A novel method for genotyping the Helicobacter pylori vacA intermediate region directly in gastric biopsy specimens.
ABSTRACT: The present report describes a novel method for genotyping the virulence-associated vacA intermediate (i) region of Helicobacter pylori in archive material. vacA i-region genotypes as determined by the novel method were completely concordant with those of sequence analysis and with those of functional vacuolation activity. The method was further validated directly in gastric biopsy specimens of 386 H. pylori-positive cases, and effective characterization of the vacA i region was obtained in 191 of 192 (99.5%) frozen and in 186 of 194 (95.9%) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens, respectively. The genotyping method was next used to address the relationship between the vacA genotypes and the cagA status. The vacA i1 genotype was associated with vacA s1 (where s indicates signal region), vacA m1 (where m indicates middle region), and cagA-positive genotypes (P < 0.0001), while the vacA i2 genotype was closely related with vacA s2, vacA m2, and cagA-negative genotypes (P < 0.0001). The relationship between H. pylori vacA i-region genotypes and gastric disease development was subsequently evaluated in the Portuguese population. Patients infected with vacA i1 strains showed an increased risk for gastric atrophy and for gastric carcinoma, with odds ratios of 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3 to 27) and of 22 (95% CI, 7.9 to 63), respectively. Taken together, the results show that this novel H. pylori vacA i-region genotyping method can be applied directly to archive material, providing a fast evaluation of strain virulence determinants without the need of culture. The results further emphasize that the characterization of the vacA i region may be useful to identify patients at higher risk of gastric carcinoma development.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori, which is involved in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal disease, produces CagA and VacA as major virulence factors. CagA is classified into East Asian and Western types based on the number and sequences of its Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala motifs. The vacA gene has three polymorphic regions: the signal (s), intermediate (i), and middle (m) regions. The lowest gastric cancer mortality rate is seen in Okinawa. On the Japanese mainland (Honshu), most H. pylori produce s1/m1-VacA, which exhibits strong toxicity, and East Asian-type CagA. However, the H. pylori detected in Okinawa produces s1/m2-VacA, which exhibits weak toxicity, or s2/m2-VacA, which is non-toxic, and Western-type CagA. Studies about the i-region of vacA have been performed around the world, but there have been few such studies in Japan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationships between the clinical outcomes of H. pylori infections in Okinawa, vacA (especially the i-region genotype), and cagA. H. pylori strains that were collected from patients with gastric cancer or gastric ulcers in Okinawa only produced the i1-type VacA virulence factor. The vacuolating cytotoxin activity of i1-type VacA was stronger than that of i2-type VacA, suggesting that the i-region genotype of vacA is closely associated with vacuolating cytotoxin activity. These results indicate that the i-region genotype of vacA is a useful marker of both H. pylori virulence and the clinical outcomes of H. pylori infections in Okinawa, Japan.
Project description:Gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer are a few of the diverse disease manifestations that have been shown to be associated with infection by Helicobacter pylori. Why some individuals develop more severe forms of disease remains largely unknown. In this study, 225 South Korean strains were genotyped for vacA and then analyzed to determine if particular genotypes varied across disease state, sex, or cagA allele. Of these strains, 206 strains carried an s1/i1/m1 allele, 11 strains carried an s1/i1/m2 allele, and 8 strains carried an s1/i2/m2 allele. By using Fisher's exact test, a statistical association between variations in the cagA and vacA alleles was identified (P = 0.0007), and by using log linear modeling, this variation was shown to affect the severity of disease outcome (P = 0.027). Additionally, we present evidence that variation within the middle region of VacA contributes significantly to the distribution of vacA alleles across gender (P = 0.008) as well as the association with disease outcome (P = 0.011). In this South Korean population, the majority of H. pylori strains carry the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele and the CagA EPIYA-ABD allele. These facts may contribute to the high incidence of gastric maladies, including gastric cancer.
Project description:cagA-positive and vacA s1 and m1 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with an elevated risk of gastric cancer (GC). We determined these genotypes using paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens harvested from infected individuals and compared genotype distributions in two Colombian populations residing in geographic regions with a high and low incidence of GC.DNA from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies from 107 adults was amplified using primers specific for cagA, for the cag'empty site', for the s and m alleles of vacA, and for H. pylori 16S rRNA.H. pylori infection was detected by molecular assays in 97 (90.7%) biopsies. Complete genotyping of cagA and vacA was achieved in 94 (96.9%) cases. The presence of cagA was detected in 78 of 97 cases (80.4%); when considered separately, cagA and vacA s regions were not significantly associated with a particular geographic area. The vacA m1 allele and s1m1 genotypes were more common in the area of high risk for GC (p = .037 and p = .044, respectively), while the vacA m2 allele and s2m2 genotypes were more prevalent in the low-risk area. The prevalence of the combination of cagA-positive, vacA s1m1 genotypes was 84.3% and 60.5% for high and low risk areas, respectively (p = .011).H. pylori cagA and vacA genotyping from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsies permitted reliable typability and discrimination. The more virulent cagA-positive s1m1 strains, as well as vacA m1 genotype, were more prevalent in high risk than in low risk areas, which may contribute to the difference in GC risk between those two regions.
Project description:Bangladesh has a population with a low gastric cancer risk but high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Several studies have examined virulence genes in H. pylori from Bangladesh. We analyzed cagA and vacA subtypes and their association with severe histology phenotypes, and analyzed population types among Bangladeshi strains. We included patients who underwent endoscopy in Dhaka. Sequences of virulence genes and seven housekeeping genes were obtained by next generation sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. We isolated 56 H. pylori strains from 133 patients, of which 73.2% carried cagA, and all were considered Western-type. Patients infected with cagA-positive strains had more severe histological scores than patients infected with cagA-negative strains. Among vacA s1 and m1 genotypes, the s1a (97.8%, 43/44) and m1c (28/30, 93.3%) genotypes were predominant. All strains containing s1 and m1 (30/56, 53.6%) also had i1, d1, and c1. In contrast, all strains containing the less-virulent genotypes s2 and m2 (12/56, 21.4%) also possessed i2, d2, and c2. Multivariate analysis indicated that subjects infected with vacA m1-genotype strains only had a significantly higher risk of antrum atrophy than patients infected with m2-genotype strains. Of the two main H. pylori populations in this study, hpAsia2 strains were associated with higher activity and inflammation in the antrum compared to hpEurope strains; however, only vacA s1m1i1d1c1 strains, independent of population type, were significantly associated with inflammation in the antrum, unlike the s2m2i2d2c2 genotype. In conclusion, Bangladeshi strains were divided into two main populations of different genotypes. The low incidence of gastric cancer in Bangladesh might be attributable to the high proportion of less-virulent genotypes, which may be a better predictor of gastric cancer risk than the ancestral origin of the H. pylori strains. Finally, the vacA m region may be a better virulence marker than other regions.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori infection and related diseases outcome are mediated by a complex interplay between bacterial, host and environmental factors. Several distinct virulence factors of H. pylori have been shown to be associated with different clinical outcomes. Here we focused on vacA and cagA genotypes of H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric disorder.The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of two toxins and genotypes of VacA toxin in patients referred to a central hospital in the west of Iran (Imam Reza hospital, Kermanshah) during 2011 - 2012.Samples were collected from patients infected with H. pylori. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and corpus were cultured. PCR analysis was performed for genotyping H. pylori vacA and cagA genes.Helicobacter pylori was isolated from 48% (96/200) of patients with gastroduodenal disorders. In 81/96 (84%) cases, the cagA gene was present. Among different genotypes of vacA, two s1m2 and s2m2 genotypes were dominant with frequency of 39.5% and 50%, respectively. The frequency of the s1m1 genotype was 7.2% (7/96), which is much lower than elsewhere. H. pylori isolates with positive results for cagA gene and vacA s1m2 genotypes showed statistically significant correlation with peptic ulcer (s1m2 13/34 [38.2%] P = 0.003). However, isolates of H. pylori infection with cagA gene and vacA s2m2 genotypes were significantly associated with development of gastritis (s2m2 41/42 [97.6%] P = 0.000).About 90% of H. pylori strains potentially contained vacA s2m2 and s1m2 genotypes. Infection with H. pylori strain containing the cagA gene or the vacA s1m1 and s1m2 genotypes was associated with increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD).
Project description:Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori can predict the development of different gastroduodenal diseases. There are scarce reports in Cuba about H. pylori isolates genotyping. The aim of the present investigation was to identify allelic variation of the virulence genes vacA, cagA, and iceA in sixty-eight patients diagnosed as H. pylori positive by culture. In seven out of 68 patients, strains from both gastric regions were obtained and considered independent. DNA was extracted from all the H. pylori strains and evaluated by PCR-genotyping. The vacA s1 allele, cagA gene, and iceA2 allele were the most prevalent (72.0%, 56.0%, and 57.3%, respectively). Alleles from m-region showed a similar frequency as s1a and s1b subtypes. The presence of multiple H. pylori genotypes in a single biopsy and two gastric region specimens were found. Significant statistical association was observed between iceA2 allele and patients with non-peptic ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (P = 0.037) as well as virulence genotypes (s1, s1m2) and patients over 40 years old (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results demonstrated a high prevalence of H. pylori virulent genotypes in Cuban patients over 40 years old while iceA2 alleles demonstrated a good specificity in patients with NUD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer have been shown to be related to infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, CagA and VacA, have been associated with these sequelae of the infection. In this study, total DNA was isolated from gastric biopsy specimens to assess the cagA and vacA genotypes. RESULTS: Variations in H. pylori cagA EPIYA motifs and the mosaic structure of vacA s/m/i/d regions were analysed in 155?H. pylori-positive gastric biopsies from 71 individuals using PCR and sequencing. Analysis of a possible association between cagA and vacA genotypes and gastroduodenal pathogenesis was made by logistic regression analysis. We found that H. pylori strains with variation in the number of cagA EPIYA motif variants present in the same biopsy correlated with peptic ulcer, while occurrence of two or more EPIYA-C motifs was associated with atrophy in the gastric mucosa. No statistically significant relation between vacA genotypes and gastroduodenal pathogenesis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that cagA genotypes may be important determinants in the development of gastroduodenal sequelae of H. pylori infection. In contrast to other studies, vacA genotypes were not related to disease progression or outcome. In order to fully understand the relations between cagA, vacA and gastroduodenal pathogenesis, the mechanisms by which CagA and VacA act and interact need to be further investigated.
Project description:The presence of various numbers of EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs in the CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to contribute to pathogenesis in adults. In this prospective study, we characterized H. pylori isolates from symptomatic children, with reference to the diversity of functional EPIYA motifs in the CagA protein and vacA isotypes, and assessed the potential correlation with the histopathological manifestations of the infection. We analyzed 105 H. pylori isolates from 98 children and determined the diversity of EPIYA motifs in CagA by amplification and sequencing of the 3' variable region of the cagA gene as well as vacA isotypes for the signal, middle, and intermediate regions. CagA phosphorylation and levels of secreted IL-8 were determined following in vitro infection of AGS gastric epithelial cells. Histopathological evaluation of H. pylori colonization, activity, and severity of the associated gastritis was performed according to the updated Sydney criteria. EPIYA A (GLKN[ST]EPIYAKVNKKK), EPIYA B (Q[V/A]ASPEPIY[A/T]QVAKKVNAKI), and EPIYA C (RS[V/A]SPEPIYATIDDLG) motifs were detected in the ABC (46.6%) and ABCC (17.1%) combinations. No isolates harboring more than two EPIYA C motifs in CagA were found. The presence of isogenic strains with variable numbers of CagA EPIYA C motifs within the same patient was detected in seven cases. Occurrence of increasing numbers of EPIYA C motifs correlated strongly with presence of a high-vacuolation (s1 or s2/i1/m1) phenotype and age. A weak positive correlation was observed between vacuolating vacA genotypes and presence of nodular gastritis. However, CagA- and VacA-dependent pathogenicities were not found to contribute to severity of histopathology manifestations in H. pylori-infected children.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that causes various gastrointestinal diseases. The most common gastric malignancies associated with H. pylori are gastric cancer and lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Helicobacter pylori virulence genes, namely cagA and vacA, are known to be associated with malignancy development. Conventionally, cagA and vacA were classified by looking at partial sequences of the genes. However, such genotyping has hardly proven useful predicting different risks for gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma. In search of new loci that distinguish these diseases, we investigated the full sequences of cagA and vacA.We compared cagA and vacA sequences of 18 and 12 H. pylori strains obtained, respectively, from patients with gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma in Oita, Japan. Conventional genotyping of cagA and vacA showed no significant difference between the two diseases. We further investigated the full protein sequences of CagA and VacA to identify loci where allele frequency was significantly different between the diseases. We found four such loci on CagA, and three such loci on VacA. We also inspected the corresponding loci on the genes of 22 gastritis strains that potentially lead to gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma in the long run. Significant differences were observed at one CagA locus between gastritis and MALT lymphoma strains, and at one VacA locus between gastritis and gastric cancer strains.We found novel candidate loci in H. pylori virulence genes in association with two different types of gastric malignancies that could not be differentiated by conventional genotyping. Biological connotations of the amino acid polymorphisms merit further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to identify the common H. pylori virulence genes among dyspeptic Southwestern Saudi patients and their association with clinical outcomes and histopathological findings to help practitioners and researchers in the region for better management of infections caused by such bacteria. METHODS:Four hundred two gastric biopsy specimens were analyzed using histopathological examination and real time-PCR. The positive 187 specimens by RT-PCR were genotyped using PCR targeting cagA, vacA and iceA genes. RESULTS:One hundred twenty-eight gastric biopsy specimens were positive in genotyping PCRs. The cagA, vacA, iceA1 and iceA2 genes were detected in rates of 49.2% (63/128), 100%(128/128), 42.2% (54/128), 32.8% (42/128), respectively. The vacA s1as1bm2 subtype was the highest 23.4% (30/128), followed by m2 and s1a1b subtypes which were equally detected [16.4% (21/128) for each]. The iceA genes were significantly associated with gastritis and gastric ulcer. Overall, vacA genotypes were significantly associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. The vacA subtypes: s1as1bm2, s1a1b and s2?m2 showed chronic active gastritis in percentages of 90.0, 81, and 84.2%, respectively. All vacA mixed genotypes showed chronic active gastritis. CONCLUSIONS:H. pylori virulence genes are highly prevalent and diverse among patients with dyspepsia in Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. The iceA genes and the different vacA subtypes are significantly associated with the clinical outcomes and histopathological changes especially chronic active gastritis.