Lack of CAK complex accumulation at DNA damage sites in XP-B and XP-B/CS fibroblasts reveals differential regulation of CAK anchoring to core TFIIH by XPB and XPD helicases during nucleotide excision repair.
ABSTRACT: Transcription factor II H (TFIIH) is composed of core TFIIH and Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complexes. Besides transcription, TFIIH also participates in nucleotide excision repair (NER), verifying DNA lesions through its helicase components XPB and XPD. The assembly state of TFIIH is known to be affected by truncation mutations in xeroderma pigmentosum group G/Cockayne syndrome (XP-G/CS). Here, we showed that CAK component MAT1 was rapidly recruited to UV-induced DNA damage sites, co-localizing with core TFIIH component p62, and dispersed from the damage sites upon completion of DNA repair. While the core TFIIH-CAK association remained intact, MAT1 failed to accumulate at DNA damage sites in fibroblasts harboring XP-B or XP-B/CS mutations. Nevertheless, MAT1, XPD and XPC as well as XPG were able to accumulate at damage sites in XP-D fibroblasts, in which the core TFIIH-CAK association also remained intact. Interestingly, XPG recruitment was impaired in XP-B/CS fibroblasts derived from patients with mild phenotype, but persisted in XP-B/CS fibroblasts from severely affected patients resulting in a nonfunctional preincision complex. An examination of steady-state levels of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) indicated that UV-induced RNAPII phosphorylation was dramatically reduced in XP-B/CS fibroblasts. These results demonstrated that the CAK rapidly disassociates from the core TFIIH upon assembly of nonfunctional preincision complex in XP-B and XP-B/CS cells. The persistency of nonfunctional preincision complex correlates with the severity exhibited by XP-B patients. The results suggest that XPB and XPD helicases differentially regulate the anchoring of CAK to core TFIIH during damage verification step of NER.
Project description:Helicases must unwind DNA at the right place and time to maintain genomic integrity or gene expression. Biologically critical XPB and XPD helicases are key members of the human TFIIH complex; they anchor CAK kinase (cyclinH, MAT1, CDK7) to TFIIH and open DNA for transcription and for repair of duplex distorting damage by nucleotide excision repair (NER). NER is initiated by arrested RNA polymerase or damage recognition by XPC-RAD23B with or without DDB1/DDB2. XP helicases, named for their role in the extreme sun-mediated skin cancer predisposition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), are then recruited to asymmetrically unwind dsDNA flanking the damage. XPB and XPD genetic defects can also cause premature aging with profound neurological defects without increased cancers: Cockayne syndrome (CS) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). XP helicase patient phenotypes cannot be predicted from the mutation position along the linear gene sequence and adjacent mutations can cause different diseases. Here we consider the structural biology of DNA damage recognition by XPC-RAD23B, DDB1/DDB2, RNAPII, and ATL, and of helix unwinding by the XPB and XPD helicases plus the bacterial repair helicases UvrB and UvrD in complex with DNA. We then propose unified models for TFIIH assembly and roles in NER. Collective crystal structures with NMR and electron microscopy results reveal functional motifs, domains, and architectural elements that contribute to biological activities: damaged DNA binding, translocation, unwinding, and ATP driven changes plus TFIIH assembly and signaling. Coupled with mapping of patient mutations, these combined structural analyses provide a framework for integrating and unifying the rich biochemical and cellular information that has accumulated over forty years of study. This integration resolves puzzles regarding XP helicase functions and suggests that XP helicase positions and activities within TFIIH detect and verify damage, select the damaged strand for incision, and coordinate repair with transcription and cell cycle through CAK signaling.
Project description:The xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a subunit of transcription/DNA repair factor, transcription factor II H (TFIIH) that catalyzes the unwinding of a damaged DNA duplex during nucleotide excision repair. Apart from two canonical helicase domains, XPD is composed of a 4Fe-S cluster domain involved in DNA damage recognition and a module of uncharacterized function termed the "ARCH domain." By investigating the consequences of a mutation found in a patient with trichothiodystrophy, we show that the ARCH domain is critical for the recruitment of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-activating kinase (CAK) complex. Indeed, this mutation not only affects the interaction with the MAT1 CAK subunit, thereby decreasing the in vitro basal transcription activity of TFIIH itself and impeding the efficient recruitment of the transcription machinery on the promoter of an activated gene, but also impairs the DNA unwinding activity of XPD and the nucleotide excision repair activity of TFIIH. We further demonstrate the role of CAK in downregulating the XPD helicase activity within TFIIH. Taken together, our results identify the ARCH domain of XPD as a platform for the recruitment of CAK and as a potential molecular switch that might control TFIIH composition and play a key role in the conversion of TFIIH from a factor active in transcription to a factor involved in DNA repair.
Project description:XPD functions in transcription, DNA repair and in cell cycle control. Mutations in human XPD (also known as ERCC2) mainly cause three clinical phenotypes: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (XP/CS) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD), and only XP patients have a high predisposition to developing cancer. Hence, we developed a fly model to obtain novel insights into the defects caused by individual hypomorphic alleles identified in human XP-D patients. This model revealed that the mutations that displayed the greatest in vivo UV sensitivity in Drosophila did not correlate with those that led to tumor formation in humans. Immunoprecipitations followed by targeted quantitative MS/MS analysis showed how different xpd mutations affected the formation or stability of different transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) subcomplexes. The XP mutants most clearly linked to high cancer risk, Xpd R683W and R601L, showed a reduced interaction with the core TFIIH and also an abnormal interaction with the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex. Interestingly, these two XP alleles additionally displayed high levels of chromatin loss and free centrosomes during the rapid nuclear division phase of the Drosophila embryo. Finally, the xpd mutations showing defects in the coordination of cell cycle timing during the Drosophila embryonic divisions correlated with those human mutations that cause the neurodevelopmental abnormalities and developmental growth defects observed in XP/CS and TTD patients.
Project description:Mms19 encodes a cytosolic iron-sulphur assembly component. We found that Drosophila Mms19 is also essential for mitotic divisions and for the proliferation of diploid cells. Reduced Mms19 activity causes severe mitotic defects in spindle dynamics and chromosome segregation, and loss of zygotic Mms19 prevents the formation of imaginal discs. The lack of mitotic tissue in Mms19P/P larvae can be rescued by overexpression of the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, an activator of mitotic Cdk1, suggesting that Mms19 functions in mitosis to allow CAK (Cdk7/Cyclin H/Mat1) to become fully active as a Cdk1-activating kinase. When bound to Xpd and TFIIH, the CAK subunit Cdk7 phosphorylates transcriptional targets and not cell cycle Cdks. In contrast, free CAK phosphorylates and activates Cdk1. Physical and genetic interaction studies between Mms19 and Xpd suggest that their interaction prevents Xpd from binding to the CAK complex. Xpd bound to Mms19 therefore frees CAK complexes, allowing them to phosphorylate Cdk1 and facilitating progression to metaphase. The structural basis for the competitive interaction with Xpd seems to be the binding of Mms19, core TFIIH and CAK to neighbouring or overlapping regions of Xpd.
Project description:MAT1, an assembly factor and targeting subunit of both cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) and general transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) kinase, regulates cell cycle and transcription. Previous studies show that expression of intact MAT1 protein is associated with expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), whereas intrinsically programmed or retinoic acid (RA)-induced MAT1 fragmentation accompanies granulocytic differentiation of HSC or leukemic myeloblasts. Here we determined that, in humanized mouse microenvironment, MAT1 overexpression resisted intrinsic MAT1 fragmentation to sustain hematopoietic CD34+ cell expansion while preventing granulopoiesis. Conversely, we mimicked MAT1 fragmentation in vitro and in a mouse model by overexpressing a fragmented 81-aa MAT1 polypeptide (pM9) that retains the domain for assembling CAK but cannot affix CAK to TFIIH-core. Our results showed that pM9 formed ?CAK by competing with MAT1 for CAK assembly to mimic MAT1 fragmentation-depletion of CAK. This resulting ?CAK acted as a dominant negative to inhibit the growth and metastasis of different leukemic myeloblasts, with or without RA resistance, by concurrently suppressing CAK and TFIIH kinase activities to inhibit cell cycle and gene transcription. These findings suggest that the intrinsically programmed MAT1 expression and fragmentation regulate granulopoiesis by inversely coordinating CAK and TFIIH activities, whereas pM9 shares a mechanistic resemblance with MAT1 fragmentation in suppressing myeloid leukemogenesis.
Project description:Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.
Project description:The eukaryotic TFIIH complex is involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and transcription initiation. We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes). We found that, in these mutants, incomplete NER reactions lead to replication fork breaking and the subsequent engagement of the homologous recombination machinery to restore them. Nevertheless, the penetrance varies among mutants, giving rise to a phenotype gradient. Interestingly, the mutations analyzed reside at the ATP-binding groove of Rad3 and in vivo experiments reveal a gain of DNA affinity upon damage of the mutant Rad3 proteins. Since mutations at the ATP-binding groove of XPD in humans are present in the Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome (XP-CS), we recreated rem mutations in human cells, and found that these are XP-CS-like. We propose that the balance between the loss of helicase activity and the gain of DNA affinity controls the capacity of TFIIH to open DNA during NER, and its persistence at both DNA lesions and promoters. This conditions NER efficiency and transcription resumption after damage, which in human cells would explain the XP-CS phenotype, opening new perspectives to understand the molecular basis of the role of XPD in human disease.
Project description:Mutations in genes encoding the ERCC3 (XPB), ERCC2 (XPD), and GTF2H5 (p8 or TTD-A) subunits of the transcription and DNA-repair factor TFIIH lead to three autosomal-recessive disorders: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), XP associated with Cockayne syndrome (XP/CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). Although these diseases were originally associated with defects in DNA repair, transcription deficiencies might be also implicated. By using retinoic acid receptor beta isoform 2 (RARB2) as a model in several cells bearing mutations in genes encoding TFIIH subunits, we observed that (1) the recruitment of the TFIIH complex was altered at the activated RARB2 promoter, (2) TFIIH participated in the recruitment of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors during transcription in a manner different from that observed during NER, and (3) the different TFIIH variants disturbed transcription by having distinct consequences on post-translational modifications of histones, DNA-break induction, DNA demethylation, and gene-loop formation. The transition from heterochromatin to euchromatin was disrupted depending on the variant, illustrating the fact that TFIIH, by contributing to NER factor recruitment, orchestrates chromatin remodeling. The subtle transcriptional differences found between various TFIIH variants thus participate in the phenotypic variability observed among XP, XP/CS, and TTD individuals.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells respond to a variety of DNA insults by triggering a common signal transduction cascade, known as checkpoint response, which temporarily halts cell-cycle progression. Although the main players involved in the cascade have been identified, there is still uncertainty about the nature of the structures that activate these surveillance mechanisms. To understand the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in checkpoint activation, we analyzed the UV-induced phosphorylation of the key checkpoint proteins Chk1 and p53, in primary fibroblasts from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), trichothiodystrophy (TTD), or UV light-sensitive syndrome. These disorders are due to defects in transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and/or global genome NER (GG-NER), the NER subpathways repairing the transcribed strand of active genes or the rest of the genome, respectively. We show here that in G0/G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, triggering of the DNA damage cascade requires recognition and processing of the lesions by the GG-NER. Loss of TC-NER does not affect checkpoint activation. Mutations in XPD, XPB, and in TTDA, encoding subunits of the TFIIH complex, involved in both transcription and NER, impair checkpoint triggering. The only exception is represented by mutations in XPD, resulting in combined features of XP and CS (XP/CS) that lead to activation of the checkpoint cascade after UV radiation. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II transcription significantly reduces the phosphorylation of key checkpoint factors in XP/CS fibroblasts on exposure to UV damage.
Project description:Mutations in XPD (ERCC2), XPB (ERCC3), and TTD-A (GTF2H5), genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and transcription, can cause several disorders including trichothiodystrophy (TTD) and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mutations in the XPD gene affect placental development in a phenotype-specific manner. To test our hypothesis and decipher potential biologic mechanisms, we compared all XPD-associated TTD (n=43) and XP (n=37) cases reported in the literature with respect to frequencies of gestational complications. Our genetic epidemiologic investigations of TTD and XP revealed that the exact genetic abnormality was relevant to the mechanism leading to gestational complications such as preeclampsia. Through structural mapping, we localized the preeclampsia-associated mutations to a C-terminal motif and the helicase surfaces of XPD, most likely affecting XPD's binding to cdk-activating kinase (CAK) and p44 subunits of transcription factor (TF) IIH. Our results suggested a link between TTD- but not XP-associated XPD mutations, placental maldevelopment and risk of pregnancy complications, possibly due to impairment of TFIIH-mediated functions in placenta. Our findings highlight the importance of the fetal genotype in development of gestational complications, such as preeclampsia. Therefore, future studies of genetic associations of preeclampsia and other placental vascular complications may benefit from focusing on genetic variants within the fetal DNA.