Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world.
Project description:We investigate the impacts of rural-to-urban migration on the health of young adult migrants. A key methodological challenge involves the potentially confounding effects of selection on the relationship between migration and health. Our study addresses this challenge in two ways. To control for potential effects of prior health status on post-migration health outcomes, we employ a longitudinal approach. To control for static unobserved characteristics that can affect migration propensity as well as health outcomes, we use fixed-effects analyses. Data were collected in 2005 and 2007 for a cohort of young adults in rural Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand. The migrant sample includes individuals who subsequently moved to urban destinations where they were reinterviewed in 2007. Return migrants were interviewed in rural Kanchanaburi in both years but moved to an urban area and returned in the meantime. A rural comparison group comprises respondents who remained in the origin villages. An urban comparison sample includes longer-term residents of the urban destination communities. Physical and mental health measures are based on the SF-36 health survey. Findings support the "healthy migrant hypothesis." Migrants are physically healthier than their nonmigrant counterparts both before and after moving to the city. We did not find an effect of migration on physical health. Rural-to-urban migrants who stayed at destination experienced a significant improvement in mental health status. Fixed-effects analyses indicate that rural-to-urban migration positively affects mental health. Return migrants do not fare as well as migrants who stayed at destination on both physical and mental health status--evidence of selective return migration.
Project description:Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants.The diets of migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 6,509 participants were included. Median energy intake in the rural, migrant and urban groups was 2731, 3078, and 3224 kcal respectively for men, and 2153, 2504, and 2644 kcal for women (p<0.001). A similar trend was seen for overall intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates (p<0.001), though differences in the proportion of energy from these nutrients were <2%. Migrant and urban participants reported up to 80% higher fruit and vegetable intake than rural participants (p<0.001), and up to 35% higher sugar intake (p<0.001). Meat and dairy intake were higher in migrant and urban participants than rural participants (p<0.001), but varied by region. Sibling-pair analyses confirmed these results. There was no evidence of associations with time in urban area.Rural to urban migration appears to be associated with both positive (higher fruit and vegetables intake) and negative (higher energy and fat intake) dietary changes. These changes may be of relevance to cardiovascular health and warrant public health interventions.
Project description:The existing literature concentrates on the relationship between amenities and migrants or residents. However, only a few studies have focused on the role of city amenities in determining the intentions of rural-urban migrants. Such a relation is a key issue in Chinese urbanisation development. The current study investigates the effects of urban amenities on the settlement intentions of rural-urban migrants in China. We find that medical amenities have a significantly positive effect on rural-urban migrants' intentions. We also indicate that educational amenities and transportation services attract rural-urban migrants to settle in cities. Furthermore, we explore the heterogeneous effects of amenities on different cohorts by education and age. High- and low-skilled rural-urban migrants focus on transportation amenities, while young and middle-aged migrants are attracted by urban educational amenities. Results suggest that increasing access to urban amenities for rural-urban migrants and improving urban amenities enhance the willingness of rural-urban migrants to stay in cities.
Project description:Massive rural-urban temporary migration has taken place amid China's rapid economic growth and development. Much has been written about the economic causes and consequences of this massive migration; less studied are the potential health and behavioral impacts of migration on migrants. Using data from a population-based sample survey conducted in southwestern China, this paper examines the potential impact of rural-urban migration and post-migration urban living on migrants' mental health and sexual risk behavior. The results suggest that regardless of places of origin and destination temporary migrants had on average poorer mental health and riskier sexual behavior than non-migrants. Compared to living in rural areas, living in urban areas does not make statistical difference in residents' mental health; it is only marginally associated with riskier sexual behavior. Rural-urban temporary migrants' mental health and health risk sexual behavior deserve more immediate research attention. Both selectivity of temporary migrants and migration-induced psycho-socio-behavioral changes may have contributed to migrants' poorer mental health and riskier sexual behavior. However, more theory-driven research with longitudinal design is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the underlying mechanisms that mediate or moderate the impact of temporary migration on migrants' mental health and sexual risk behavior.
Project description:The present study explored the motivation of rural-urban migrants who moved from the Himalaya foothills of Uttarakhand to its capital city, Dehradun. A survey of 100 migrant families reported their socio-economic profile before and after migration, personal and general reasons for migration, problems in the village and in the city, and perception of push- and pull factors. A remote sensing-based analysis of land cover and forest changes was conducted for two villages of the migrants' origin, aiming to link the reasons for migration to land cover changes. This was contextualised by reported large scale changes in forest cover. Major reasons for migration mentioned in this study were education, employment opportunities with the associated income, and facilities. These were perceived as both, push and pull factors, whereas environmental factors ranked very low. Declining environment or agriculture were never mentioned spontaneously as personal reason, and only occasionally as a presumed general reason for migration, but were frequently confirmed as a major problem in the village. Thus, although such problems existed, they seemed not a major driver of rural-urban migration. For most of the respondents their migration resulted in a profound change of livelihoods and significantly improved their socio-economic situation. Land and forest cover around the chosen villages fluctuated by up to 15% with a trend to increasing forest cover in recent years. At the district and state scales, forest cover was rather stable. These results question the narrative of deforestation and environmental degradation in the Himalayas as major push-factors for rural-urban migration in Uttarakhand. Even if environmental constraints were felt, it was rather the differences in socio-economic opportunities (education, employment, facilities) that drove people to migrate to the city. Regarding the push-pull paradigm, we conclude that scenarios of external conditions under which people migrate cannot be evaluated without taking the migrants' attitudes and choices into account.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rural-to-urban migration is associated with increased obesity, yet it remains unknown whether this association exist, and to what extent, with other types of internal migration. METHODS:We conducted a secondary analysis of the Peruvian Demographic and Health Surveys (2005 to 2012) on data collected from women aged 15-49?years. Participants were classified as rural stayers, urban stayers, rural-to-urban migrants, intra-rural migrants, intra-urban migrants, and urban-to-rural migrants. Marginal effects from a logit regression model were used to assess the probabilities of being and becoming obese given both the length of time in current place of residence and women's migration status. RESULTS:Analysis of cross-sectional survey data generated between 2005 and 2012. Data from 94,783 participants was analyzed. Intra-urban migrants and rural-to-urban migrants had the highest rates of obesity (21% in 2012). A steady increase in obesity is observed across all migration statuses. Relative to rural non-migrants, participants exposed to urban environments had greater odds, two- to three-fold higher, of obesity. The intra-rural migrant group also shows higher odds relative to rural stayers (42% higher obesity odds). The length of exposure to urban settings shows a steady effect over time. CONCLUSION:Both exposure to urban environments and migration are associated with higher odds of obesity. Expanding the characterization of within-country migration dynamics provides a better insight into the relationship between duration of exposure to urban settings and obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In common with many other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), rural to urban migrants in India are at increased risk of obesity, but it is unclear whether this is due to increased energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. Knowing this and the relative contribution of specific dietary and physical activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants could inform policies for control of the obesity epidemic in India and other urbanising LMICs. In the Indian Migration Study, we previously found that urban migrants had greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared with their nonmigrant rural-dwelling siblings. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of energy intake and expenditure and specific diet and activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS:The Indian Migration Study was conducted between 2005 and 2007. Factory workers and their spouses from four cities in north, central, and south of India, together with their rural-dwelling siblings, were surveyed. Self-reported data on diet and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires, and adiposity was estimated from thickness of skinfolds. The association of differences in dietary intake, physical activity, and adiposity between siblings was examined using multivariable linear regression. Data on 2,464 participants (median age 43 years) comprised of 1,232 sibling pairs (urban migrant and their rural-dwelling sibling) of the same sex (31% female) were analysed. Compared with the rural siblings, urban migrants had 18% greater adiposity, 12% (360 calories/day) more energy intake, and 18% (11 kilojoules/kg/day) less energy expenditure (P < 0.001 for all). Energy intake and expenditure were independently associated with increased adiposity of urban siblings, accounting for 4% and 6.5% of adiposity difference between siblings, respectively. Difference in dietary fat/oil (10 g/day), time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous activity (69 minutes/day), and watching television (30 minutes/day) were associated with difference in adiposity between siblings, but no clear association was observed for intake of fruits and vegetables, sugary foods and sweets, cereals, animal and dairy products, and sedentary time. The limitations of this study include a cross-sectional design, systematic differences in premigration characteristics of migrants and nonmigrants, low response rate, and measurement error in estimating diet and activity from questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS:We found that increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure contributed equally to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. Policies aimed at controlling the rising prevalence of obesity in India and potentially other urbanising LMICs need to be multicomponent, target both energy intake and expenditure, and focus particularly on behaviours such as dietary fat/oil intake, time spent on watching television, and time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity.
Project description:Background: China is the biggest consumer of tobacco in the world, with a high prevalence of smoking especially among men. Along with the rapid demographic change in China, the burden of diseases attributable to health behaviors, particularly smoking is steadily increasing. So, smoking has become a major risk factor for mortality in China. Smoking behaviors may be related to migration processes, as a result of both who migrates and post-migration experiences related to socioeconomic position, stress and acculturation. Existing studies that have examined smoking and migration in China have, however, only focused on temporary rural-to-urban migrants and focused on relatively younger migrants. This paper examines the association between smoking behaviors and a comprehensive assessment of migration status in later-life in China. Methods: Using the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative dataset, this paper studies smoking behaviors of rural-to-urban migrants, urban-to-urban migrants, rural return migrants, and urban return migrants. We compare them with corresponding non-migrant groups in both rural and urban locations in China. Using a model that controls for demographic factors, early-life circumstances, socioeconomic factors, and factors related to migration, we examine both the decision to start smoking and the decision to quit smoking. In addition, we also address pre-migration selection in our analyses. Results: The results show rural-to-urban migrants are no more likely to start smoking compared with rural non-migrants, but they are more likely to quit smoking. While urban-to-urban migrants are more likely to start smoking compared with urban non-migrants, this effect is explained by the factors we include in the full model. Urban-to-urban migrants are, however, less likely to quit smoking. Moreover, both rural return migrants and urban return migrants seem to be more likely to start smoking and less likely to quit smoking compared with non-migrant groups. Conclusion: There are strong associations between migration status and later-life smoking behaviors in China; these associations vary greatly according to different migration status and point to populations and factors that public health activities should focus on.
Project description:Urban migration is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, obesity and diabetes in Indian migrants. This study assessed the relationship between internal migration and renal function in the Hyderabad arm of the Indian Migration Study.We assessed 841 subjects; urban non-migrants (n = 158), urban migrants (n = 424) and rural non-migrants (n = 259). Muscle mass was ascertained from DXA scanning. We derived urban life years for urban migrants and rural non-migrants. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of urban life years and 4-variable MDRD eGFR using Stata 11.Mean eGFR was lower in urban non-migrants and urban migrants compared to rural non-migrants. The prevalence of CKD 3-5 was higher in the rural non-migrant population (5.0%) than in the urban non-migrant populations (2.5%) due to a negatively skewed distribution of eGFR in rural non-migrants. As urban life years increased, eGFR declined (p = 0.008) though there was no obvious dose response effect. After adjustment for muscle mass, the association was attenuated and the trend was consistent with chance (p = 0.08). Further adjustment for vascular risk factors weakened the association to a small degree (p = 0.11).The high prevalence of reduced eGFR in rural areas requires further research. Urbanization was associated with reduced eGFR. This association appears mostly to be due to higher muscle mass with a small contribution from adverse vascular disease risk factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The extent to which rural-to-urban migration affects risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) in Africa is not well understood. We investigated prevalence and risk for obesity, diabetes, hypertension and precursor conditions by migration status. METHODS:In a cross-sectional survey in Malawi (February 2013-March 2017), 13?903 rural, 9929 rural-to-urban migrant and 6741 urban residents (?18?years old) participated. We interviewed participants, measured blood pressure and collected anthropometric data and fasting blood samples to estimate population prevalences and odds ratios, using negative binomial regression, for CMD, by migration status. In a sub-cohort of 131 rural-urban siblings-sets, migration-associated CMD risk was explored using conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS:In rural, rural-to-urban migrant and urban residents, prevalence estimates were; 8.9, 20.9 and 15.2% in men and 25.4, 43.9 and 39.3% in women for overweight/obesity; 1.4, 2.9 and 1.9% in men and 1.5, 2.8 and 1.7% in women for diabetes; and 13.4, 18.8 and 12.2% in men and 13.7, 15.8 and 10.2% in women for hypertension. Rural-to-urban migrants had the greatest risk for hypertension (adjusted relative risk for men 1.18; 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.34 and women 1.17: 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.29) and were the most screened, diagnosed and treated for CMD, compared with urban residents. Within sibling sets, rural-to-urban migrant siblings had a higher risk for overweight and pre-hypertension, with no evidence for differences by duration of stay. CONCLUSIONS:Rural-to-urban migration is associated with increased CMD risk in Malawi. In a poor country experiencing rapid urbanization, interventions for the prevention and management of CMD, which reach migrant populations, are needed.