32 with high-grade glioma (HGG, WHO grade III/IV), and 44 healthy controls. Spontaneous brain activity, resting-state functional connectivity and gray matter volume alterations of the cerebellum were examined. We found that both LGG and HGG patients exhibited bidirectional alteration of brain activity in language-related cerebellar areas. Brain activity in areas with increased alteration was significantly correlated with the language and MMSE scores. Structurally, LGG patients exhibited greater gray matter volume in regions with increased brain activity, suggesting a structure-function coupled alteration in cerebellum. Furthermore, we observed that cerebellar regions with decreased brain activity exhibited increased functional connectivity with contralesional cerebro-cerebellar system in LGG patients. Together, our findings provide empirical evidence for a vital role of cerebellum and cerebro-cerebellar circuit in neural plasticity following lesional damage to cerebral language network. Moreover, we highlight the possible different reorganizational mechanisms of brain functional connectivity underlying different levels of behavioral impairments in LGG and HGG patients.
Project description:Abstract BACKGROUND There is a lack of treatment options for HGG and LGG patients. BRAFV600E mutations are uncommon in glioma, with a poor long-term prognosis. Combined BRAF/MEK inhibition extends progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in BRAF V600E–mutated melanoma, non small-cell lung cancer, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. METHODS This phase 2, open-label trial (NCT02034110) evaluated dabrafenib (BRAF inhibitor, 150mg BID) plus trametinib (MEK inhibitor, 2mg QD) in patients with BRAF V600E mutations in 9 rare tumor types, including HGG and LGG. Eligible patients had histologically-confirmed recurrent or progressive glioma (LGG:WHO grade 1 or 2; HGG:WHO grade 3 or 4), with HGG patients required to have received radiotherapy and first-line chemotherapy, or concurrent chemoradiation. Treatment continued until unacceptable toxicity, disease progression, or death. Primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR) using RANO criteria. Secondary endpoints included duration of response (DOR), PFS, OS, and safety. RESULTS Interim analysis (IA) #14 (data cutoff: April 2, 2018) reported additional 3 months follow-up, with 49 patients enrolled (HGG, n=39; LGG, n=10) and 3 patients not evaluable for response. In HGG patients, ORR was 27% (10/37; 95%CI: 13.8%-44.1%), including CR (n=1), PR (n=9), and SD (n=11), with 16 patients currently ongoing treatment. In LGG patients, ORR was 56% (5/9; 95%CI: 26.8%-79.3%), including PR (n=5) and SD (n=4), with 6 patients currently ongoing treatment. OS, PFS, and DOR will be presented (IA#15). In HGG patients, adverse events (AEs) included fatigue (33%), headache (31%), rash (28%), and pyrexia (23%); grade 3/4 AEs included neutropenia (8%) and fatigue (5%). In LGG patients, AEs included headache (70%), fatigue, pyrexia (60% each), nausea, and arthralgia (50% each); grade 3/4 AEs included fatigue (20%). CONCLUSIONS Dabrafenib plus trametinib demonstrated promising efficacy in patients with recurrent or refractory BRAF V600E?mutated HGG or LGG, with manageable AEs and no new safety signals.
Project description:Gliomas, the most common primary brain tumor in humans, include a spectrum of disease. High-grade gliomas (HGG), such as glioblastoma, may arise from low-grade gliomas (LGG) that have a more indolent course. The process of malignant transformation (MT) of LGG to HGG is poorly understood but likely involves the activation of signaling programs that suppress apoptosis. We previously showed that Survivin (BIRC5) plays a role in malignant progression of glioma. Here, we investigated the role of the remaining members of the Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) family on promoting MT in glioma. Utilizing expression data from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), we identified BIRC3 as a key facilitator of MT from LGG to HGG. TCGA HGGs with high expression of BIRC 3 demonstrated a survival disadvantage and expression levels of BIRC3 were also significantly higher in TCGA HGG compared to TCGA LGG cases. We validated our findings from TCGA by using matched human specimens to show that BIRC expression is increased in HGG compared to their precursor LGG lesions. Using a unique murine model of glioma, we show that overexpression of BIRC3 promotes higher grade glioma and significantly reduces tumor-free survival in mice.
Project description:Cognitive effects of brain surgery for the removal of intracranial tumors are still under investigation. For many basic sensory/motor or language-based functions, focal, albeit transient, cognitive deficits have been reported low-grade gliomas (LGGs); however, the effects of surgery on higher-level cognitive functions are still largely unknown. It has recently been shown that, following brain tumors, damage to different brain regions causes a variety of deficits at different levels in the perception and interpretation of emotions and intentions. However, the effects of different tumor histologies and, more importantly, the effects of surgery on these functions have not been examined.The performance of 66 patients affected by high-grade glioma (HGG), LGG, and meningioma on 4 tasks tapping different levels of perception and interpretations of emotion and intentions was assessed before, immediately after, and (for LGG patients) 4 months following surgery.Results showed that HGG patients were generally already impaired in the more perceptual tasks before surgery and did not show surgery effects. Conversely, LGG patients, who were unimpaired before surgery, showed a significant deficit in perceptual tasks immediately after surgery that was recovered within few months. Meningioma patients were substantially unimpaired in all tasks.These results show that surgery can be relatively safe for LGG patients with regard to the higher-level, more complex cognitive functions and can provide further useful information to the neurosurgeon and improve communication with both the patient and the relatives about possible changes that can occur immediately after surgery.
Project description:Neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) are the most frequently encountered solid tumors of childhood, but are less common in adolescents and young adults (AYA), aged 15-39 years. Gliomas account for 29%-35% of the CNS tumors in AYA, with approximately two-thirds being low-grade glioma (LGG) and the remaining being high-grade glioma (HGG). We review the epidemiology, work-up, and management of LGG and HGG, focusing on the particular issues faced by the AYA population relative to pediatric and adult populations. Visual pathway glioma and brainstem glioma, which represent unique clinical entities, are only briefly discussed. As a general management approach for both LGG and HGG, maximal safe resection should be attempted. AYA with LGG who undergo gross total resection (GTR) may be safely observed. As age increases and the risk factors for recurrence accumulate, adjuvant therapy should be more strongly considered with a strong consideration of advanced radiation techniques such as proton beam therapy to reduce long-term radiation-related toxicity. Recent results also suggest survival advantage for adult patients with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy when radiation is indicated. Whenever possible, AYA patients with HGG should be enrolled in a clinical trial for the benefit of centralized genetic and molecular prognostic review and best clinical care. Chemoradiation should be offered to all World Health Organization grade IV patients with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy after maximal safe resection. Younger adolescents with GTR of grade III lesions may consider radiotherapy alone or sequential radiotherapy and chemotherapy if unable to tolerate concurrent treatment. A more comprehensive classification of gliomas integrating pathology and molecular data is emerging, and this integrative strategy offers the potential to be more accurate and reproducible in guiding diagnostic, prognostic, and management decisions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Glioma is a type of tumor that develops in the central nerve system, mainly the brain. Alterations of genomic sequence and sequence segments (such as copy number variations or CNV and copy neutral loss of heterozygosities or cnLOH) are thought to be a major determinant of the tumor grade. METHODS: We mapped genomic variations between low-grade and high-grade gliomas (LGG and HGG) in Chinese population based on Illumina's Beadchip and validated the results using real-time qPCR. RESULTS: AT THE CYTOBAND LEVEL, WE DISCOVERED: (1) unique losses in LGG on 5q, 8p and 11q, and in HGG on 6q, 11p, 13q and 19q; (2) unique gains in the LGG on 1p and in HGG at 5p, 7p, 7q and 20q; and (3) cnLOH in HGG only on 3q, 8q, 10p, 14q, 15q, 17p, 17q, 18q and 21q. Subsequently, we confirmed well-characterized oncogenes among tumor-related loci (such as EGFR and KIT) and detected novel genes that gained chromosome sequences (such as AASS, HYAL4, NDUFA5 and SPAM1) in both LGG and HGG. In addition, we found gains, losses, and cnLOH in several genes, including VN1R2, VN1R4, and ZNF677, in multiple samples. Mapping grade-associated pathways and their related gene ontology (GO) terms, we classified LGG-associated functions as "arachidonic acid metabolism", "DNA binding" and "regulation of DNA-dependent transcription" and the HGG-associated as "neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction", "neuronal cell body" and "defense response to bacterium". CONCLUSION: LGG and HGG appear to have different molecular signatures in genomic variations and our results provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas in patients with variable duration or diverse tumor differentiation.
Project description:Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR imaging for differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGGs) from low-grade gliomas (LGGs).Forty-five patients with diffuse glioma (age 50.9 ± 20.4 y; 26 males, 19 females) were assessed with IVIM imaging using 13 b-values (0-1000 s/mm(2)) at 3T. The perfusion fraction (f), true diffusion coefficient (D), and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*) were calculated by fitting the bi-exponential model. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was obtained with 2 b-values (0 and 1000 s/mm(2)). Relative cerebral blood volume was measured by the dynamic susceptibility contrast method. Two observers independently measured D, ADC, D*, and f, and these measurements were compared between the LGG group (n = 16) and the HGG group (n = 29).Both D (1.26 ± 0.37 mm(2)/s in LGG, 0.94 ± 0.19 mm(2)/s in HGG; P < .001) and ADC (1.28 ± 0.35 mm(2)/s in LGG, 1.03 ± 0.19 mm(2)/s in HGG; P < .01) were lower in the HGG group. D was lower than ADC in the LGG (P < .05) and HGG groups (P < .0001). D* was not different between the groups. The f-values were significantly larger in HGG (17.5 ± 6.3%) than in LGG (5.8 ± 3.8%; P < .0001) and correlated with relative cerebral blood volume (r = 0.85; P < .0001). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed areas under curve of 0.95 with f, 0.78 with D, 0.73 with ADC, and 0.60 with D*.IVIM imaging is useful in differentiating HGGs from LGGs.
Project description:Children with high-grade glioma (HGG) have a poor prognosis compared to those with low-grade glioma (LGG). Adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial, but its optimal use remains undetermined. Histology and extent of resection are important prognostic factors. We tested the hypothesis that patients with midline HGG treated on Children's Cancer Group Study (CCG) CCG-945 have a worse prognosis compared to the entire group. Of 172 children eligible for analysis, 60 had midline tumors primarily localized to the thalamus, hypothalamus and basal ganglia. Time-to-progression and death were determined from the date of initial diagnosis, and survival curves were calculated. Univariate analyses were undertaken for extent of resection, chemotherapy regimen, anatomic location, histology, proliferation index, MGMT status and p53 over-expression. For the entire midline tumor group, 5-year PFS and OS were 18.3 ± 4.8 and 25 ± 5.4 %, respectively. Many patients only had a biopsy (43.3 %). The sub-groups with near/total resection and hypothalamic location appeared to have better PFS and OS. However, the effect of tumor histology on OS was significant for children with discordant diagnoses on central pathology review of LGG compared to HGG. Proliferative index (MIB-1 > 36 %), MGMT and p53 over-expression correlated with poor outcomes. Children treated on CCG-945 with midline HGG have a worse prognosis when compared to the entire group. The midline location may directly influence the extent of resection. Central pathology review and entry of patients on clinical trials continue to be priorities to improve outcomes for children with HGG.
Project description:To investigate the value of local image variance (LIV) as a new technique for quantification of hypointense microvascular susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) structures at 7 Tesla for preoperative glioma characterization.Adult patients with neuroradiologically suspected diffusely infiltrating gliomas were prospectively recruited and 7 Tesla SWI was performed in addition to standard imaging. After tumour segmentation, quantification of intratumoural SWI hypointensities was conducted by the SWI-LIV technique. Following surgery, the histopathological tumour grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H mutational status was determined and SWI-LIV values were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG), IDH1-R132H negative and positive tumours, as well as gliomas with significant and non-significant contrast-enhancement (CE) on MRI.In 30 patients, 9 LGG and 21 HGG were diagnosed. The calculation of SWI-LIV values was feasible in all tumours. Significantly higher mean SWI-LIV values were found in HGG compared to LGG (92.7 versus 30.8; p?<?0.0001), IDH1-R132H negative compared to IDH1-R132H positive gliomas (109.9 versus 38.3; p?<?0.0001) and tumours with significant CE compared to non-significant CE (120.1 versus 39.0; p?<?0.0001).Our data indicate that 7 Tesla SWI-LIV might improve preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and thus optimize patient management by quantification of hypointense microvascular structures.• 7 Tesla local image variance helps to quantify hypointense susceptibility-weighted imaging structures. • SWI-LIV is significantly increased in high-grade and IDH1-R132H negative gliomas. • SWI-LIV is a promising technique for improved preoperative glioma characterization. • Preoperative management of diffusely infiltrating gliomas will be optimized.