Serine 269 phosphorylated aquaporin-2 is targeted to the apical membrane of collecting duct principal cells.
ABSTRACT: Trafficking of the water channel aquaporin-2 to the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct is mediated by arginine vasopressin, rendering the cell permeable to water. We recently identified a novel form of aquaporin-2 that is phosphorylated at serine-269 (pS269-AQP2). Using antibodies specific for this form of the water channel, we detected rat and mouse pS269-AQP2 in the connecting tubule and throughout the collecting duct system. Using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with organelle-specific markers and immunogold electron microscopy, we found that pS269-AQP2 was found only on the apical plasma membrane of principal cells. In vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats, pS269-AQP2 was undetectable but dramatically increased in abundance after these rats were treated with [deamino-Cys-1, d-Arg-8]vasopressin (dDAVP). This increase occurred only at the apical plasma membrane, even after long-term dDAVP treatment. Following dDAVP there was a time-dependent redistribution of total aquaporin-2 from predominantly intracellular vesicles to the apical plasma membrane, clathrin-coated vesicles, early endosomal compartments, and lysosomes. However, pS269-AQP2 was found only on the apical plasma membrane at any time. Our results show that S269 phosphorylated aquaporin-2 is exclusively associated with the apical plasma membrane, where it escapes endocytosis to remain at the cell surface.
Project description:The action of vasopressin in rodent collecting ducts to regulate water permeability depends in part on increases in phosphorylation of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) at three sites: Ser256, Ser264, and Ser269. Previous studies of AQP2 phosphorylation have depended largely on qualitative data using protein mass spectrometry and phospho-specific antibodies. Here, we use a new method employing phospho-specific antibodies to determine the percentage of total AQP2 phosphorylated at each site in the presence and absence of the V2-receptor-selective vasopressin analog dDAVP in rat renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and cultured mpkCCD cells. Phosphorylation of Ser269, a site previously implicated in plasma membrane retention, was found to increase from 3 to 26% of total AQP2 in rat IMCD cells following dDAVP. Quantification of immunogold labeling of the opposite kidneys from the same rats estimated that 11% of total AQP2 is present in the apical plasma membrane (APM) without injection of dDAVP and 25% is present in the APM after dDAVP. Surprisingly, the baseline level of Ser256 phosphorylation was constitutively high, and there was no increase with dDAVP (confirmed in 2 more sets of rats). In general, Ser264 phosphorylation remained below 5% of total. The pattern of response was similar in cultured mpkCCD cells (large increase in Ser269 phosphorylation following dDAVP, but constitutively high levels of Ser256 phosphorylation). We suggest from these studies that Ser269 phosphorylation may be a more consistent indicator of vasopressin action and AQP2 membrane abundance than is Ser256 phosphorylation.
Project description:By phosphoproteome analysis, we identified a phosphorylation site, serine 264 (pS264), in the COOH terminus of the vasopressin-regulated water channel, aquaporin-2 (AQP2). In this study, we examined the regulation of AQP2 phosphorylated at serine 264 (pS264-AQP2) by vasopressin, using a phospho-specific antibody (anti-pS264). Immunohistochemical analysis showed pS264-AQP2 labeling of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) from control mice, whereas AQP2 knockout mice showed a complete absence of labeling. In rat and mouse, pS264-AQP2 was present throughout the collecting duct system, from the connecting tubule to the terminal IMCD. Immunogold electron microscopy, combined with double-labeling confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with organelle-specific markers, determined that the majority of pS264 resides in compartments associated with the plasma membrane and early endocytic pathways. In Brattleboro rats treated with [deamino-Cys-1, d-Arg-8]vasopressin (dDAVP), the abundance of pS264-AQP2 increased 4-fold over controls. Additionally, dDAVP treatment resulted in a time-dependent change in the distribution of pS264 from predominantly intracellular vesicles, to both the basolateral and apical plasma membranes. Sixty minutes after dDAVP exposure, a proportion of pS264-AQP2 was observed in clathrin-coated vesicles, early endosomal compartments, and recycling compartments, but not lysosomes. Overall, our results are consistent with a dynamic effect of AVP on the phosphorylation and subcellular distribution of AQP2.
Project description:Vasopressin controls water excretion through regulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) trafficking in renal collecting duct cells. Using mass spectrometry, we previously demonstrated four phosphorylated serines (Ser256, Ser261, Ser264, and Ser269) in the carboxyl-terminal tail of rat AQP2. Here, we used phospho-specific antibodies and protein mass spectrometry to investigate the roles of vasopressin and cyclic AMP in the regulation of phosphorylation at Ser269 and addressed the role of this site in AQP2 trafficking. The V2 receptor-specific vasopressin analog dDAVP increased Ser(P)269-AQP2 abundance more than 10-fold, but at a rate much slower than the corresponding increase in Ser256 phosphorylation. Vasopressin-mediated changes in phosphorylation at both sites were mimicked by cAMP addition and inhibited by protein kinase A (PKA) antagonists. In vitro kinase assays, however, demonstrated that PKA phosphorylates Ser256, but not Ser269. Phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser269 did not occur when Ser256 was replaced by an unphosphorylatable amino acid, as seen in both S256L-AQP2 mutant mice and in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing an S256A mutant, suggesting that Ser269 phosphorylation depends upon prior phosphorylation at Ser256. Immunogold electron microscopy localized Ser(P)269-AQP2 solely in the apical plasma membrane of rat collecting duct cells, in contrast to the other three phospho-forms (found in both apical plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles). Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing an S269D "phosphomimic" AQP2 mutant showed constitutive localization at the plasma membrane. The data support a model in which vasopressin-mediated phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser269:(a) depends on prior PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser256 and (b) enhances apical plasma membrane retention of AQP2.
Project description:AIM: Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel located in the collecting tubule and collecting duct cells of mammalian kidney. The aim of this study is to investigate whether PKC? plays a role in vasopressin-induced AQP2 trafficking in mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) cells. METHODS: AQP2-mIMCD3 stable cell line was constructed by transfection of mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mIMCD3) cells with AQP2-GFP construct. Then the cells were transfected with PKC? shRNA, PKC? A/25E, or PKC? scrambled shRNA. The expression levels of PKC?, AQP2, and phospho-S256-AQP2 were analyzed using Western blot. The interaction between AQP2 and PKC? was examined using immunoprecipitation. The distribution of AQP2 and microtubules was studied using immunocytochemistry. The AQP2 trafficking was examined using the biotinylation of surface membranes. RESULTS: Treatment of AQP2-mIMCD3 cells with 100 ?mol/L of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DdAVP) for 30 min stimulated the translocation of AQP2 from the cytoplasm to plasma membrane through influencing the microtubule assembly. Upregulation of active PKC? by transfection with PKC? A/25E plasmids resulted in de-polymerization of ?-tubulin and redistributed AQP2 in the cytoplasm. Down-regulation of PKC? by PKC? shRNA partially inhibited DdAVP-stimulated AQP2 trafficking without altering ?-tubulin distribution. Although 100 ?mol/L of DdAVP increased AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256, down-regulation of PKC? by PKC? shRNA did not influence DdAVP-induced AQP2 phosphorylation, suggesting that AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256 was independent of PKC?. Moreover, PKC? did not physically interact with AQP2 in the presence or absence of DdAVP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that PKC? regulates AQP2 trafficking induced by DdAVP via microtubule assembly.
Project description:Arginine vasopressin (AVP) enhances water reabsorption in the renal collecting duct by vasopressin V? receptor (V?R)-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC), cAMP-promoted phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2), and increased abundance of AQP2 on the apical membrane. Multiple isoforms of adenylate cyclase exist, and the roles of individual AC isoforms in water homeostasis are not well understood. Here, we found that levels of AC6 mRNA, the most highly expressed AC isoform in the inner medulla, inversely correlate with fluid intake. Moreover, mice lacking AC6 had lower levels of inner medullary cAMP, reduced abundance of phosphorylated AQP2 (at both serine-256 and serine-269), and lower urine osmolality than wild-type mice. Water deprivation or administration of the V?R agonist dDAVP did not increase urine osmolality of AC6-deficient mice to the levels of wild-type mice. Furthermore, AC6-deficient mice lacked dDAVP-promoted inner medullary cAMP formation and phosphorylation of serine-269 and had attenuated increases in both phosphorylation of serine-256 and apical membrane AQP2 trafficking. In summary, AC6 expression determines inner medullary cAMP formation and AQP2 phosphorylation and trafficking, the absence of which causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Project description:Type-II l-arginine:ureahydrolase, arginase-II (Arg-II), is abundantly expressed in the kidney. The physiologic role played by Arg-II in the kidney remains unknown. Herein, we report that in mice that are deficient in Arg-II (Arg-II-/-), total and membrane-associated aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein levels were significantly higher compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Water deprivation enhanced Arg-II expression, AQP2 levels, and membrane association in collecting ducts. Effects of water deprivation on AQP2 were stronger in Arg-II-/- mice than in WT mice. Accordingly, a decrease in urine volume and an increase in urine osmolality under water deprivation were more pronounced in Arg-II-/- mice than in WT mice, which correlated with a weaker increase in plasma osmolality in Arg-II-/- mice. There was no difference in vasopressin release under water deprivation conditions between either genotype of mice. Although total AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2-S256 levels (mediated by PKA) in kidneys under water deprivation conditions were significantly higher in Arg-II-/- mice compared with WT animals, there is no difference in the ratio of AQP2-S256:AQP2. In cultured mouse collecting duct principal mCCDcl1 cells, expression of both Arg-II and AQP2 were enhanced by the vasopressin type 2 receptor agonist, desamino- d-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP). Silencing Arg-II enhanced the expression and membrane association of AQP2 by dDAVP without influencing cAMP levels. In conclusion, in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that Arg-II negatively regulates AQP2 and the urine-concentrating capability in kidneys via a mechanism that is not associated with the modulation of the cAMP pathway.-Huang, J., Montani, J.-P., Verrey, F., Feraille, E., Ming, X.-F., Yang, Z. Arginase-II negatively regulates renal aquaporin-2 and water reabsorption.
Project description:Activation of V2 receptors (V2R) during antidiuresis increases the permeability of the inner medullary collecting duct to urea and water. Extracellular osmolality is elevated as the concentrating capacity of the kidney increases. Osmolality is known to contribute to the regulation of collecting duct water (aquaporin-2; AQP2) and urea transporter (UT-A1, UT-A3) regulation. AQP1KO mice are a concentrating mechanism knockout, a defect attributed to the loss of high interstitial osmolality. A V2R-specific agonist, deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), was infused into wild-type and AQP1KO mice for 7 days. UT-A1 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly increased in the medullas of wild-type and AQP1KO mice following dDAVP infusion. The mRNA and protein abundance of UT-A3, the basolateral urea transporter, was significantly increased by dDAVP in both wild-type and AQP1KO mice. Semiquantitative immunoblots revealed that dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase in the medullary expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone GRP78. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that GRP78 expression colocalized with AQP2 in principal cells of the papillary tip of the renal medulla. Using immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that vasopressin induced a marked apical targeting of GRP78 in medullary principal cells. Urea-sensitive genes, GADD153 and ATF4 (components of the ER stress pathway), were significantly increased in AQP1KO mice by dDAVP infusion. These findings strongly support an important role of vasopressin in the activation of an ER stress response in renal collecting duct cells, in addition to its role in activating an increase in UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundance.
Project description:The final adjustment of urine volume occurs in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), chiefly mediated by the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2). With vasopressin stimulation, AQP2 accumulation in the apical plasma membrane of principal cells allows water reabsorption from the lumen. We report that FXYD1 (phospholemman), better known as a regulator of Na,K-ATPase, has a role in AQP2 trafficking. Daytime urine of Fxyd1 knockout mice was more dilute than WT despite similar serum vasopressin, but both genotypes could concentrate urine during water deprivation. FXYD1 was found in IMCD. In WT mice, phosphorylated FXYD1 was detected intracellularly, and vasopressin induced its dephosphorylation. We tested the hypothesis that the dilute urine in knockouts was caused by alteration of AQP2 trafficking. In WT mice at baseline, FXYD1 and AQP2 were not strongly co-localized, but elevation of vasopressin produced translocation of both FXYD1 and AQP2 to the apical plasma membrane. In kidney slices, baseline AQP2 distribution was more scattered in the Fxyd1 knockout than in WT. Apical recruitment of AQP2 occurred in vasopressin-treated Fxyd1 knockout slices, but upon vasopressin washout, there was more rapid reversal of apical AQP2 localization and more heterogeneous cytoplasmic distribution of AQP2. Notably, in sucrose gradients, AQP2 was present in a detergent-resistant membrane domain that had lower sedimentation density in the knockout than in WT, and vasopressin treatment normalized its density. We propose that FXYD1 plays a role in regulating AQP2 retention in apical membrane, and that this involves transfers between raft-like membrane domains in endosomes and plasma membranes.
Project description:In mammals, the peptide hormone vasopressin controls renal water excretion, largely through regulation of the molecular water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the renal collecting duct. Regulatory mechanisms of AQP2 show: 1) short-term regulation by membrane trafficking; and 2) long-term regulation involving vasopressin-induced changes in the abundance of the aquaporin-2 protein. Vasopressin activates a G protein-coupled receptor (V2R) increasing cyclic AMP and activating protein kinase PKA. Crebbp and Ep300 are known targets of PKA. They are histone acetyltransferases that acetylate histone H3 lysine-27, a histone mark associated with open chromatin and increased transcription (Tie F et al. Development 2009). The translocation of CREBBP and Ep300 into the nucleus in response to vasopressin in the collecting duct cells, predicts that vasopressin, working through PKA, may increase histone H3K27 acetylation of some genes. We tested this by performing ChIP-Seq for this modification. Overall design: To identify changes of Histone modification (acetylation) in response to vasopressin in cultured mouse collecting duct cells (mpkCCD), we carried out ChIP-seq for genome-wide distribution of histone 3 acetylation (H3K27ac) (n=2). Observations were made both after 24-hr treatment with the vasopressin analog dDAVP and with vehicle.
Project description:Vasopressin, a peptide hormone, controls renal water excretion, largely through regulation of water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the renal collecting duct. There are two regulatory mechanisms of AQP2: 1) short-term regulation by membrane trafficking of AQP2; and 2) long-term regulation involving vasopressin-induced changes of protein abundance of AQP2 through regulation of gene transcription and protein half-life. Vasopressin binds a G protein-coupled receptor (V2R) activating a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Sequentially, after activation of cAMP/PKA signaling, many of transcription factors involve gene transcription process. cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive transcription factor C/EBP beta are potential candidates for vaopressin-mediated regulation of Aqp2 gene transcription proviously reported. In the present study, genome-wide binding sites for two b-ZIP transcription factors CREB and C/EBP beta were identified in vasopressin-responsive mouse collecting duct mpkCCD cells using ChIP-Seq. Overall design: To identify binding sites of transcription factors CREB and C/EBP beta in cultured mouse collecting duct mpkCCD cells, we carried out ChIP-seq for genome-wide distribution of CREB (n=4) and C/EBP beta (n=2). Observations were made both after 30 minutes treatment with the vasopressin analog dDAVP or vehicle.