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GSK3beta-mediated Drp1 phosphorylation induced elongated mitochondrial morphology against oxidative stress.


ABSTRACT: Multiple phosphorylation sites of Drp1 have been characterized for their functional importance. However, the functional consequence of GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 remains unclear. In this report, we pinpointed 11 Serine/Threonine sites spanning from residue 634~736 of the GED domain and robustly confirmed Drp1 Ser693 as a novel GSK3beta phosphorylation site. Our results suggest that GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 does cause a dramatic decrease of GTPase activity; in contrast, GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 appears not to affect Drp1 inter-/intra-molecular interactions. After identifying Ser693 as a GSK3beta phosphorylation site, we also determined that K679 is crucial for GSK3beta-binding, which strongly suggests that Drp1 is a novel substrate for GSK3beta. Thereafter, we found that overexpressed S693D, but not S693A mutant, caused an elongated mitochondrial morphology which is similar to that of K38A, S637D and K679A mutants. Interestedly, using H89 and LiCl to inhibit PKA and GSK3beta signaling, respectively, it appears that a portion of the elongated mitochondria switched to a fragmented phenotype. In investigating the biofunctionality of phosphorylation sites within the GED domain, cells overexpressing Drp1 S693D and S637D, but not S693A, showed an acquired resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and ensuing apoptosis, which affected cytochrome c, capase-3, -7, and PARP, but not LC3B, Atg-5, Beclin-1 and Bcl2 expressions. These results also showed that the S693D group is more effective in protecting both non-neuronal and neuronal cells from apoptotic death than the S637D group. Altogether, our data suggest that GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation at Ser693 of Drp1 may be associated with mitochondrial elongation via down-regulating apoptosis, but not autophagy upon H(2)O(2) insult.

SUBMITTER: Chou CH 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3502545 | BioStudies | 2012-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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