None of the six SNPs of IL28B could predict treatment responses in genotype 2 chronic HCV infected patients by propensity score matching analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS:A combination of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (PR) is the standard therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. The impact of polymorphism of interleukin-28B (IL28B) on sustained virological response (SVR) to PR has been well documented in patients with CHC genotype-1 (GT1), but it is controversial in genotype-2 (GT2) CHC patients. This study investigated the predictability of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of IL28B on the treatment responses of PR in patients with CHC GT2. METHOD:197 CHC GT2 consecutive patients who received PR treatment in our prospective cohort were enrolled. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping, quantification of HCV-RNA and genotyping of the ten SNPs of IL28B were performed. Six SNPs of IL28B were chosen for analysis. The propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was applied using patients with CHC GT1 in another prospective cohort as a positive comparison to avoid covariate bias. RESULTS:The distribution of the six SNPs was similar in GT1 and GT2 patients. Five of these SNPs had strong association with treatment responses in GT1 but not in GT2 patients. After PSM analysis, these five SNPs still showed strong association with rapid virological response (RVR), cEVR and SVR in GT1 and had no influence in GT2 patients. Furthermore, rs12979860 and baseline viral load were the predictors for both RVR and SVR in GT1 patients. However, only baseline viral load could predict RVR and SVR in GT2 patients. In addition, in patients without RVR, rs12979860 was the only predictor for SVR in GT1 but no predictor for SVR was found in GT2. CONCLUSIONS:The genetic polymorphisms of IL28B had no impact on treatment responses in GT2 patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin-28B (IL28B) have received considerable interest for their association with sustained virological response (SVR) when treating patients of genotype-1 hepatitis C virus (GT1-HCV) chronic infection with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV). This study was to investigate the predictive power of IL28B SNPs for on-treatment responses and SVR in treatment-naïve patients with GT1-HCV chronic infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We analyzed ten SNPs of IL28B in 191 treatment-naïve patients with GT1-HCV chronic infection who received PegIFN/RBV. In these patients, rapid virological response (RVR), early virological response (EVR) and SVR were achieved in 69.6%, 95.8% and 68.6% of the patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P value) indicated age (0.96; 0.93-0.99; 0.012), low baseline viral load (4.65; 2.23-9.66; <0.001) and CC genotype of rs12979860 (7.74; 2.55-23.53; <0.001) but no other SNPs were independent predictors for SVR. In addition, none of the ten SNPs examined were associated with baseline viral load and stages of liver fibrosis. Regarding RVR, low baseline viral load (2.83; 1.40-5.73; 0.004) and CC genotype of rs12979860 (10.52; 3.45-32.04; <0.001) were two critical predictors. As for EVR, only CC genotype of rs12979860 (36.21; 6.68-196.38; <0.001) was the predictor. Similarly, for end of treatment response (ETR), CC genotype of rs12979860 (15.42; 4.62-51.18; <0.001) was the only predictor. For patients with RVR, only low baseline viral load (3.90; 1.57-9.68; 0.003) could predict the SVR. For patients without RVR, only rs12979860 (4.60; 1.13-18.65; 0.033) was the predictor for SVR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:rs12979860 is the critical predictor for RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR in treatment-naïve patients of GT1-HCV chronic infection. Furthermore, this SNP is the only predictor for SVR in patients without RVR. These results have provided evidence that rs12979860 is the ideal IL28B SNP for genetic testing in treating patients of GT1-HCV chronic infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:SNPs near the interferon lambda (IFNL) 3 gene are predictors for sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype (GT) 1. In addition, a dinucleotide frame shift in ss469415590 was described, which generates IFNL4. In this study, we compared the role of IFNL4 variants with IFNL3-(rs12979860) and IFNL3-(rs8099917) on response to pegylated (PEG)-IFN and Ribavirin (RBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C GT2/3. METHODS:We recruited 1006 patients with chronic hepatitis C and GT2/3 in a large German registry. A treatment with PEG-IFN and Ribavirin was started by 959 patients. We performed genotyping of IFNL3 (rs12979860, n = 726; rs8099917, n = 687) and of IFNL4 (ss469415590; n = 631). RESULTS:Both preferable IFNL3 genotypes were associated with RVR (both p<0.0001) rather than with SVR (rs12979860: p = 0.251; rs8099917: p = 0.447). Only RVR was linked to SVR in univariate and multivariate analyzes (both p<0.001). Concordance of genotyping in patients with available serum samples and EDTA blood samples (n = 259) was more than 96% for both IFNL3 SNPs. IFNL3-(rs12979860) correlated with IFNL4: 99.2% of patients with IFNL3-(rs12979860)-CC were IFNL4-(ss469415590)-TT/TT. IFNL3-(rs12979860)-CT was linked with IFNL4-(ss469415590)-TT/?G (98.0%) and IFNL3-(rs12979860)-TT was associated with IFNL4-(ss469415590)-?G/?G (97.6%). CONCLUSION:IFNL3 genotyping from serum was highly efficient and can be used as an alternative if EDTA whole blood is not available. In Caucasian GT2/3 patients genotyping for INFL4-(ss469415590) does not lead to additional information for the decision-making process. Importantly, IFNL3 SNPs were not associated with SVR but with RVR. Even in the era of new direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapies, IFNL3 testing may therefore still be considered for naïve GT2/3 patients to decide if dual Peg-IFN/RBV therapy is an option in resource limited regions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sustained virological response (SVR) and virological relapse maintain pivotal roles in the management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC); however, there is little data regarding the long-term outcomes of patients with CHC in China. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate the predictive factors of therapeutic effect and viral relapse in patients who achieved end-of-treatment response (ETR). PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed clinical, biochemical and virological data of 169 adult patients with CHC from China who were not treated with pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG IFN-?) and ribavirin, of which 142 achieved ETR and with a follow-up period ranging from six months to six years. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 20.0. RESULTS:Of the 169 patients, 124 (73.4%) achieved SVR and 23 (16.2%) experienced relapses post-therapy in cases of ETR patients. We considered sex, age, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, baseline hepatitis C virus RNA level, HCV genotypes, IL28B rs12979860 genotype, rapid virological response (RVR), and early virological response (EVR). For antiviral effect in patients with CHC, HCV genotypes (2, 3) (?(2) = 11.285, P = 0.001), IL28B genotype (rs12979860 CC) (?(2) = 16.552, P < 0.001), RVR (?(2) = 37.339, P < 0.001), and EVR (?(2) = 70.265, P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with achieving SVR. For ETR patients with long-term follow-up, the relapse rate within six months was significantly higher than within other periods during six-year follow-up (?(2) = 7.792, P = 0.005). Relapse was virtually not observed after therapy ceased for 48 weeks. The IL28B genotype (rs12979860 CT/TT) (OR = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.031-0.339; P < 0.001), lower RVR (OR = 0.239; 95% CI, 0.078-0.738; P = 0.013), and EVR (OR = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.016-0.661; P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for relapse. CONCLUSIONS:Our study comprehensively explored the predictive factors of therapeutic effect of administered drugs and analyzed viral relapse during a six-months to six-year follow-up period from China. The SVR may not be the perfect endpoint of HCV therapy in Chinese people; we recommend 48 weeks after treatment withdrawal as the suitable time point.
Project description:Chronic hepatitis C is commonly associated with extrahepatic manifestations. Cryoglobulins are observed in 40% to 60% of such patients and their presence seems to modify response to therapy. The new antivirals are greatly improving the sustained virological response (SVR); however, their high cost limits the use, leaving pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PR) still the standard-of-care therapy worldwide. Since PR therapy is burdened with several side effects, pretreatment predictions of patients who are unlikely to respond to this regimen may avoid ineffective treatment. Variants of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene correlate with an SVR to PR, and combined IL28B polymorphisms may improve the prediction of treatment outcome.The potential role of both rs8099917 and rs12979860 IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) combined with presence of cryoglobulins in predicting SVR to PR in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-chronically infected patients was analyzed in the present study.Single and combined IL28B SNPs (rs12979860 and rs8099917) were analyzed in 64 chronic HCV patients treated with PR showing circulating cryoglobulins and compared to 108 noncryoglobulinemic subjects to verify the predictive value on the SVR.The association of rs12979860CC or rs8099917TT with SVR was confirmed in the noncryoglobulinemic group but not in cryoglobulinemic patients. Moreover, the combined determination of both SNPs improved the prediction of SVR in noncryoglobulinemic patients but not in the cryoglobulinemic subgroup.We report that both single and combined determination of IL28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 SNPs in chronic HCV patients with circulating cryoglobulins treated with PR may have a reduced predictive value of SVR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Improving prediction of treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 4 (G4) is necessary to increase sustained viral response (SVR) rates. Vitamin D related and interferon stimulated genes are good candidates as they are recently crosstalk altering interferon response. Thus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within some of these genes and multiple stepwise regression analysis including other independent predictors (IL28B(rs12979860), serum 25OH-vitamin D, serum alfa-fetoprotein (AFP)) were performed on a cohort of 200 Egyptian CHC patients treated with Pegylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin. METHODS:SNPs in cytochrome P-450 (CYP2R1)(rs10741657AG), vitamin D receptor (VDR)(rs2228570AG, rs1544410CT), oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL)(rs1169279CT) and adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR)(rs1127309TC) genes were analyzed by real-time PCR. RESULTS:The carrier state of A allele in VDR rs2228570 and CYP2R1 rs10741657 genes were independently associated with SVR [OR 6.453 & 3.536, p < 0.01 respectively]. Combining carriers of A allele in CYP2R1 and VDR genes with IL28B C/C genotype increased the probability of SVR from 80 % to reach 87.8 %, 93 % and 100 %. No relation was found between VDR rs1544410CT, ADAR rs1127309TC, OASL rs1169279CT polymorphisms and treatment outcome. Combining VDR rs2228570 A/A genotype with IL28B C/C genotype increased the probability of SVR from 82 % to reach 100 % and from 29 % to reach 80 % in C/T+ T/T IL28B genotype in none F4 liver disease patients. CONCLUSION:Vitamin D related (VDR rs2228570 and CYP2R1 rs10741657) and IL28B rs12979860 genes polymorphisms accurately assure SVR in naïve CHC G4 patients treated with low cost standard therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The rs12979860 CC genotype of the interleukin 28B (IL28B) polymorphism is associated with high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) to peginterferon (PegIFN) and ribavirin (Rbv) in hepatitis C virus genotype-1 (HCV-1) patients. The impact of baseline predictors of treatment outcome and their interplay with viral kinetics in HCV-1 CC patients has not been fully evaluated. AIM:To identify baseline and on-therapy predictors of treatment failure in HCV-1 IL28B CC patients. METHODS:Treatment-naïve HCV-1 patients, compliant to PegIFN and Rbv who did not discontinue treatment for nonvirological reasons, were analyzed. RESULTS:109 HCV-1 IL28B CC were studied. Sixty were males, 39 with BMI >25, 69 with >600,000 IU/mL HCV RNA, 15 with HCV1a, and 30 with cirrhosis. Overall, 75 (69%) achieved an SVR; cirrhosis was the only baseline predictor of treatment failure (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.07-6.21) as SVR rates were 53% in cirrhotics versus 75% in noncirrhotics (P = 0.03). HCV RNA undetectability (<50 IU/mL) at week 4 (RVR) was achieved by 58 patients (53%). The SVR rates were independent of RVR in noncirrhotics, 76% (34/45) RVR (+) and 74% (25/34) RVR (-) (P = 0.9). In cirrhotic patients, SVR rates were significantly higher in RVR (+) compared to RVR (-) (10/13 (77%) versus 6/17 (35%) P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:In HCV-1 IL28B CC patients, cirrhosis is the only clinical baseline predictor of PegIFN and Rbv treatment failure. However, in IL28B CC cirrhotics, the achievement of RVR identifies those patients who still have high rates of SVR to Peg-IFN/Rbv therapy.
Project description:AIM:To analyze the role of rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection of Brazilians. METHODS:A total of 145 adult patients diagnosed with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) who had completed a 48-wk regimen of pegylated-interferon α-2a or -2b plus ribavirin combination therapy were recruited from six large urban healthcare centers and 199 healthy blood donors (controls) from a single site between January 2010 and January 2012. Data on the patients' response to treatment was collected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping of the interleukin (IL)28B gene fragment encompassing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs12979860 (C/T) and rs8099917 (T/G) was carried out for 79 of the CHC patients and 199 of the controls. Bi-directional amplicon sequencing of the two SNPs was carried out for the remaining 66 CHC patients. RESULTS:SNP rs12979860 genotyping was successful in 99.5% of the controls and 97.2% of the CHC patients, whereas the SNP rs8099917 genotyping was successful in 95.5% of the controls and 100% of the CHC patients. The genotype and allele distributions for both rs12979860 and rs8099917 were significantly different between the control and CHC patient groups, with significantly higher genotype frequencies of CC and TT in the controls (P = 0.037 and 0.046, respectively) and of TT and GG in the CHC patients (P = 0.0009 and 0.0001, respectively). Analysis of the CHC patients who achieved sustained virological response (SVR) to treatment (n = 55) indicated that the rs12979860 C allele and CC genotype were predictors of SVR (P = 0.02). No significant correlation was found between rs8099917 genotypes and treatment response, but carriers of the T allele showed significantly higher rates of SVR (P = 0.02). Linkage disequilibrium analysis of the group that achieved SVR showed a significant association between rs12979860 and rs8099917 (P = 0.07). CONCLUSION:The higher allele frequency of rs12979860 C and rs8099917 T observed in non-HCV-infected individuals may indicate a potential protective role for these IL28B-related polymorphisms.
Project description:Pretreatment serum levels of interferon-?-inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CXCL10) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP IV) predict treatment response in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The association between functional genetic polymorphisms of CXCL10 and DPP4 and treatment outcome has not previously been studied. This study aimed to determine the association between genetic variations of CXCL10 and DPP4 and the outcome of treatment with pegylated interferon-? (PEG-IFN-?) based therapy in Thai patients with CHC. 602 Thai patients with CHC treated using a PEG-IFN-? based regimen were genotyped for CXCL10 rs56061981 G>A and IL28B rs12979860 C>T. In addition, in patients infected with CHC genotype 1, DPP4 (rs13015258 A>C, rs17848916 T>C, rs41268649 G>A, and rs 17574 T>C) were genotyped. Correlations between single nucleotide polymorphisms, genotype, and treatment response were analyzed. The rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) was higher for the CC genotype of IL28B rs12979860 polymorphisms than for non-CC in both genotype 1 (60.6% vs. 29.4%, P < 0.001) and non-genotype 1 (69.4% vs. 49.1%, P < 0.05) CHC. SVR was not associated with the CXCL10 gene variant in all viral genotypes or DPP4 gene polymorphisms in viral genotype1. Multivariate analysis revealed IL28B rs12979860 CC genotype (OR = 3.12; 95% CI, 1.72-5.67; P < 0.001), hepatitis C virus RNA < 400,000 IU/ml (OR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.22-3.99, P < 0.05), age < 45 years (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.68; P < 0.05), and liver fibrosis stage 0-1 (OR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.01-2.65, P < 0.05) were independent factors for SVR. Unfavorable IL28B rs12979860 CT or TT genotypes with the CXCL10 rs56061981 non-GG genotype were associated with a higher SVR than GG genotype (66.7% vs. 33.0%, P = 0.004) in viral genotype 1. In Thai CHC genotype 1 infected patients with an unfavorable IL28B rs12979860 CT/TT genotype, the complementary CXCL10 polymorphism strongly enhances prediction of treatment response.
Project description:The strong impact of interleukin 28B (IL28B) polymorphisms on sustained virological response (SVR) after peginterferon and ribavirin treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is well-known. We investigated IL28B variability and hepatic expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 in CHC patients, the relation of each with their clinical characteristics, and how they associated with responses to combined therapy. Genotyping and gene expression analysis were conducted in a selected cohort of treatment-naïve patients who underwent interferon and ribavirin treatment. Differential expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 genes was assessed from pretreatment liver biopsies using quantitative PCR. Histopathological evaluation of liver specimens was performed on the basis of the Scheuer's modified scale. We showed that hepatic IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 expression was lower in the IL28B CC 12979860 and TT rs8099917 groups than in the CT-TT rs12979860 and TG-GG rs8099917 groups (P < 0.001). We found no differences in IP10 expression between the IL28B genotypes (P > 0.05); in contrast, IP10 expression was significantly affected by the progression of fibrosis (P = 0.007). We showed that the rs12979860 CC genotype was associated with successful treatment when compared to the rs12979860 CT-TT genotype (P = 0.004). Additionally, the expression levels of IP10, IFI27 and ISG15, but not MX1, were significantly higher in non-SVR patients than in SVR patients. The effect of variation in IL28B on the results of IFN-based treatment may be associated with changes in IFI27 and ISG15, but not with IP10. Silencing of IP10 is positive and independent from IL28B prediction of SVR, which is strongly associated with liver fibrosis in CHC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High baseline levels of IP-10 predict a slower first phase decline in HCV RNA and a poor outcome following interferon/ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Several recent studies report that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) adjacent to IL28B predict spontaneous resolution of HCV infection and outcome of treatment among HCV genotype 1 infected patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS:In the present study, we correlated the occurrence of variants at three such SNPs (rs12979860, rs12980275, and rs8099917) with pretreatment plasma IP-10 and HCV RNA throughout therapy within a phase III treatment trial (HCV-DITTO) involving 253 Caucasian patients. The favorable SNP variants (CC, AA, and TT, respectively) were associated with lower baseline IP-10 (P?=?0.02, P?=?0.01, P?=?0.04) and were less common among HCV genotype 1 infected patients than genotype 2/3 (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P?=?0.01). Patients carrying favorable SNP genotypes had higher baseline viral load than those carrying unfavorable variants (P?=?0.0013, P?=?0.029, P?=?0.0004 respectively). Among HCV genotype 1 infected carriers of the favorable C, A, or T alleles, IP-10 below 150 pg/mL significantly predicted a more pronounced reduction of HCV RNA from day 0 to 4 (first phase decline), which translated into increased rates of RVR (62%, 53%, and 39%) and SVR (85%, 76%, and 75% respectively) among homozygous carriers with baseline IP-10 below 150 pg/mL. In multivariate analyses of genotype 1-infected patients, baseline IP-10 and C genotype at rs12979860 independently predicted the first phase viral decline and RVR, which in turn independently predicted SVR. CONCLUSIONS:Concomitant assessment of pretreatment IP-10 and IL28B-related SNPs augments the prediction of the first phase decline in HCV RNA, RVR, and final therapeutic outcome.