GSK3beta-mediated Drp1 phosphorylation induced elongated mitochondrial morphology against oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT: Multiple phosphorylation sites of Drp1 have been characterized for their functional importance. However, the functional consequence of GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 remains unclear. In this report, we pinpointed 11 Serine/Threonine sites spanning from residue 634~736 of the GED domain and robustly confirmed Drp1 Ser693 as a novel GSK3beta phosphorylation site. Our results suggest that GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 does cause a dramatic decrease of GTPase activity; in contrast, GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 appears not to affect Drp1 inter-/intra-molecular interactions. After identifying Ser693 as a GSK3beta phosphorylation site, we also determined that K679 is crucial for GSK3beta-binding, which strongly suggests that Drp1 is a novel substrate for GSK3beta. Thereafter, we found that overexpressed S693D, but not S693A mutant, caused an elongated mitochondrial morphology which is similar to that of K38A, S637D and K679A mutants. Interestedly, using H89 and LiCl to inhibit PKA and GSK3beta signaling, respectively, it appears that a portion of the elongated mitochondria switched to a fragmented phenotype. In investigating the biofunctionality of phosphorylation sites within the GED domain, cells overexpressing Drp1 S693D and S637D, but not S693A, showed an acquired resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and ensuing apoptosis, which affected cytochrome c, capase-3, -7, and PARP, but not LC3B, Atg-5, Beclin-1 and Bcl2 expressions. These results also showed that the S693D group is more effective in protecting both non-neuronal and neuronal cells from apoptotic death than the S637D group. Altogether, our data suggest that GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 of Drp1 may be associated with mitochondrial elongation via down-regulating apoptosis, but not autophagy upon H(2)O(2) insult.
Project description:Arachidonic acid derived endogenous electrophile 15d-PGJ2 has gained much attention in recent years due to its potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory actions mediated through thiol modification of cysteine residues in its target proteins. Here, we show that 15d-PGJ2 at 1 microM concentration converts normal mitochondria into large elongated and interconnected mitochondria through direct binding to mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and partial inhibition of its GTPase activity. Mitochondrial elongation induced by 15d-PGJ2 is accompanied by increased assembly of Drp1 into large oligomeric complexes through plausible intermolecular interactions. The role of decreased GTPase activity of Drp1 in the formation of large oligomeric complexes is evident when Drp1 is incubated with a non-cleavable GTP analog, GTPgammaS or by a mutation that inactivated GTPase activity of Drp1 (K38A). The mutation of cysteine residue (Cys644) in the GTPase effector domain, a reported target for modification by reactive electrophiles, to alanine mimicked K38A mutation induced Drp1 oligomerization and mitochondrial elongation, suggesting the importance of cysteine in GED to regulate the GTPase activity and mitochondrial morphology. Interestingly, treatment of K38A and C644A mutants with 15d-PGJ2 resulted in super oligomerization of both mutant Drp1s indicating that 15d-PGJ2 may further stabilize Drp1 oligomers formed by loss of GTPase activity through covalent modification of middle domain cysteine residues. The present study documents for the first time the regulation of a mitochondrial fission activity by a prostaglandin, which will provide clues for understanding the pathological and physiological consequences of accumulation of reactive electrophiles during oxidative stress, inflammation and degeneration.
Project description:Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) is involved in metabolism, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Inhibition of GSK3beta activity is the primary mechanism that regulates this widely expressed active kinase. Although the protein kinase Akt inhibits GSK3beta by phosphorylation at the N terminus, preventing Akt-mediated phosphorylation does not affect the cell-survival pathway activated through the GSK3beta substrate beta-catenin. Here, we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) also inactivates GSK3beta by direct phosphorylation at its C terminus, and this inactivation can lead to an accumulation of beta-catenin. p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of GSK3beta occurs primarily in the brain and thymocytes. Activation of beta-catenin-mediated signaling through GSK3beta inhibition provides a potential mechanism for p38 MAPK-mediated survival in specific tissues.
Project description:Mitochondria are present as tubular organelles in neuronal projections. Here, we report that mitochondria undergo profound fission in response to nitric oxide (NO) in cortical neurons of primary cultures. Mitochondrial fission by NO occurs long before neurite injury and neuronal cell death. Furthermore, fission is accompanied by ultrastructural damage of mitochondria, autophagy, ATP decline and generation of free radicals. Fission is occasionally asymmetric and can be reversible. Strikingly, mitochondrial fission is also an early event in ischemic stroke in vivo. Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) or dominant-negative Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1(K38A)) inhibits mitochondrial fission induced by NO, rotenone and Amyloid-beta peptide. Conversely, overexpression of Drp1 or Fis1 elicits fission and increases neuronal loss. Importantly, NO-induced neuronal cell death was mitigated by Mfn1 and Drp1(K38A). Thus, persistent mitochondrial fission may play a causal role in NO-mediated neurotoxicity.
Project description:Activation of NFkappaB is a fundamental cellular event central to all inflammatory diseases. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) ameliorates both acute and chronic inflammation in a multitude of organ systems through modulating NFkappaB activity; nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanism remains uncertain. Here we report that HGF through inactivation of GSK3beta suppresses NFkappaB p65 phosphorylation specifically at position Ser-468. The Ser-468 of RelA/p65 situates in a GSK3beta consensus motif and could be directly phosphorylated by GSK3beta both in vivo and in vitro, signifying Ser-468 of RelA/p65 as a putative substrate for GSK3beta. In addition, the C terminus of RelA/p65 harbors a highly conserved domain homologue of the consensus docking sequence for GSK3beta. Moreover, this domain was required for efficient phosphorylation of Ser-468 and was indispensable for the physical interaction between RelA/p65 and GSK3beta. HGF substantially intercepted this interaction by inactivating GSK3beta. Functionally, phosphorylation of Ser-468 of RelA/p65 was required for the induced expression of a particular subset of proinflammatory NFkappaB-dependent genes. Diminished phosphorylation at Ser-468 by HGF resulted in a gene-specific inhibition of these genes' expression. The action of HGF on proinflammatory NFkappaB activation was consistently mimicked by a selective GSK3beta inhibitor or GSK3beta knockdown by RNA interference but largely abrogated in cells expressing the mutant uninhibitable GSK3beta. Collectively, our findings suggest that HGF has a potent suppressive effect on NFkappaB activation, which is mediated by GSK3beta, an important signaling transducer controlling RelA/p65 phosphorylation specificity and directing the transcription of selective proinflammatory cytokines implicated in inflammatory kidney disease.
Project description:Maturation of neuronal synapses is thought to involve mitochondria. Bcl-xL protein inhibits mitochondria-mediated apoptosis but may have other functions in healthy adult neurons in which Bcl-xL is abundant. Here, we report that overexpression of Bcl-xL postsynaptically increases frequency and amplitude of spontaneous miniature synaptic currents in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. Bcl-xL, overexpressed either pre or postsynaptically, increases synapse number, the number and size of synaptic vesicle clusters, and mitochondrial localization to vesicle clusters and synapses, likely accounting for the changes in miniature synaptic currents. Conversely, knockdown of Bcl-xL or inhibiting it with ABT-737 decreases these morphological parameters. The mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), is a GTPase known to localize to synapses and affect synaptic function and structure. The effects of Bcl-xL appear mediated through Drp1 because overexpression of Drp1 increases synaptic markers, and overexpression of the dominant-negative dnDrp1-K38A decreases them. Furthermore, Bcl-xL coimmunoprecipitates with Drp1 in tissue lysates, and in a recombinant system, Bcl-xL protein stimulates GTPase activity of Drp1. These findings suggest that Bcl-xL positively regulates Drp1 to alter mitochondrial function in a manner that stimulates synapse formation.
Project description:Huntington's disease is an inherited and incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in huntingtin (encoded by HTT). PolyQ length determines disease onset and severity, with a longer expansion causing earlier onset. The mechanisms of mutant huntingtin-mediated neurotoxicity remain unclear; however, mitochondrial dysfunction is a key event in Huntington's disease pathogenesis. Here we tested whether mutant huntingtin impairs the mitochondrial fission-fusion balance and thereby causes neuronal injury. We show that mutant huntingtin triggers mitochondrial fragmentation in rat neurons and fibroblasts of individuals with Huntington's disease in vitro and in a mouse model of Huntington's disease in vivo before the presence of neurological deficits and huntingtin aggregates. Mutant huntingtin abnormally interacts with the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1) in mice and humans with Huntington's disease, which, in turn, stimulates its enzymatic activity. Mutant huntingtin-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation, defects in anterograde and retrograde mitochondrial transport and neuronal cell death are all rescued by reducing DRP1 GTPase activity with the dominant-negative DRP1 K38A mutant. Thus, DRP1 might represent a new therapeutic target to combat neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease.
Project description:The mechano-enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 plays an important role in mitochondrial fission and is implicated in cell physiology. Dysregulation of Drp1 is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage. Drp1 shares structural and functional similarities with dynamin 1 with respect to domain organization, ability to self-assemble into spiral-like oligomers and GTP-cycle-dependent membrane scission. Structural studies of human dynamin-1 have greatly improved the understanding of this prototypical member of the dynamin superfamily. However, high-resolution structural information for full-length human Drp1 covering the GTPase domain, the middle domain and the GTPase effector domain (GED) is still lacking. In order to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic activity, a nucleotide-free GTPase-GED fusion protein of human Drp1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Initial X-ray diffraction experiments yielded data to 2.67?Å resolution. The hexagonal-shaped crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.59, b = 151.65, c = 43.53?Å, one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 42%. Expression of selenomethionine-labelled protein is currently in progress. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are presented, which form a basis for more detailed structural and biophysical analysis.
Project description:N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) activations induce fast and transient mitochondrial fragmentation under pathophysiological conditions. However, it is still unknown whether NMDAR or AMPAR activity contributes to mitochondrial dynamics under physiological conditions. In the present study, MK801 (a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist) did not affect mitochondrial length in hippocampal neurons as well as phosphorylation levels of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-serine (S) 616, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and AMPAR. In contrast, perampanel (a non-competitive AMPAR antagonist) elongated mitochondrial length in neurons concomitant with diminishing phosphorylations of DRP1-S616, ERK1/2, and JNK, but not p38 MAPK. Perampanel also reduced protein phosphatase (PP) 1, PP2A and PP2B phosphorylations, indicating activations of these PPs which were unaffected by MK801. U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) elongated mitochondrial length, accompanied by the reduced DRP1-S616 phosphorylation. SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) did not influence mitochondrial length and DRP1 phosphorylations. Okadaic acid (a PP1/PP2A inhibitor) reduced mitochondrial length with the up-regulated DRP1-S616 phosphorylation, while CsA (a PP2B inhibitor) increased it with the elevated DRP1-S637 phosphorylation. Co-treatment of okadaic acid or CsA with perampanel attenuated the reductions in DRP1-S616 and -S637 phosphorylation without changing DRP1 expression level, respectively. GYKI 52466 (another non-competitive AMPAR antagonist) showed the similar effects of perampanel on phosphorylations of DRP1, ERK1/2, JNK, PPs, and GluR1 AMPAR subunits. Taken together, our findings suggest that a blockade of AMPAR may regulate the cooperation of ERK1/2- and PP1/PP2A for the modulation of DRP1 phosphorylations, which facilitate mitochondrial fusion.
Project description:Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that mediate essential cell functions such as apoptosis and cell-cycle control in addition to their role as efficient ATP generators. Mitochondrial morphology changes are tightly regulated, and their shape can shift between small, fragmented units and larger networks of elongated mitochondria. We demonstrate that mitochondrial elements become significantly elongated and interconnected shortly after nutrient depletion. This mitochondrial morphological shift depends on the type of starvation, with an additive effect observed when multiple nutrients are depleted simultaneously. We further show that starvation-induced mitochondrial elongation is mediated by down-regulation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) through modulation of two Drp1 phosphorylation sites, leading to unopposed mitochondrial fusion. Finally, we establish that mitochondrial tubulation upon nutrient deprivation protects mitochondria from autophagosomal degradation, which could permit mitochondria to maximize energy production and supply autophagosomal membranes during starvation.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Mitochondria in adult cardiomyocytes exhibit static morphology and infrequent dynamic changes, despite the high abundance of fission and fusion regulatory proteins in the heart. Previous reports have indicated that fusion proteins may bear functions beyond morphology regulation. Here, we investigated the role of fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), on mitochondrial respiration regulation in adult cardiomyocytes.<h4>Methods and results</h4>By using genetic or pharmacological approaches, we manipulated the activity or protein level of fission and fusion proteins and found they mildly influenced mitochondrial morphology in adult rodent cardiomyocytes, which is in contrast to their significant effect in H9C2 cardiac myoblasts. Intriguingly, inhibiting endogenous DRP1 by dominant-negative DRP1 mutation (K38A), shRNA, or Mdivi-1 suppressed maximal respiration and respiratory control ratio in isolated mitochondria from adult mouse heart or in adult cardiomyocytes from rat. Meanwhile, basal respiration was increased due to increased proton leak. Facilitating mitofusin-mediated fusion by S3 compound, however, failed to inhibit mitochondrial respiration in adult cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, DRP1 inhibition did not affect the maximal activity of individual respiratory chain complexes or the assembly of supercomplexes. Knocking out cyclophilin D, a regulator of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), abolished the effect of DRP1 inhibition on respiration. Finally, DRP1 inhibition decreased transient mPTP-mediated mitochondrial flashes, delayed laser-induced mPTP opening and suppressed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS).<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results uncover a novel non-canonical function of the fission protein, DRP1 in maintaining or positively stimulating mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics and ROS signalling in adult cardiomyocyte, which is likely independent of morphological changes.