Multimodal interventional molecular imaging of tumor margins and distant metastases by targeting ?v?3 integrin.
ABSTRACT: ?(v)?(3) integrin is involved in (tumor-induced) angiogenesis and is a promising candidate for the specific visualization of both primary tumors and of their distant metastases. Combination of radioactive and fluorescent imaging labels in a single multimodal, or rather hybrid, RGD-based imaging agent enables integration of pre-, intra-, and postoperative angiogenesis imaging. A hybrid imaging agent targeting the ?(v)?(3) integrin--(111)In-MSAP-RGD (MSAP = multifunctional single-attachment-point reagent), which contains a targeting moiety, a pentetic acid (DTPA) chelate, and a cyanine dye--was evaluated for its potential value in combined lesion detection and interventional molecular imaging in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer model. SPECT/CT and fluorescence imaging were used to visualize the tumor in vivo. Tracer distribution was evaluated ex vivo down to the microscopic level. The properties of (111)In-MSAP-RGD were compared with those of (111)In-DTPA-RGD. Biodistribution studies revealed a prolonged retention and increased tumor accumulation of (111)In-MSAP-RGD relative to (111)In-DTPA-RGD. With (111)In-MSAP-RGD, identical features could be visualized preoperatively (SPECT/CT) and intraoperatively (fluorescence imaging). As well as the primary tumor, (111)In-MSAP-RGD also enabled detection and accurate excision of distant metastases in the head and neck region of the mice. Therefore, the hybrid RGD derivative (111)In-MSAP-RGD shows potential in preoperative planning and fluorescence-based surgical intervention.
Project description:Hybrid tracers containing both fluorescent and radioactive imaging labels have demonstrated clinical potential during sentinel lymph node procedures. To combine these two labels on a single targeting vector that allows tumor-targeted imaging, end-labeling strategies are often applied. For ?v?3-integrin-targeting hybrid tracers, providing an excellent model for evaluating tracer development strategies, end-labeling-based synthesis provides a rather cumbersome synthesis strategy. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the use of heterobifunctional cyanine dyes in a click-chemistry-based synthesis strategy for RGD-based hybrid tracers. The triazole-based hybrid tracers DTPA.DBCO.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] and DTPA.BCN.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] were obtained in fewer steps than DTPA-Lys(Cy5(SO 3 )methyl)-Cys-c[RGDyK] and had partition coefficients of log?P (o/w) = -2.55 ± 0.10, -1.45 ± 0.03, and -2.67 ± 0.12, respectively. Both tracers were chemically stable, and the brightnesses of DTPA.DBCO.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] and DTPA.BCN.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] were, respectively, 23 × 103 and 40 × 103 M-1 cm-1; lower than that of the reference tracer DTPA-Lys(Cy5(SO 3 )methyl)-Cys-c[RGDyK] (50 × 103 M-1 cm-1). Assessment of serum protein binding revealed no statistically significant difference (44 ± 2 and 40 ± 2% bound for DTPA.DBCO.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] and DTPA.BCN.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK], respectively; 36 ± 5% bound for DTPA-Lys(Cy5(SO 3 )methyl)-Cys-c[RGDyK]; p > 0.05). DTPA.DBCO.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] (K D = 17.5 ± 6.0) had a statistically significantly higher affinity than the reference compound DTPA-Lys(Cy5(SO 3 )methyl)-Cys-c[RGDyK] (K D = 30.3 ± 5.7; p < 0.0001), but DTPA.BCN.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] had a statistically significantly lower affinity (K D = 76.5 ± 18.3 nM; p < 0.0001). Both [ 111 In]DTPA.DBCO.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] and [ 111 In]DTPA.BCN.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] enabled in vivo visualization of the 4T1 tumor via fluorescence and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Biodistribution data (% ID/g) revealed a significant increase in nonspecific uptake in the kidney, liver, and muscle for both [ 111 In]DTPA.DBCO.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK] and [ 111 In]DTPA.BCN.N 3 (SO 3 )-Cy5-c[RGDyK]. As a result of the higher background activity, the tumor-to-background ratio of the click-labeled RGD analogues was twofold lower compared to the end-labeled reference compound. The use of click chemistry labeling did not yield a pronounced negative effect on serum protein binding, in vitro stability, and receptor affinity; and tumors could still be visualized using SPECT and fluorescence imaging. However, quantitative in vivo biodistribution data suggest that the triazole and strained cyclooctyne moieties associated with this type of click chemistry negatively influence the pharmacokinetics of RGD peptides. Nevertheless, the design might still hold promise for other targets/targeting moieties.
Project description:Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111) In(3+)), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111)In] RGD and [(111)In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111)In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.
Project description:The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the (111)In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X ((111)In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the (111)In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer.
Project description:To meet the criteria of effective theranostics, biocompatible nanomedicine endowing intrinsic therapeutic and imaging properties have gained extraordinary momentum. In this study, an ultra-stable near-infrared (NIR) dye croconaine (CR780) was engineered with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide and polyethylene glycol (PEG), which was then self-assembled into uniform nanoparticles (NPs). These RGD-CR780-PEG5K assemblies were radiolabeled with 125I through a facile standard Iodo-Gen method. The resulting [125I]RGD-CR780-PEG5K NPs showed effective accumulation in ?v?3 integrin expressing glioblastoma, as evidenced by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT and NIR fluorescence imaging. More importantly, high-resolution photoacoustic imaging revealed that these NPs selectively targeted to angiogenic tumor vessels. With the favorable tumor selective accumulation and high photothermal conversion efficiency, the [125I]RGD-CR780-PEG5K NPs allowed thorough tumor ablation and inhibition of tumor relapse at a relatively low laser energy (0.5 W/cm2). Overall, this work offers a proper methodology to fabricate tumor-targeted multi-modal nanotheranostic agents, providing great opportunity for precision imaging and cancer therapy.
Project description:The work describes the synthesis and in vivo application of [Gd(L)(H2O)]·xH2O, where L is a ((125)I/(127)I-RGD)- DOTA conjugate, as a tumor-targeting SPECT/MR bimodal imaging probe. Here, ((125)I/(127)I-RGD)-DOTA signifies a "cocktail mixture" of radioisotopic (1a, L = (125)I-RGD-DOTA) and natural (1b, L = (127)I-RGD-DOTA) Gd complexes. The two complexes are chemically equivalent as revealed by HPLC, and their cocktail mixture exhibits the integrin-specific tumor enhancement, demonstrating that they constitute essentially a single bimodal imaging probe. Employment of a cocktail mixture thus proves to be a sole and practical approach to overcome the sensitivity difference problem between MRI and SPECT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Combining modalities using dual-labeled antibodies may allow preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization and could be used in image-guided surgery to improve complete tumor resection. Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody against the human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) receptor and dual-labeled trastuzumab with both a fluorophore (IRDye800CW) and a radioactive label (111In) can be used for multimodal imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of HER2-targeted multimodal imaging using [111In]In-DTPA-trastuzumab-IRDye800CW in an orthotopic breast cancer model. METHODS:Trastuzumab was conjugated with p-isothiocyanatobenzyl (ITC)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and IRDye800CW-NHS ester and subsequently labeled with 111In. In a dose escalation study, the biodistribution of 10, 30, and 100??g [111In]In-DTPA-trastuzumab-IRDye800CW was determined 48?h after injection in BALB/c nude mice with orthotopic high HER2-expressing tumors. Also, a biodistribution study was performed in a low HER2-expressing breast cancer model. In addition, multimodal image-guided surgery was performed in each group. Autoradiography, fluorescence microscopy, and immunohistochemically stained slices of the tumors were compared for co-localization of tumor tissue, HER2 expression, fluorescence, and radiosignal. RESULTS:Based on the biodistribution data, a 30??g dose of dual-labeled trastuzumab (tumor-to-blood ratio 13 ± 2) was chosen for all subsequent studies. [111In]In-DTPA-trastuzumab-IRDye800CW specifically accumulated in orthotopic HER2-positive BT474 tumors (101 ± 7 %IA/g), whereas uptake in orthotopic low HER2-expressing MCF7 tumor was significantly lower (1.2 ± 0.2 %IA/g, p = 0.007). BT474 tumors could clearly be visualized with both micro-SPECT/CT, fluorescence imaging and subsequently, image-guided resection was performed. Immunohistochemical analyses of BT474 tumors demonstrated correspondence in fluorescence, radiosignal, and high HER2 expression. CONCLUSIONS:Dual-labeled trastuzumab showed specific accumulation in orthotopic HER2-positive BT474 breast tumors with micro-SPECT/CT and fluorescence imaging and enabled image-guided tumor resection. In the clinical setting, [111In]In-DTPA-trastuzumab-IRDye800CW could be valuable for preoperative detection of (metastatic) tumors by SPECT/CT imaging, and intraoperative localization by using a gamma probe and fluorescence image-guided surgery to improve radical resection of tumor tissue in patients with HER2-positive tumors.
Project description:Integrin ?v?3 is a molecular marker for the estimation of tumor angiogenesis and is an imaging target for radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides. In this study, the authors investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of a novel radiolabeled RGD peptide, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for the imaging of integrin ?v?3 expression, as a measure of tumor angiogenesis in lung cancers and brain tumors. Five patients with lung cancers and seven with brain tumors underwent 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Tumors were also assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Uptake of the radiotracer was expressed as the tumor-to-normal uptake ratio (TNR). All the lung cancers and brain tumors were well visualized on 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT. TNR for 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher than that for 18F-FDG in brain tumors (6.4?±?4.1 vs. 0.9?±?0.4). Proliferation index of brain tumors showed a significant positive correlation with TNR for 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 and 18F-FDG. No laboratory and clinical adverse events were reported after 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 injection. Their results suggest that 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 is an efficacious and safe radiotracer for imaging integrin ?v?3 expression with potential application to monitoring the clinical efficacy of antiangiogenic agents in malignant tumors. In addition, this is the first clinical application of radiolabeled RGD peptides for SPECT imaging of brain tumors.
Project description:To investigate the value of integrin ?v?3 targeted imaging with 99mTc-HYNIC-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2 (99mTc-3P-RGD2) as a radiotracer in dectecting osteolytic bone metastases.This is a retrospective study involving a cohort of 69 consecutive patients including 59 with lung cancer and 10 with other cancers. Patients were required to receive whole body scan (WBS) and regional SPECT/CT imaging with 99mTc-3P-RGD2 (RGD imaging) and 99mTc-MDP (MDP imaging) as a radiotracer successively within days. Final diagnosis was based on comprehensive assessment of all available data including case history, CT, MRI, SPECT/CT, PET/CT, histopathology and 6-12 months follow-up. Visual observation and semiquantitative analysis (T/N: tracer uptake ratio of osteolytic metastases to normal bone) of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 or 99mTc-MDP imaging were performed and their detective values for osteolytic metastases were compared.A total of 131 osteolytic metastatic lesions were retrospectively studied. Osteolytic metastases mainly presented as "hot region", occasionally as "cool or normal region" on RGD imaging. The detection sensitivity of RGD WBS for osteolytic metastases was significantly higher than that of 99mTc-MDP WBS (80.9% vs. 46.6%, p<0.01). The sensitivity increased to 96.2% (126/131) when combining with SPECT/CT. 99mTc-3P-RGD2 imaging also promoted the detection of unknown primary tumor, lymph node metastases and offered information for clinical staging. T/N of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 in lung adenocarcinoma osteolytic metastases showed no statistical difference compared with that in squamous-cell carcinoma (6.84±3.46 vs. 7.33±3.22, t = 0.39, p = 0.71). Whereas, it was higher in osteolytic metastases from lung cancer than that from thyroid cancer (7.05±3.01 vs. 4.11±2.67, p = 0.03).99mTc-3P-RGD2 peptide imaging showed great potential for detection of osteolytic bone metastasis due to high expression level of integrin ?v?3 on osteoclast and most tumor cells.
Project description:Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin ?v?3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an ?v?3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe (123)I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization.
Project description:The chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a biomarker that is over-expressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Hence, CXCR4-targeted (molecular) imaging approaches may have diagnostic value in such a challenging, premalignant lesion. The indium labeled CXCR4 peptide-antagonist, (111)In-DTPA-Ac-TZ14011, was used to visualize CXCR4-expression in a mammary intraepithelial neoplastic outgrowth (MIN-O) mouse tumor model resembling human DCIS. MIN-O lesion development was longitudinally monitored using SPET/CT and tracer uptake was compared to uptake in control lesions. Expression of CXCR4 was validated using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. The uptake of (111)In-DTPA-Ac-TZ14011 was related to tumor angiogenesis using (111)In-cDTPA-[RGDfK]. Twenty-four hours after tracer injection, MIN-O lesions could be discriminated from low CXCR4-expressing control tumors, while the degree of angiogenesis based on the ?(v)?(3) integrin expression in both tumor types was similar. The uptake of (111)In-DTPA-Ac-TZ14011 in early MIN-O lesions was significantly lower than in larger intermediate and late-stage lesions, two-and-a-half-times (p=0.03) and seven-times (p=0.002), respectively. Intermediate and late stage lesions show a higher degree of membranous CXCR4-staining at immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. From this study we can conclude that (111)In-DTPA-Ac-TZ14011 can be used to visualize the CXCR4-expression in MIN-O lesions longitudinally.