Endocervical-type mucinous borderline tumors are related to endometrioid tumors based on mutation and loss of expression of ARID1A.
ABSTRACT: Nongastrointestinal-type mucinous borderline tumors have been described as displaying endocervical and serous differentiation and hence have been termed "endocervical-type" mucinous borderline tumors, "mixed-epithelial papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy of mullerian type," or "atypical proliferative seromucinous tumors." A striking feature of these tumors is their frequent association with endometriosis, which has been reported in a third to a half of cases. This is an unusual finding, as pure endocervical and serous tumors are not usually associated with endometriosis. ARID1A is a recently identified tumor suppressor, which frequently loses its expression and is mutated in endometrium-related carcinomas including ovarian clear cell, ovarian endometrioid, and uterine endometrioid carcinomas. Although ARID1A mutations and their expression have been studied in gynecologic cancer, the expression pattern of ARID1A has not been investigated in ovarian atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors. In this study, we analyzed ARID1A expression in serous, gastrointestinal-type and endocervical-type (seromucinous) mucinous, and endometrioid atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors using immunohistochemistry and performed mutational analysis in selected cases. We observed loss of ARID1A staining in 8 (33%) of 24 seromucinous tumors. In contrast, ARID1A staining was retained in all the other 32 tumors except in 1 endometrioid tumor (P<0.01). Mutational analysis was performed on 2 representative seromucinous tumors, which showed complete loss of ARID1A. Both tumors harbored somatic inactivating ARID1A mutations. Previous studies have reported loss of expression and/or mutation of ARID1A in 30% to 57% of endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas but only rarely in serous tumors. In summary, these tumors often contain endocervical-type mucinous epithelium, but they typically display papillary architecture, unlike most endocervical neoplasms, and their immunophenotype is different from both endocervical and serous tumors. Moreover, they frequently contain ciliated cells, endometrial-type cells, cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and hobnail-shaped cells, all of which can be found in endometrioid tumors. The loss of expression of ARID1A and the presence of inactivating mutations of the ARID1A gene further link this tumor to endometrioid and clear cell tumors, as does the frequent association with endometriosis. Accordingly, we suggest designating these tumors "atypical proliferative (borderline) papillary müllerian tumors" as this designation more accurately reflects their clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features.
Project description:Borderline ovarian tumors represent an understudied subset of ovarian tumors. Most studies investigating aberrations in borderline tumors have focused on KRAS/BRAF mutations. In this study, we conducted an extensive analysis of mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in borderline ovarian tumors. Using the Sequenom MassArray platform, we investigated 160 mutations/polymorphisms in 33 genes involved in cell signaling, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation and cellular senescence. Of 52 tumors analyzed, 33 were serous, 18 mucinous and 1 endometrioid. KRAS c.35G>A p.Gly12Asp mutations were detected in eight tumors (six serous and two mucinous), BRAF V600E mutations in two serous tumors, and PIK3CA H1047Y and PIK3CA E542K mutations in a serous and an endometrioid BOT, respectively. CTNNB1 mutation was detected in a serous tumor. Potentially functional polymorphisms were found in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), ABCB1, FGFR2 and PHLPP2. VEGF polymorphisms were the most common and detected at four loci. PHLPP2 polymorphisms were more frequent in mucinous as compared with serous tumors (P=0.04), with allelic imbalance in one case. This study represents the largest and most comprehensive analysis of mutations and functional SNPs in borderline ovarian tumors to date. At least 25% of borderline ovarian tumors harbor somatic mutations associated with potential response to targeted therapeutics.
Project description:ARID1A is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in approximately 50% of ovarian clear cell and 30% of ovarian endometrioid carcinomas. The mutation is associated with loss of protein expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we evaluated ARID1A immunoreactivity in a wide variety of carcinomas to determine the prevalence of ARID1A inactivation in carcinomas. Mutational analysis of ARID1A was carried out in selected cases. Immunoreactivity was not detected (corresponding to inactivation or mutation of ARID1A) in 36 (3.6%) of 995 tumors. Uterine low-grade endometrioid carcinomas showed a relatively high-frequency loss of ARID1A expression, as 15 (26%) of 58 cases were negative. The other tumor that had a relatively high-frequency loss of ARID1A expression was gastric carcinoma (11%). Mutational analysis showed 10 (40%) of 25 uterine endometrioid carcinomas; none of 12 uterine serous carcinomas and none of 56 ovarian serous and mucinous carcinomas harbored somatic ARID1A mutations. All mutations in endometrioid carcinomas were nonsense or insertion/deletion mutations, and tumors with ARID1A mutations showed complete loss or clonal loss of ARID1A expression. In conclusion, this study is the first large-scale analysis of a wide variety of carcinomas showing that uterine low-grade endometrioid carcinoma is the predominant tumor type harboring ARID1A mutations and frequent loss of ARID1A expression. These findings suggest that the molecular pathogenesis of low-grade uterine endometrioid carcinoma is similar to that of ovarian low-grade endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, tumors that have previously been shown to have a high-frequency loss of expression and mutation of ARID1A.
Project description:Ovarian clear-cell and endometrioid carcinomas may arise from endometriosis, but the molecular events involved in this transformation have not been described.We sequenced the whole transcriptomes of 18 ovarian clear-cell carcinomas and 1 ovarian clear-cell carcinoma cell line and found somatic mutations in ARID1A (the AT-rich interactive domain 1A [SWI-like] gene) in 6 of the samples. ARID1A encodes BAF250a, a key component of the SWI–SNF chromatin remodeling complex. We sequenced ARID1A in an additional 210 ovarian carcinomas and a second ovarian clear-cell carcinoma cell line and measured BAF250a expression by means of immunohistochemical analysis in an additional 455 ovarian carcinomas.ARID1A mutations were seen in 55 of 119 ovarian clear-cell carcinomas (46%), 10 of 33 endometrioid carcinomas (30%), and none of the 76 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Seventeen carcinomas had two somatic mutations each. Loss of the BAF250a protein correlated strongly with the ovarian clear-cell carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma subtypes and the presence of ARID1A mutations. In two patients, ARID1A mutations and loss of BAF250a expression were evident in the tumor and contiguous atypical endometriosis but not in distant endometriotic lesions.These data implicate ARID1A as a tumor-suppressor gene frequently disrupted in ovarian clear-cell and endometrioid carcinomas. Since ARID1A mutation and loss of BAF250a can be seen in the preneoplastic lesions, we speculate that this is an early event in the transformation of endometriosis into cancer. (Funded by the British Columbia Cancer Foundation and the Vancouver General Hospital–University of British Columbia Hospital Foundation.).
Project description:Epithelial ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death in gynecological cancers. While several systematic studies have revealed the mutation landscape of serous epithelial ovarian cancer, other non-serous subtypes of the disease have not been explored as extensively. Here we conduct exome sequencing of nine non-serous epithelial ovarian tumors (six endometrioid and three mucinous) and their corresponding normal DNA as well as a tumor-only granulosa cell sample. We integrated the exome data with targeted gene sequencing for 1,321 genes selected for their involvement in cancer from additional 28 non-serous ovarian tumors and compared our results to TCGA ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and uterine corpus endometrial carcinomas. Prevalence of TP53 mutations in non-serous was much lower than in serous epithelial OC, whereas the prevalence of PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN, CTNNB1, ARID1A, and KRAS was higher. We confirmed the high prevalence of FOXL2 and KRAS mutations in granulosa cell tumors and in mucinous tumors, respectively. We also identified POLE proofreading domain mutations in three endometrioid ovarian tumors. These results highlight mutational differences between serous and non-serous ovarian cancers, and further distinguish different non-serous subtypes.
Project description:Whether risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) differ by subtype (i.e., dualistic pathway of carcinogenesis, histologic subtype) is not well understood; however, data to date suggest risk factor differences. We examined associations between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for EOC by subtype in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among 334,126 women with data on reproductive and hormone-related risk factors (follow-up: 1992-2010), 1,245 incident cases of EOC with known histology and invasiveness were identified. Data on tumor histology, grade, and invasiveness, were available from cancer registries and pathology record review. We observed significant heterogeneity by the dualistic model (i.e., type I [low grade serous or endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, malignant Brenner] vs. type II [high grade serous or endometrioid]) for full-term pregnancy (phet ?=?0.02). Full-term pregnancy was more strongly inversely associated with type I than type II tumors (ever vs. never: type I: relative risk (RR) 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.69]; type II, RR: 0.81 [0.61-1.06]). We observed no significant differences in risk in analyses by major histologic subtypes of invasive EOC (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell). None of the investigated factors were associated with borderline tumors. Established protective factors, including duration of oral contraceptive use and full term pregnancy, were consistently inversely associated with risk across histologic subtypes (e.g., ever full-term pregnancy: serous, RR: 0.73 [0.58-0.92]; mucinous, RR: 0.53 [0.30-0.95]; endometrioid, RR: 0.65 [0.40-1.06]; clear cell, RR: 0.34 [0.18-0.64]; phet ?=?0.16). These results suggest limited heterogeneity between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors and EOC subtypes.
Project description:We prospectively investigated the association between different measures of smoking exposure and the risk of serous, mucinous, and endometrioid ovarian cancers (OC) in a cohort of more than 300?000 Norwegian women.We followed 300?398 women aged 19-67 years at enrolment until 31 December 2013 for OC incidence through linkage to national registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models with attained age as the underlying time scale to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for relevant confounders.During more than 5.9 million person-years and a median follow-up time of 19 years, 2336 primary invasive (1647, 71%) and borderline (689, 29%) OC were identified (53% serous, 19% mucinous). Compared with never smokers, current smokers who had smoked for ?10 years had a higher risk of mucinous OC (HR10-19 years vs never=1.73, 95% CI 1.24-2.42; HR?20 vs never=2.26, 95% CI 1.77-2.89, Ptrend <0.001). When stratified by invasiveness, current smokers had a higher risk of invasive mucinous OC (HR=1.78, 95% CI 1.20-2.64) and borderline mucinous OC (HR=2.26 95% CI, 1.71-2.97) (Pheterogeneity=0.34) than never smokers. Smoking was not associated with serous or endometrioid OC.Using a very large cohort of women, the current analysis provides an important replication for a similar risk of invasive and borderline mucinous OC related to smoking.
Project description:Mucinous ovarian cancer (MOC) is a rare type of epithelial ovarian cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy regimens. We sought to characterize the repertoire of somatic mutations in MOCs and to define the contribution of massively parallel sequencing to the classification of tumors diagnosed as primary MOCs.Following gynecologic pathology and chart review, DNA samples obtained from primary MOCs and matched normal tissues/blood were subjected to whole-exome (n?=?9) or massively parallel sequencing targeting 341 cancer genes (n?=?15). Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, PTEN, ARID1A/BAF250a, and the DNA mismatch (MMR) proteins MSH6 and PMS2 was performed for all cases. Mutational frequencies of MOCs were compared to those of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and mucinous tumors from other sites.MOCs were heterogeneous at the genetic level, frequently harboring TP53 (75%) mutations, KRAS (71%) mutations and/or CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions/mutations (33%). Although established criteria for diagnosis were employed, four cases harbored mutational and immunohistochemical profiles similar to those of endometrioid carcinomas, and one case for colorectal or endometrioid carcinoma. Significant differences in the frequencies of KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, FBXW7, PIK3CA and/or APC mutations between the confirmed primary MOCs (n?=?19) and HGSOCs, mucinous gastric and/or mucinous colorectal carcinomas were found, whereas no differences in the 341 genes studied between MOCs and mucinous pancreatic carcinomas were identified.Our findings suggest that the assessment of mutations affecting TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, ARID1A and POLE, and DNA MMR protein expression may be used to further aid the diagnosis and treatment decision-making of primary MOC.
Project description:Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes of ovarian cancer.Data from 13 ovarian cancer case-control studies, which were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, were pooled and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association between self-reported endometriosis and risk of ovarian cancer. Analyses of invasive cases were done with respect to histological subtypes, grade, and stage, and analyses of borderline tumours by histological subtype. Age, ethnic origin, study site, parity, and duration of oral contraceptive use were included in all analytical models.13?226 controls and 7911 women with invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis. 818 and 738, respectively, reported a history of endometriosis. 1907 women with borderline ovarian cancer were also included in the analysis, and 168 of these reported a history of endometriosis. Self-reported endometriosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of clear-cell (136 [20·2%] of 674 cases vs 818 [6·2%] of 13?226 controls, odds ratio 3·05, 95% CI 2·43-3·84, p<0·0001), low-grade serous (31 [9·2%] of 336 cases, 2·11, 1·39-3·20, p<0·0001), and endometrioid invasive ovarian cancers (169 [13·9%] of 1220 cases, 2·04, 1·67-2·48, p<0·0001). No association was noted between endometriosis and risk of mucinous (31 [6·0%] of 516 cases, 1·02, 0·69-1·50, p=0·93) or high-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer (261 [7·1%] of 3659 cases, 1·13, 0·97-1·32, p=0·13), or borderline tumours of either subtype (serous 103 [9·0%] of 1140 cases, 1·20, 0·95-1·52, p=0·12, and mucinous 65 [8·5%] of 767 cases, 1·12, 0·84-1·48, p=0·45).Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis. Future efforts should focus on understanding the mechanisms that might lead to malignant transformation of endometriosis so as to help identify subsets of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer.Ovarian Cancer Research Fund, National Institutes of Health, California Cancer Research Program, California Department of Health Services, Lon V Smith Foundation, European Community's Seventh Framework Programme, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany, Programme of Clinical Biomedical Research, German Cancer Research Centre, Eve Appeal, Oak Foundation, UK National Institute of Health Research, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Cancer Council Tasmania, Cancer Foundation of Western Australia, Mermaid 1, Danish Cancer Society, and Roswell Park Alliance Foundation.
Project description:More than 25 years after the last revision, in 2012 the FIGO Oncology Committee began revising the FIGO classification for staging ovarian, Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers. The new classification has become effective with its publication at the beginning of 2014. Following recent findings on the pathogenesis of ovarian, Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer and reflecting standard clinical practice, the three entities have now been classified uniformly. The histological subtype is included (high-grade serous - HGSC; low-grade serous - LGSC; mucinous - MC; clear cell - CCC; endometrioid - EC). Stages III and IV have been fundamentally changed: stage IIIA now refers to a localized tumor limited to the pelvis with (only) retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis (formerly classified as IIIC). Stage IV has been divided into IVA and IVB, with IVA defined as malignant pleural effusion and IVB as parenchymatous or extra-abdominal metastasis including inguinal and mediastinal lymph node metastasis as well as umbilical metastasis. A new WHO classification was published almost concurrently. The classification of serous tumors addresses the issue of the tubal carcinogenesis of serous ovarian cancer, even if no tubal precursor lesions are found for up to 30?% of serous high-grade cancers. The number of subgroups was reduced and subgroups now include only high-grade serous, low-grade serous, mucinous, seromucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and Brenner tumors. The category "transitional cell carcinomas" has been dropped and the classification "seromucinous tumors" has been newly added. More attention has been focused on the role of borderline tumors as a stage in the progression from benign to invasive lesions.
Project description:We retrospectively analyzed clinicopathological data in two different countries over the past years on the association between ovarian endometriosis and ovarian carcinoma. Medical and pathological reports were evaluated from 1,000 patients with endometriosis from two different geographical areas. The prevalence and women characteristics of cases were analyzed. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer was present in 20 (2%) cases, among the study subjects. The observed prevalence was 12 (60%) for endometrioid carcinoma, 4 (20%) for clear cell ovarian carcinoma, 2 (10%) for serous and 2 (10%) for mucinous adenocarcinoma. A higher proportion of endometrioid carcinoma cases were noted in comparison with other types (P<0.001). We found only 3/20 (15%) postmenopausal cases. In all cases, we reported advanced stage of endometriosis (stage III or IV). Left-sided endometrioid carcinoma were notably more common than right-sided ones (P<0.001). In the majority of cases, malignant transformation of endometriosis was observed in endometrioid carcinoma or clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Further research is required to establish the relationship between endometriosis and ovarian cancer.