Survey of endosymbionts in the Diaphorina citri metagenome and assembly of a Wolbachia wDi draft genome.
ABSTRACT: Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Sequencing of the D. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. To corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rDNA amplification, raw reads from the D. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genome sequences. Results of the read mapping provided the most support for Wolbachia and an enteric bacterium most similar to Salmonella. Wolbachia-derived reads were extracted using the complete genome sequences for four Wolbachia strains. Reads were assembled into a draft genome sequence, and the annotation assessed for the presence of features potentially involved in host interaction. Genome alignment with the complete sequences reveals membership of Wolbachia wDi in supergroup B, further supported by phylogenetic analysis of FtsZ. FtsZ and Wsp phylogenies additionally indicate that the Wolbachia strain in the Florida D. citri isolate falls into a sub-clade of supergroup B, distinct from Wolbachia present in Chinese D. citri isolates, supporting the hypothesis that the D. citri introduced into Florida did not originate from China.
Project description:The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) is a key pest of Citrus spp. worldwide, as it acts as a vector for "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las)", the bacterial pathogen associated with the destructive Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. Recent detection of D. citri in Africa and reports of Las-associated HLB in Ethiopia suggest that the citrus industry on the continent is under imminent threat. Endosymbionts and gut bacteria play key roles in the biology of arthropods, especially with regards to vector-pathogen interactions and resistance to antibiotics. Thus, we aim to profile the bacterial genera and to identify antibiotic resistance genes within the microbiome of different populations worldwide of D. citri. The metagenome of D. citri was sequenced using the Oxford Nanopore full-length 16S metagenomics protocol, and the "What's in my pot" (WIMP) analysis pipeline. Microbial diversity within and between D. citri populations was assessed, and antibiotic resistance genes were identified using the WIMP-ARMA workflow. The most abundant genera were key endosymbionts of D. citri ("Candidatus Carsonella", "Candidatus Profftella", and Wolbachia). The Shannon diversity index showed that D. citri from Tanzania had the highest diversity of bacterial genera (1.92), and D. citri from China had the lowest (1.34). The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity showed that China and Kenya represented the most diverged populations, while the populations from Kenya and Tanzania were the least diverged. The WIMP-ARMA analyses generated 48 CARD genes from 13 bacterial species in each of the populations. Spectinomycin resistance genes were the most frequently found, with an average of 65.98% in all the populations. These findings add to the knowledge on the diversity of the African D. citri populations and the probable introduction source of the psyllid in these African countries.
Project description:The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is an insect pest capable of transmitting Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening in North America. D. citri also harbors three endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and Candidatus Profftella armatura, which may influence D. citri physiology and fitness. Although genomic researches on these bacteria have been conducted, much remains unclear regarding their ecology and inter-population variability in D. citri. The present work examined the densities of each endosymbiont in adult D. citri sampled from different populations using quantitative PCR. Under field conditions, the densities of all three endosymbionts positively correlated with each other, and they are associated with D. citri gender and locality. In addition, the infection density of CLas also varied across populations. Although an analysis pooling D. citri from different populations showed that CLas-infected individuals tended to have lower endosymbiont densities compared to uninfected individuals, the difference was not significant when the population was included as a factor in the analysis, suggesting that other population-specific factors may have stronger effects on endosymbiont densities. To determine whether there is a genetic basis to the density differences, endosymbiont densities between aged CLas-negative females of two D. citri populations reared under standardized laboratory conditions were compared. Results suggested that inter-population variability in Wolbachia infection density is associated with the genotypes of the endosymbiont or the host. Findings from this work could facilitate understanding of D. citri-bacterial associations that may benefit the development of approaches for managing citrus greening, such as prevention of CLas transmission.
Project description:Wolbachia is a widely distributed intracellular bacterial endosymbiont among invertebrates. The wStriCN, the Wolbachia strain that naturally infects an agricultural pest Laodelphax striatellus, has a "Jekyll and Hyde" mode of infection pattern with positive and negative effects: It not only kills many offspring by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) but also significantly increases host fecundity. In this study, we assembled the draft genome of wStriCN and compared it with other Wolbachia genomes to look for clues to its Jekyll and Hyde characteristics. The assembled wStriCN draft genome is 1.79?Mb in size, which is the largest Wolbachia genome in supergroup B. Phylogenomic analysis showed that wStriCN is closest to Wolbachia from Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. These strains formed a monophylogentic clade within supergroup B. Compared with other Wolbachia genomes, wStriCN contains the most diverse insertion sequence families, the largest amount of prophage sequences, and the most ankyrin domain protein coding genes. The wStriCN genome encodes components of multiple secretion systems, including Types I, II, IV, VI, Sec, and Tac. We detected three pairs of homologs for CI factors CifA and CifB. These proteins harbor the catalytic domains responsible for CI phenotypes but are phylogenetically and structurally distinct from all known Cif proteins. The genome retains pathways for synthesizing biotin and riboflavin, which may explain the beneficial roles of wStriCN in its host planthoppers, which feed on nutrient-poor plant sap. Altogether, the genomic sequencing of wStriCN provides insight into understanding the phylogeny and biology of Wolbachia.
Project description:Wolbachia can profoundly influence the survival, reproduction, and defenses of insect hosts. These interactions could potentially be harnessed for managing pests or insect-transmitted diseases. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a phloem-feeding pest capable of transmitting the putative causal agent of citrus greening, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Like many insects, D. citri is also infected with Wolbachia (wDi). Recent studies indicate that the relative abundance of wDi could be associated with the abundance of CLas, and that wDi may contribute to regulating expression of phage lytic cycle genes in CLas, suggesting the need for better understanding of wDi biology in general. This study investigated the genetic diversity of wDi among D. citri in populations spanning eleven countries and two U.S. territories. Six Wolbachia genes, wsp, coxA, fbpA, ftsZ, gatB, and hcpA, were sequenced and compared across samples. Two prevalent wDi strains were identified across the samples, and screening of clone libraries revealed possible coinfection of wDi strains in specific populations. D. citri mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (mtCOI) were more divergent between D. citri populations that were infected with different wDi strains or had different infection statuses (single infection vs. coinfection). While we could not eliminate the possibility that maternal transmission may contribute to such patterns, it is also possible that wDi may induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in their host. These findings should contribute to the understanding of wDi population ecology, which may facilitate manipulation of this endosymbiont for management of citrus greening disease worldwide.
Project description:Wolbachia strains are one of three endosymbionts associated with the insect vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). We report three near-complete genome sequences of samples of Wolbachia from D. citri (wDi), with sizes of 1,518,595, 1,542,468, and 1,538,523?bp.
Project description:Wolbachia, a gram-negative [Formula: see text]-proteobacterium, is an endosymbiont found in some arthropods and nematodes. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), are naturally infected with a strain of Wolbachia (wDi), which has been shown to colocalize with the bacteria pathogens CLas, the pathogen associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease of citrus. The relationship between wDi and CLas is poorly understood in part because the complete genome of wDi has not been available. Using high-quality long-read PacBio circular consensus sequences, we present the largest complete circular wDi genome among supergroup-B members. The assembled circular chromosome is 1.52 megabases with 95.7% genome completeness with contamination of 1.45%, as assessed by checkM. We identified Insertion Sequences (ISs) and prophage genes scattered throughout the genomes. The proteins were annotated using Pfam, eggNOG, and COG that assigned unique domains and functions. The wDi genome was compared with previously sequenced Wolbachia genomes using pangenome and phylogenetic analyses. The availability of a complete circular chromosome of wDi will facilitate understanding of its role within the insect vector, which may assist in developing tools for disease management. This information also provides a baseline for understanding phylogenetic relationships among Wolbachia of other insect vectors.
Project description:The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) is the insect vector responsible for the worldwide spread of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease. Developmental changes in the insect vector impact pathogen transmission, such that D. citri transmission of CLas is more efficient when bacteria are acquired by nymphs when compared with adults. We hypothesize that expression changes in the D. citri immune system and commensal microbiota occur during development and regulate vector competency. In support of this hypothesis, more proteins, with greater fold changes, were differentially expressed in response to CLas in adults when compared with nymphs, including insect proteins involved in bacterial adhesion and immunity. Compared with nymphs, adult insects had a higher titre of CLas and the bacterial endosymbionts Wolbachia, Profftella and Carsonella. All Wolbachia and Profftella proteins differentially expressed between nymphs and adults are upregulated in adults, while most differentially expressed Carsonella proteins are upregulated in nymphs. Discovery of protein interaction networks has broad applicability to the study of host-microbe relationships. Using protein interaction reporter technology, a D. citri haemocyanin protein highly upregulated in response to CLas was found to physically interact with the CLas coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis enzyme phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase/decarboxylase. CLas pantothenate kinase, which catalyses the rate-limiting step of CoA biosynthesis, was found to interact with a D. citri myosin protein. Two Carsonella enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis were found to physically interact with D. citri proteins. These co-evolved protein interaction networks at the host-microbe interface are highly specific targets for controlling the insect vector responsible for the spread of citrus greening.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Several plant-pathogenic bacteria are transmitted by insect vector species that often also act as hosts. In this interface, these bacteria encounter plant endophytic, insect endosymbiotic and other microbes. Here, we used high throughput sequencing to examine the bacterial communities of five different psyllids associated with citrus and related plants of Rutaceae in Bhutan: Diaphorina citri, Diaphorina communis, Cornopsylla rotundiconis, Cacopsylla heterogena and an unidentified Cacopsylla sp.<h4>Results</h4>The microbiomes of the psyllids largely comprised their obligate P-endosymbiont 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii', and one or two S-endosymbionts that are fixed and specific to each lineage. In addition, all contained Wolbachia strains; the Bhutanese accessions of D. citri were dominated by a Wolbachia strain first found in American isolates of D. citri, while D. communis accessions were dominated by the Wolbachia strain, wDi, first detected in D. citri from China. The S-endosymbionts from the five psyllids grouped with those from other psyllid taxa; all D. citri and D. communis individuals contained sequences matching 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' that has previously only been reported from other Diaphorina species, and the remaining psyllid species contained OTUs related to unclassified Enterobacteriaceae. The plant pathogenic 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' was found in D. citri but not in D. communis. Furthermore, an unidentified 'Candidatus Liberibacter sp.' occurred at low abundance in both Co. rotundiconis and the unidentified Cacopsylla sp. sampled from Zanthoxylum sp.; the status of this new liberibacter as a plant pathogen and its potential plant hosts are currently unknown. The bacterial communities of Co. rotundiconis also contained a range of OTUs with similarities to bacteria previously found in samples taken from various environmental sources.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The bacterial microbiota detected in these Bhutanese psyllids support the trends that have been seen in previous studies: psyllids have microbiomes largely comprising their obligate P-endosymbiont and one or two S-endosymbionts. In addition, the association with plant pathogens has been demonstrated, with the detection of liberibacters in a known host, D. citri, and identification of a putative new species of liberibacter in Co. rotundiconis and Cacopsylla sp.
Project description:This report describes the partial (nearly complete) genome sequence of a novel reo-like virus tentatively named Diaphorina citri Cimodo-like virus. This putative virus has 10 double-stranded RNA segments and was detected in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) populations collected from Florida commercial citrus groves.
Project description:Abstract Maternally inherited endosymbionts of arthropods are one of the most abundant and diverse group of bacteria. These bacterial endosymbionts also show extensive horizontal transfer to taxonomically unrelated hosts and widespread recombination in their genomes. Such horizontal transfers can be enhanced when different arthropod hosts come in contact like in an ecological community. Higher rates of horizontal transfer can also increase the probability of recombination between endosymbionts, as they now share the same host cytoplasm. However, reports of community‐wide endosymbiont data are rare as most studies choose few host taxa and specific ecological interactions among the hosts. To better understand endosymbiont spread within host populations, we investigated the incidence, diversity, extent of horizontal transfer, and recombination of three endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, and Arsenophonus) in a specific soil arthropod community. Wolbachia strains were characterized with MLST genes whereas 16S rRNA gene was used for Cardinium and Arsenophonus. Among 3,509 individual host arthropods, belonging to 390 morphospecies, 12.05% were infected with Wolbachia, 2.82% with Cardinium and 2.05% with Arsenophonus. Phylogenetic incongruence between host and endosymbiont indicated extensive horizontal transfer of endosymbionts within this community. Three cases of recombination between Wolbachia supergroups and eight incidences of within‐supergroup recombination were also found. Statistical tests of similarity indicated supergroup A Wolbachia and Cardinium show a pattern consistent with extensive horizontal transfer within the community but not for supergroup B Wolbachia and Arsenophonus. We highlight the importance of extensive community‐wide studies for a better understanding of the spread of endosymbionts across global arthropod communities. This manuscript characterizes incidence, diversity, extent of horizontal transfer, and recombination of three different endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, and Arsenophonus) in a soil arthropod community. We utilized multilocus strain typing system (MLST) for Wolbachia and 16S rRNA gene for Cardinium and Arsenophonus to answer whether endosymbionts are being transferred within an ecological community first and then spreading through different arthropod communities across the world.