Enterovirus 71 VPg uridylation uses a two-molecular mechanism of 3D polymerase.
ABSTRACT: VPg uridylylation is essential for picornavirus RNA replication. The VPg uridylylation reaction consists of the binding of VPg to 3D polymerase (3D(pol)) and the transfer of UMP by 3D(pol) to the hydroxyl group of the third amino acid Tyr of VPg. Previous studies suggested that different picornaviruses employ distinct mechanisms during VPg binding and uridylylation. Here, we report a novel site (Site-311, located at the base of the palm domain of EV71 3D(pol)) that is essential for EV71 VPg uridylylation as well as viral replication. Ala substitution of amino acids (T313, F314, and I317) at Site-311 reduced the VPg uridylylation activity of 3D(pol) by >90%. None of the Site-311 mutations affected the RNA elongation activity of 3D(pol), which indicates that Site-311 does not directly participate in RNA polymerization. However, mutations that abrogated VPg uridylylation significantly reduced the VPg binding ability of 3D(pol), which suggests that Site-311 is a potential VPg binding site on enterovirus 71 (EV71) 3D(pol). Mutation of a polymerase active site in 3D(pol) and Site-311 in 3D(pol) remarkably enables trans complementation to restore VPg uridylylation. In contrast, two distinct Site-311 mutants do not cause trans complementation in vitro. These results indicate that Site-311 is a VPg binding site that stabilizes the VPg molecule during the VPg uridylylation process and suggest a two-molecule model for 3D(pol) during EV71 VPg uridylylation, such that one 3D(pol) presents the hydroxyl group of Tyr3 of VPg to the polymerase active site of another 3D(pol), which in turn catalyzes VPg?VPg-pU conversion. For genome-length RNA, the Site-311 mutations that reduced VPg uridylylation were lethal for EV71 replication, which indicates that Site-311 is a potential antiviral target.
Project description:Picornavirus RNA replication is initiated by VPg uridylylation, during which the hydroxyl group of the third tyrosine residue of the virally encoded protein VPg is covalently linked to two UMP molecules by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp; also known as 3D(pol)). We previously identified site 311, located at the base of the palm domain of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) RdRp, to be the site for EV71 VPg binding and uridylylation. Here we report the crystal structure of EV71 3D(pol) complexed with VPg. VPg was anchored at the bottom of the palm domain of the 3D(pol) molecule and exhibited an extended V-shape conformation. The corresponding interface on 3D(pol) was mainly formed by residues within site 311 and other residues in the palm and finger domains. Mutations of the amino acids of 3D(pol) involved in the VPg interaction (3DL319A, 3DD320A, and 3DY335A) significantly disrupted VPg binding to 3D(pol), resulting in defective VPg uridylylation. In contrast, these mutations did not affect the RNA elongation activity of 3D(pol). In the context of viral genomic RNA, mutations that abolished VPg uridylylation activity were lethal for EV71 replication. Further in vitro analysis showed that the uridylylation activity was restored by mixing VPg-binding-defective and catalysis-defective mutants, indicating a trans mechanism for EV71 VPg uridylylation. Our results, together with previous results of other studies, demonstrate that different picornaviruses use distinct binding sites for VPg uridylylation.
Project description:The mechanism of amiloride inhibition of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus type 1 (PV1) RNA replication was investigated using membrane-associated RNA replication complexes. Amiloride was shown to inhibit viral RNA replication and VPgpUpU synthesis. However, the drug had no effect on polymerase elongation activity during either (-) strand or (+) strand synthesis. These findings indicated that amiloride inhibited the initiation of RNA synthesis by inhibiting VPg uridylylation. In addition, in silico binding studies showed that amiloride docks in the VPg binding site on the back of the viral RNA polymerase, 3D(pol). Since VPg binding at this site on PV1 3D(pol) was previously shown to be required for VPg uridylylation, our results suggest that amiloride inhibits VPg binding to 3D(pol). In summary, our findings are consistent with a model in which amiloride inhibits VPgpUpU synthesis and viral RNA replication by competing with VPg for binding to 3D(pol).
Project description:Enteroviruses (EV) uridylylate a peptide, VPg, as the first step in their replication. VPgpUpU, found free in infected cells, serves as the primer for RNA elongation. The abilities of four polymerases (3D(pol)), from EV-species A-C, to uridylylate VPgs that varied by up to 60% of their residues were compared. Each 3D(pol) was able to uridylylate all five VPgs using polyA RNA as template, while showing specificity for its own genome encoded peptide. All 3D(pol) uridylylated a consensus VPg representing the physical chemical properties of 31 different VPgs. Thus the residues required for uridylylation and the enzymatic mechanism must be similar in diverse EV. As VPg-binding sites differ in co-crystal structures, the reaction is probably done by a second 3D(pol) molecule. The conservation of polymerase residues whose mutation reduces uridylylation but not RNA elongation is compared.
Project description:Coxsackie virus A24 (CVA24), a causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, is a prototype of enterovirus (EV) species C. The RNA polymerase (3D(pol)) of CVA24 can uridylylate the viral peptide linked to the genome (VPg) from distantly related EV and is thus, a good model for studying this reaction. Once UMP is bound, VPgpU primes RNA elongation. Structural and mutation data have identified a conserved binding surface for VPg on the RNA polymerase (3D(pol)), located about 20Å from the active site. Here, computational docking of over 60,000 small compounds was used to select those with the lowest (best) specific binding energies (BE) for this allosteric site. Compounds with varying structures and low BE were assayed for their effect on formation of VPgU by CVA24-3D(pol). Two compounds with the lowest specific BE for the site inhibited both uridylylation and formation of VPgpolyU at 10-20?M. These small molecules can be used to probe the role of this allosteric site in polymerase function, and may be the basis for novel antiviral compounds.
Project description:Poliovirus 3CD is a multifunctional protein that serves as a precursor to the protease 3C(pro) and the viral polymerase 3D(pol) and also plays a role in the control of viral replication. Although 3CD is a fully functional protease, it lacks polymerase activity. We have solved the crystal structures of 3CD at a 3.4-A resolution and the G64S fidelity mutant of 3D(pol) at a 3.0-A resolution. In the 3CD structure, the 3C and 3D domains are joined by a poorly ordered polypeptide linker, possibly to facilitate its cleavage, in an arrangement that precludes intramolecular proteolysis. The polymerase active site is intact in both the 3CD and the 3D(pol) G64S structures, despite the disruption of a network proposed to position key residues in the active site. Therefore, changes in molecular flexibility may be responsible for the differences in fidelity and polymerase activities. Extensive packing contacts between symmetry-related 3CD molecules and the approach of the 3C domain's N terminus to the VPg binding site suggest how 3D(pol) makes biologically relevant interactions with the 3C, 3CD, and 3BCD proteins that control the uridylylation of VPg during the initiation of viral replication. Indeed, mutations designed to disrupt these interfaces have pronounced effects on the uridylylation reaction in vitro.
Project description:Amiloride and its derivative 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA) were previously shown to inhibit coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA replication in cell culture, with two amino acid substitutions in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D(pol) conferring partial resistance of CVB3 to these compounds (D. N. Harrison, E. V. Gazina, D. F. Purcell, D. A. Anderson, and S. Petrou, J. Virol. 82:1465-1473, 2008). Here we demonstrate that amiloride and EIPA inhibit the enzymatic activity of CVB3 3D(pol) in vitro, affecting both VPg uridylylation and RNA elongation. Examination of the mechanism of inhibition of 3D(pol) by amiloride showed that the compound acts as a competitive inhibitor, competing with incoming nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) and Mg(2+). Docking analysis suggested a binding site for amiloride and EIPA in 3D(pol), located in close proximity to one of the Mg(2+) ions and overlapping the nucleotide binding site, thus explaining the observed competition. This is the first report of a molecular mechanism of action of nonnucleoside inhibitors against a picornaviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
Project description:The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a central piece in the replication machinery of RNA viruses. In picornaviruses this essential RdRp activity also uridylates the VPg peptide, which then serves as a primer for RNA synthesis. Previous genetic, binding, and biochemical data have identified a VPg binding site on poliovirus RdRp and have shown that is was implicated in VPg uridylation. More recent structural studies have identified a topologically distinct site on the closely related foot-and-mouth disease virus RdRp supposed to be the actual VPg-primer-binding site. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.5-A resolution of active coxsackievirus B3 RdRp (also named 3D(pol)) in a complex with VPg and a pyrophosphate. The pyrophosphate is situated in the active-site cavity, occupying a putative binding site either for the coproduct of the reaction or an incoming NTP. VPg is bound at the base of the thumb subdomain, providing first structural evidence for the VPg binding site previously identified by genetic and biochemical methods. The binding mode of VPg to CVB3 3D(pol) at this site excludes its uridylation by the carrier 3D(pol). We suggest that VPg at this position is either uridylated by another 3D(pol) molecule or that it plays a stabilizing role within the uridylation complex. The CVB3 3D(pol)/VPg complex structure is expected to contribute to the understanding of the multicomponent VPg-uridylation complex essential for the initiation of genome replication of picornaviruses.
Project description:Picornavirus RNA replication is initiated by the covalent attachment of a UMP molecule to the hydroxyl group of a tyrosine in the terminal protein VPg. This reaction is carried out by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Here, we report the X-ray structure of two complexes between foot-and-mouth disease virus 3D, VPg1, the substrate UTP and divalent cations, in the absence and in the presence of an oligoadenylate of 10 residues. In both complexes, VPg fits the RNA binding cleft of the polymerase and projects the key residue Tyr3 into the active site of 3D. This is achieved by multiple interactions with residues of motif F and helix alpha8 of the fingers domain and helix alpha13 of the thumb domain of the polymerase. The complex obtained in the presence of the oligoadenylate showed the product of the VPg uridylylation (VPg-UMP). Two metal ions and the catalytic aspartic acids of the polymerase active site, together with the basic residues of motif F, have been identified as participating in the priming reaction.
Project description:Picornaviruses constitute a medically important family of RNA viruses in which genome replication critically depends on a small RNA element, the cis-acting replication element (cre), that templates 3D(pol) polymerase-catalyzed uridylylation of the protein primer for RNA synthesis, VPg. We report the solution structure of the 33-nt cre of human rhinovirus 14 under solution conditions optimal for uridylylation in vitro. The cre adopts a stem-loop conformation with an extended duplex stem supporting a novel 14-nt loop that derives stability from base-stacking interactions. Base-pair interactions are absent within the loop, and base substitutions within the loop that favor such interactions are detrimental to viral RNA replication. Conserved adenosines in the 5' loop sequence that participate in a slide-back mechanism of VPg-pUpU synthesis are oriented to the inside of the loop but are available for base templating during uridylation. The structure explains why substitutions of the 3' loop nucleotides have little impact on conformation of the critical 5' loop bases and accounts for wide variation in the sequences of cres from different enteroviruses and rhinoviruses.
Project description:Poliovirus (PV) VPg is a genome-linked protein that is essential for the initiation of viral RNA replication. It has been well established that RNA replication is initiated when a molecule of UMP is covalently linked to the hydroxyl group of a tyrosine (Y3) in VPg by the viral RNA polymerase 3D(pol), but it is not yet known whether the substrate for uridylylation in vivo is the free peptide itself or one of its precursors. The aim of this study was to use complementation analyses to obtain information about the true in vivo substrate for uridylylation by 3D(pol). Previously, it was shown that a VPg mutant, in which tyrosine 3 and threonine 4 were replaced by phenylalanine and alanine (3F4A), respectively, was nonviable. We have now tested whether wild-type forms of proteins 3B, 3BC, 3BCD, 3AB, 3ABC, and P3 provided either in trans or in cis could rescue the replication defect of the VPg(3F4A) mutations in the PV polyprotein. Our results showed that proteins 3B, 3BC, 3BCD, and P3 were unable to complement the RNA replication defect in dicistronic PV or dicistronic luciferase replicons in vivo. However, cotranslation of the P3 precursor protein allowed rescue of RNA replication of the VPg(3F4A) mutant in an in vitro cell-free translation-RNA replication system, but only poor complementation was observed when 3BC, 3AB, 3BCD, or 3ABC proteins were cotranslated in the same assay. Interestingly, only protein 3AB but not 3B and 3BC, when provided in cis by insertion of a wild-type 3AB coding sequence between the P2 and P3 domains of the polyprotein, supported the replication of the mutated genome in vivo. Elimination of cleavage between 3A and 3B in the complementing 3AB protein, however, led to a complete lack of RNA replication. Our results suggest that (i) VPg has to be delivered to the replication complex in the form of a large protein precursor (P3) to be fully functional in replication; (ii) the replication complex formed during PV replication in vivo is essentially inaccessible to proteins provided in trans, even if the complementing protein is translated from a different cistron of the same RNA genome; (iii) 3AB is the most likely precursor of VPg; and (iv) Y3 of VPg has an essential function in RNA replication in the context of both VPg and 3AB.