Cardiac protection by preconditioning is generated via an iron-signal created by proteasomal degradation of iron proteins.
ABSTRACT: Ischemia associated injury of the myocardium is caused by oxidative damage during reperfusion. Myocardial protection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was shown to be mediated by a transient 'iron-signal' that leads to the accumulation of apoferritin and sequestration of reactive iron released during the ischemia. Here we identified the source of this 'iron signal' and evaluated its role in the mechanisms of cardiac protection by hypoxic preconditioning. Rat hearts were retrogradely perfused and the effect of proteasomal and lysosomal protease inhibitors on ferritin levels were measured. The iron-signal was abolished, ferritin levels were not increased and cardiac protection was diminished by inhibition of the proteasome prior to IPC. Similarly, double amounts of ferritin and better recovery after ex vivo ischemia-and-reperfusion (I/R) were found in hearts from in vivo hypoxia pre-conditioned animals. IPC followed by normoxic perfusion for 30 min ('delay') prior to I/R caused a reduced ferritin accumulation at the end of the ischemia phase and reduced protection. Full restoration of the IPC-mediated cardiac protection was achieved by employing lysosomal inhibitors during the 'delay'. In conclusion, proteasomal protein degradation of iron-proteins causes the generation of the 'iron-signal' by IPC, ensuing de-novo apoferritin synthesis and thus, sequestering reactive iron. Lysosomal proteases are involved in subsequent ferritin breakdown as revealed by the use of specific pathway inhibitors during the 'delay'. We suggest that proteasomal iron-protein degradation is a stress response causing an expeditious cytosolic iron release thus, altering iron homeostasis to protect the myocardium during I/R, while lysosomal ferritin degradation is part of housekeeping iron homeostasis.
Project description:Cardiovascular dysfunction is a major complication of diabetes. Examining mechanistic aspects underlying the incapacity of the diabetic heart to respond to ischemic preconditioning (IPC), we could show that the alterations in iron homeostasis can explain this phenomenon. Correlating the hemodynamic parameters with levels of ferritin, the main iron storage and detoxifying protein, without and with inhibitors of protein degradation, substantiated this explanation. Diabetic hearts were less sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion stress, as indicated by functional parameters and histology. Mechanistically, since ferritin has been shown to provide cellular protection against insults, including ischemia-reperfusion stress and as the basal ferritin level in diabetic heart was 2-fold higher than in controls, these are in accord with the greater resistance of the diabetic heart to ischemia-reperfusion. Additionally, during ischemia-reperfusion, preceded by IPC, a rapid and extensive loss in ferritin levels, during the prolonged ischemia, in diabetic heart but not in non-diabetic controls, provide additional substantiation to the explanation for loss of respond to IPC. Current research is shedding light on the mechanism behind ferritin degradation as well, suggesting a novel explanation for diabetes-induced loss of cardioprotection.
Project description:Whether the diabetic heart benefits from ischemic preconditioning (IPC), similar to the non-diabetic heart, is a subject of controversy. We recently proposed new roles for iron and ferritin in IPC-protection in Type 1-like streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart. Here, we investigated iron homeostasis in Cohen diabetic sensitive rat (CDs) that develop hyperglycemia when fed on a high-sucrose/low-copper diet (HSD), but maintain normoglycemia on regular-diet (RD). Control Cohen-resistant rats (CDr) maintain normoglycemia on either diet. The IPC procedure improved the post-ischemic recovery of normoglycemic hearts (CDr-RD, CDr-HSD and CDs-RD). CDs-HSD hearts failed to show IPC-associated protection. The recovery of these CDs-HSD hearts following I/R (without prior IPC) was better than their RD controls. During IPC ferritin levels increased in normoglycemic hearts, and its level was maintained nearly constant during the subsequent prolonged ischemia, but decayed to its baseline level during the reperfusion phase. In CDs-HSD hearts the baseline levels of ferritin and ferritin-saturation with iron were notably higher than in the controls, and remained unchanged during the entire experiment. This unique and abnormal pattern of post-ischemic recovery of CDs-HSD hearts is associated with marked changes in myocardial iron homeostasis, and suggests that iron and iron-proteins play a causative role/s in the etiology of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disorders.
Project description:Sevoflurane postconditioning (sevo postC) is an attractive and amenable approach that can protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Unlike ischemic preconditioning (IPC), sevo postC does not require additional induced ischemic periods to a heart that is already at risk. IPC was previously shown to generate myocardial protection against I/R-injury through regulation of iron homeostasis and de novo ferritin synthesis, a process found to be impaired in the diabetic state. The current study investigated whether alterations in iron homeostasis and ferritin mRNA and protein accumulation are also involved in the cardioprotective effects generated by sevo postC. It was also investigated whether the protective effects of sevo postC in the diabetic state can be salvaged by simvastatin, through inducing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability/activity, in isolated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic hearts (DH). Isolated rat hearts from healthy Controls and diabetic animals were retrogradely perfused using the Langendorff configuration and subjected to prolonged ischemia and reperfusion, with and without (2.4 and 3.6%) sevo postC and/or pre-treatment with simvastatin (0.5 mg/kg). Sevo postC significantly reduced infarct size and improved myocardial function in healthy Controls but not in isolated DH. The sevo postC mediated myocardial protection against I/R-injury was not associated with de novo ferrtin synthesis. Furthermore, simvastatin aggravated myocardial injury after sevo postC in STZ-induced DHs, likely due to increasing NO levels. Despite the known mechanistic overlaps between PC and postC stimuli, distinct differences underlie the cardioprotective interventions against myocardial I/R-injury and are impaired in the DH. Sevo postC mediated cardioprotection, unlike IPC, does not involve de novo ferritin accumulation and cannot be rescued by simvastatin in STZ-induced DHs.
Project description:Ferritin, a member of a family of iron storage proteins, is expressed in conditions of oxidative or thermal stress in the cell. Ferritin widely found in human tissues including the eye and brain. Increased expression under oxidative or temperature stress conditions and protective effect on cell viability suggest that apo form of ferritin (apoferritin) may have a role in the formation or maintenance of the native conformation of proteins. To test this hypothesis, we studied the influence of apoferritin on the unfolding and refolding of citrate synthase (CS) in vitro. Here we show that at stoichiometric amounts apoferritin is remarkably protecting the CS catalytic activity, stabilize the aggregation of CS under heat stress and act as chaperone-like molecules in these folding reactions in vitro. Furthermore, apoferritin promote the functional refolding of CS after guanidinium hydrochloride denaturation. Finally, these results confirm that apoferritin has chaperone-like activity in vitro and suggests that apoferritin might have a role in protection and maintaining of protein native conformation.
Project description:1. The mechanism of the stimulation of ferritin synthesis by iron in vivo has been studied in rat liver. Ferritin synthesis and turnover was measured by [(14)C]leucine incorporation. 2. Actinomycin D had no inhibitory effect, after administration of iron, on [(14)C]leucine incorporation into ferritin but appeared to augment the effect of iron on ferritin synthesis. 3. Cycloheximide completely abolished the stimulation by iron of [(14)C]leucine into ferritin and was subsequently utilized to show that iron acts in vivo by translational induction of apoferritin synthesis, rather than by stabilization of apoferritin or its precursors. 4. This conclusion was confirmed by showing that 2 days after acute bleeding, when iron was in the process of being removed from hepatic ferritin stores, ferritin synthesis was decreased whereas breakdown rates were unchanged.
Project description:The ability to incorporate iron in vitro was studied in homopolymers of human ferritin L-chain, human ferritin H-chain and its variants and in homopolymer mixtures. The H-chain variants carried amino acid substitutions in the ferroxidase centre and/or in carboxy residues on the cavity surface. Iron incorporation was examined by gel electrophoresis of the reaction products by staining for iron and protein. It was found that inactivation of the ferroxidase centre combined with the substitution of four carboxy groups on the cavity abolished the ability of H-chain ferritin to incorporate iron. Competition experiments with limited amounts of iron showed that, at neutral pH, L-chain ferritin is more efficient in forming iron cores than the H-chain variants altered at the ferroxidase activity or in the cavity. Competition experiments at pH 5.5 demonstrated that L-chain apoferritin is able to incorporate iron only when in the presence of H-chain variants with ferroxidase activity. The results indicate that L-chain apoferritin has a higher capacity than the H-chain apoferritin to induce iron-core nucleation, whereas H-chain ferritin is superior in promoting Fe(II) oxidation. The finding of cooperative roles of the H- and L-chains in ferritin iron uptake provides a clue to understanding the biological function of isoferritins.
Project description:Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all living organisms, including both hosts and invaders. Proteins such as ferritin regulate the iron levels in a cell, and in the event of a pathogenic invasion, the host can use an iron-withholding mechanism to restrict the availability of this essential nutrient to the invading pathogens. However, pathogens use various strategies to overcome this host defense. In this study, we demonstrated that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) protein kinase 1 (PK1) interacted with shrimp ferritin in the yeast two-hybrid system. A pulldown assay and 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) analysis confirmed the interaction between PK1 and both ferritin and apoferritin. PK1 did not promote the release of iron ions from ferritin, but it prevented apoferritin from binding ferrous ions. When PK1 was overexpressed in Sf9 cells, the cellular labile iron pool (LIP) levels were elevated significantly. Immunoprecipitation and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) further showed that the number of iron ions bound by ferritin decreased significantly at 24 h post-WSSV infection. Taken together, these results suggest that PK1 prevents apoferritin from iron loading, and thus stabilizes the cellular LIP levels, and that WSSV uses this novel mechanism to counteract the host cell's iron-withholding defense mechanism.We show here that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) ensures the availability of iron by using a previously unreported mechanism to defeat the host cell's iron-withholding defense mechanism. This defense is often implemented by ferritin, which can bind up to 4,500 iron atoms and acts to sequester free iron within the cell. WSSV's novel counterstrategy is mediated by a direct protein-protein interaction between viral protein kinase 1 (PK1) and host ferritin. PK1 interacts with both ferritin and apoferritin, suppresses apoferritin's ability to sequester free iron ions, and maintains the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP), and thus the availability of free iron is increased within cells.
Project description:1. Human liver ferritin was separated by preparative isoelectric focusing into six fractions. 2. Except for the least acidic fraction the reactivity with antibody against spleen ferritin increased with rising pI, but with antibody against heart ferritin the reactivity decreased. 3. The highest iron content was found in the most acidic isoferritins and progressively decreased with rising pI. 4. Iron uptake was studied in apoferritin prepared from heart and liver ferritin fractions separated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was good correlation between the rate of iron uptake and pI. The most acidic fractions took up iron more rapidly than did the more basic ones. 5. Ferritin was prepared from heart, liver, spleen and kidney. There was little difference on isoelectric focusing between ferritin obtained from normal tissues and the corresponding iron-loaded tissues from patients who had received multiple blood transfusions. The iron-loaked heart ferritin invariably contained relatively more of the basic isoferritins. Normal and iron-overloaded heart ferritins were separated into isoferritin fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, and in each case there was a fall in iron content as the pI increased. The iron content of ferritin from the iron-overloaded heart was higher throughout than that from normal heart. 6. There is a relationship between the rate of iron uptake by apoferritin and pI, and this probably accounts for the variation in iron content of the isoferritins found in human liver and heart.
Project description:Ferritin has a high capacity as an iron store, incorporating some 4500 iron atoms as a microcrystalline ferric oxide hydrate. Starting from apoferritin, or ferritin of low iron content, Fe(2+) and an oxidizing agent, the uptake of iron can be recorded spectrophotometrically. Progress curves were obtained and the reconstituted ferritin was shown by several physical methods to be similar to natural ferritin. The progress curves of iron uptake by apoferritin are sigmoidal; those for ferritins of low iron content are hyperbolic. The rate of iron uptake is dependent on the amount of iron already present in the molecule. The distribution of iron contents among reconstituted ferritin molecules is inhomogeneous. These findings are interpreted in terms of a crystal growth model. The surface area of the crystallites forming inside the protein increases until the molecule is half full, and then declines. This surface controls the rate at which new material is deposited. The experimental results can best be accounted for by a two-stage mechanism, an initial slow ;nucleation' stage, which is apparently zero order with respect to [Fe(2+)], followed by a more rapid ;growth' stage. The rate of Fe(2+) oxidation is increased in the presence of apoferritin as compared with controls. Ferritin can therefore be regarded as an enzyme to which the product remains firmly attached. The protein appears to increase the rate of ;nucleation'. The apparent zero order of this stage suggests the presence of binding sites on the protein, which are saturated with respect to Fe(2+). These sites are presumed also to be oxidation sites. The oxidation and subsequent formation of the ferric oxide hydrate may proceed according to one of three alternative models.
Project description:The NMR relaxation technique was used to investigate the permeation of molecules into the cavity of ferritin. Spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame of various probe molecules were measured for solutions of recombinant horse L-apoferritin without iron and horse spleen apoferritin with very small amounts of ferric ions. The results show that molecules larger than the size of the ferritin channels can pass through the channels into the ferritin interior, and that the maximum size of molecules for the permeation is smaller than maltotriose.