Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations and polymorphisms do not affect weight loss after bariatric surgery.
ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery is the most effective long term weight-loss therapy for severe and morbidly obese patients. Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) mutations, the most frequent known cause of monogenic obesity, affect the regulation of energy homeostasis. The impact of such mutations on weight loss after bariatric surgery is still debated.The objective is to determine the impact of MC4R status on weight loss in obese subjects over one year after bariatric surgery.A total of 648 patients, who were referred to bariatric surgery in a single clinical nutrition department, were genotyped for their MC4R status. The following four groups were categorized: functional MC4R mutations, MC4R single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): Val103Ile (V103L) and Ile251Leu (I251L), MC4R variant rs17782313 (downstream of MC4R) and MC4R SNP A-178C on the promoter. Each patient was matched with two randomly paired controls without mutation. Matching factors were age, sex, baseline weight and type of surgery procedure (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding). We compared weight loss between cases and controls at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery.Among 648 patients, we identified 9 carriers of functional MC4R mutations, 10 carriers of MC4R V103L and I251L SNPs, 7 carriers of the rs17792313 variant and 22 carriers of the A-178C SNP. Weight loss at 3, 6 and 12 months did not differ between cases and controls, whatever the MC4R mutations.This is the first case-control study to show that MC4R mutations and polymorphisms do not affect weight loss and body composition over one year after bariatric surgery.
Project description:Factors that influence long-term weight loss after Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgeries are poorly defined. The melanocortin system plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis, satiety, and glucose metabolism. Variations of the MC4R comprise the most prevalent monogenetic obesity disorder.The objective of the study was to examine the role of MC4R variants and diabetic status in long-term weight loss after RYGB.In 1433 extremely obese patients who underwent RYGB, we sequenced for genetic variants of MC4R. We examined the MC4R genotype and its relationship with weight loss profile, and clinical phenotypes accumulated during a 48-month period before and after surgery.We found 80 subjects with rare and common variants of MC4R in the RYGB cohort. Among these, 26 and 36 patients carry the I251L and V103I variants, respectively. These common alleles are negatively associated with obesity. Remarkably, after the 12-month presurgery caloric restriction and RYGB, I251L allele carriers lost 9% more weight (∼9 kg) compared with the noncarriers, continued rapid weight loss longer, regained less weight, and had lower presurgery homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance values. Normoglycemic, I251L allele carriers lost more weight compared with their diabetic and prediabetic counterparts and maintained their weight loss. Among noncarriers, normoglycemic individuals initially lost more weight compared with dysglycemics, but this difference was not maintained in the long term.Individuals carrying the I251L common allele are predisposed to better clinical outcome, reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, and better weight loss during diet and surgical interventions. Diabetic status has only a small, short-term effect on weight loss after RYGB.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) critically regulates feeding and satiety. Rare variants in MC4R are predominantly found in obese individuals. Though some rare variants in MC4R discovered in patients have defects in localization, ligand binding and signaling to cAMP, many have no recognized defects.<h4>Subjects/methods</h4>In our cohort of 1433 obese subjects that underwent Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery, we found fifteen variants of MC4R. We matched rare variant carriers to patients with the MC4R reference alleles for gender, age, starting BMI and T2D to determine the variant effect on weight-loss post-RYGB. In vitro, we determined expression of mutant receptors by ELISA and western blot, and cAMP production by microscopy.<h4>Results</h4>While carrying a rare MC4R allele is associated with obesity, carriers of rare variants exhibited comparable weight-loss after RYGB to non-carriers. However, subjects carrying three of these variants, V95I, I137T or L250Q, lost less weight after surgery. In vitro, the R305Q mutation caused a defect in cell surface expression while only the I137T and C326R mutations showed impaired cAMP signaling. Despite these apparent differences, there was no correlation between in vitro signaling and pre- or post-surgery clinical phenotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data suggest that subtle differences in receptor signaling conferred by rare MC4R variants combined with additional factors predispose carriers to obesity. In the absence of complete MC4R deficiency, these differences can be overcome by the powerful weight-reducing effects of bariatric surgery. In a complex disorder such as obesity, genetic variants that cause subtle defects that have cumulative effects can be overcome after appropriate clinical intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND: At present pathogenic mechanisms of cancer cachexia are poorly understood. Previous evidence in animal models implicates the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) in the development of cancer cachexia. In humans, MC4R mutations that lead to an impaired receptor function are associated with obesity; in contrast, the most frequent polymorphism (Val103Ile, rs2229616; heterozygote frequency approximately 2%) was shown to be negatively associated with obesity. We tested if cancer patients that are homo-/heterozygous for the Val103Ile polymorphism are more likely to develop cachexia and/or a loss of appetite than non-carriers of the 103Ile-allele. METHODS: BMI (body mass index in kg/m2) of 509 patients (295 males) with malignant neoplasms was determined; additionally patients were asked about premorbid/pretherapeutical changes of appetite and weight loss. Cachexia was defined as a weight loss of at least 5% prior to initiation of therapy; to fulfil this criterion this weight loss had to occur independently of other plausible reasons; in single cases weight loss was the initial reason for seeing a physician. The average age in years (+/- SD) was 59.0 +/- 14.5 (males: 58.8 +/- 14.0, females 59.2 +/- 14.0). Blood samples were taken for genotyping of the Val103Ile by PCR- RFLP. RESULTS: Most of the patients suffered from lymphoma, leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. 107 of the patients (21%) fulfilled our criteria for cancer cachexia. We did not detect association between the Val103Ile polymorphism and cancer cachexia. However, if we exploratively excluded the patients with early leucaemic stages, we detected a trend towards the opposite effect (p < 0.05); heterozygotes for the 103Ile-allele developed cancer cachexia less frequently in comparison to the rest of the study group. Changes of appetite were not associated with the 103Ile-allele carrier status (p > 0.39). CONCLUSION: Heterozygotes for the 103Ile-allele are not more prone to develop cancer cachexia than patients without this allele; possibly, Ile103 carriers might be more resistant to cancer cachexia in patients with solid tumors. Further studies of the melanocortinergic system in cachexia of patients with solid tumors are warranted.
Project description:Background:Melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) is an important regulator of food intake, body weight, and blood pressure. Mutations in MC4R are associated with the most common form of nonsyndromic monogenic obesity. MC4R variations have an autosomal co-/dominant model of inheritance. MC4R screening could reveal individuals previously unrecognized with Mendelian form of obesity for further clinical management and genetic counseling. However, there are limited data regarding MC4R variants in patients with obesity from Brazil. The aim of this study was to screen the coding region of the MC4R gene in a Brazilian cohort of severely obese adults and to investigate the phenotype-genotype correlation within MC4R variant carriers. Methods:This study comprised 157 adult participants, stratified according to the period of obesity onset. The first group included 97 patients with childhood-onset obesity (0-11 years) and the second group comprised 60 subjects with adolescence/youth-onset obesity (12-21 years). The entire coding region of MC4R gene was screened by Sanger sequencing. Results:As a result, five previously described variants (Met1?, Ser36Thr, Val103Ile, Ile98=, and Phe202Leu) were identified. Met1? is a start lost codon variant, which affects the translation of MC4R. It was found in a female patient with childhood-onset obesity. We also compared the anthropometric and metabolic parameters between patients with MC4R missense variants (Ser36Thr, Val103Ile, and Phe202Leu) and noncarriers. Patients carrying MC4R variants had higher median of waist-hip ratio when compared to noncarriers (P=0.048). These missense variants were also associated with hypertension (P=0.014). Additionally, Val103Ile carriers had lower diastolic blood pressure and lower systolic blood pressure compared to noncarriers (P=0.020 and P=0.065, respectively). Val103Ile was also associated with hypertension (P=0.003). Conclusion:This study showed the prevalence of MC4R variants in a cohort of Brazilian adults with severe obesity. We also identified significant phenotype differences between carriers and noncarriers of missense variants in our sample, suggesting an important role of MC4R on body fat distribution and blood pressure.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays major roles in the central control of energy balance. Loss-of-function mutations of MC4R constitute the most common monogenic cause of early-onset extreme obesity in humans, whereas gain-of-function mutations appear to be protective. In particular, two relatively frequent alleles carrying the non-synonymous coding mutations V103I or I251L are associated with lower risks of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Although V103I and I251L MC4Rs showed more efficient signalling in transfected cells, their specific effects in live animals remain unexplored. Here, we investigated whether the introduction of V103I and I251L mutations into the mouse MC4R leads to a lean phenotype and provides protection against an obesogenic diet. METHODS:Using CRISPR/Cas9, we generated two novel strains of mice carrying single-nucleotide mutations into the mouse Mc4r which are identical to those present in V103I and I251L MCR4 human alleles, and studied their phenotypic outcomes in mice fed with normal chow or a high-fat diet. In particular, we measured body weight progression, food intake and adiposity. In addition, we analysed glucose homeostasis through glucose and insulin tolerance tests. RESULTS:We found that homozygous V103I females displayed shorter longitudinal length and decreased abdominal white fat, whereas homozygous I251L females were also shorter and leaner due to decreased weight in all white fat pads examined. Homozygous Mc4rV103I/V103I and Mc4rI251L/I251L mice of both sexes showed improved glucose homeostasis when challenged in a glucose tolerance test, whereas Mc4rI251L/I251L females showed improved responses to insulin. Despite being leaner and metabolically more efficient, V103I and I251L mutants fed with a hypercaloric diet increased their fasting glucose levels and adiposity similar to their wild-type littermates. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that mice carrying V103I and I251L MC4R mutations displayed gain-of-function phenotypes that were more evident in females. However, hypermorphic MC4R mutants were as susceptible as their control littermates to the obesogenic and diabetogenic effects elicited by a long-term hypercaloric diet, highlighting the importance of healthy feeding habits even under favourable genetic conditions.
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glucose homeostasis independently of changes in body weight by unknown mechanisms. Melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) have weight-independent effects on glucose homeostasis, via autonomic neurons, and also might contribute to weight loss after RYGB. We investigated whether MC4Rs mediate effects of RYGB, such as its weight-independent effects on glucose homeostasis, in mice and humans.We studied C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity, MC4R-deficient mice, and mice that re-express MC4R specifically in autonomic neurons after RYGB or sham surgeries. We also sequenced the MC4R locus in patients undergoing RYGB to investigate diabetes resolution in carriers of rare MC4R variants.MC4Rs in autonomic brainstem neurons (including the parasympathetic dorsal motor vagus) mediated improved glucose homeostasis independent of changes in body weight. In contrast, MC4Rs in cholinergic preganglionic motor neurons (sympathetic and parasympathetic) mediated RYGB-induced increased energy expenditure and weight loss. Increased energy expenditure after RYGB is the predominant mechanism of weight loss and confers resistance to weight gain from a high-fat diet, the effects of which are MC4R-dependent. MC4R-dependent effects of RYGB still occurred in mice with Mc4r haplosufficiency, and early stage diabetes resolved at a similar rate in patients with rare variants of MC4R and noncarriers. However, carriers of MC4R (I251L), a rare variant associated with increased weight loss after RYGB and increased basal activity in vitro, were more likely to have early and weight-independent resolution of diabetes than noncarriers, indicating a role for MC4Rs in the effects of RYGB.MC4Rs in autonomic neurons mediate beneficial effects of RYGB, including weight-independent improved glucose homeostasis, in mice and humans.
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the most effective long-term therapies for the treatment of severe obesity. Recent evidence indicates that RYGB effects weight loss through multiple physiological mechanisms, including changes in energy expenditure, food intake, food preference, and reward pathways.Because central melanocortin signaling plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, we investigated whether genetic disruption of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in rodents and humans affects weight loss after RYGB.Here we report that MC4R(-/-) mice lost substantially less weight after surgery than wild-type animals, indicating that MC4R signaling is necessary for the weight loss effects of RYGB in this model. Mice heterozygous for MC4R remain fully responsive to gastric bypass. To determine whether mutations affect surgically induced weight loss in humans, we sequenced the MC4R gene in 972 patients undergoing RYGB. Patients heterozygous for MC4R mutations exhibited the same magnitude and distribution of postoperative weight loss as patients without such mutations, suggesting that although two normal copies of the MC4R gene are necessary for normal weight regulation, a single normal copy of the MC4R gene is sufficient to mediate the weight loss effects of RYGB.MC4R is the first gene identified that is required for the sustained effects of bariatric surgery. The need for MC4R signaling for the weight loss effects of RYGB in mice underscores the physiological mechanisms of action of this procedure and demonstrates that RYGB both influences and is dependent on the normal pathways that regulate energy balance.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a commonly applied bariatric procedure, involves surgically incising most of the volume of the stomach. In humans, partial loss of melanocortin receptor-4 (MC4R) activity is the most common monogenic correlate of obesity regardless of lifestyle. At present it is unclear whether genetic alteration of MC4R signaling modulates the beneficial effects of VSG. Following VSG, we analyzed body weight, food intake, glucose sensitivity, and macronutrient preference of wild-type and MC4R-deficient (Mc4r(+/-) and Mc4r(-/-)) rats compared with sham-operated controls. VSG reduced body weight and fat mass and improved glucose metabolism and also shifted preference toward carbohydrates and away from fat. All of this occurred independently of MC4R activity. In addition, MC4R was resequenced in 46 human subjects who underwent VSG. We observed common genetic variations in the coding sequence of MC4R in five subjects. However, none of those variations appeared to affect the outcome of VSG. Taken together, these data suggest that the beneficial effect of VSG on body weight and glucose metabolism is not mediated by alterations in MC4R activity.
Project description:Individuals with obesity due to pathogenic heterozygous melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) mutations can be treated efficiently with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) liraglutide. Here, we report the effect of 16 weeks of liraglutide 3 mg/day treatment in a woman with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to homozygous pathogenic MC4R mutation. The body weight loss was 9.7 kg, similar to weight loss in heterozygous MC4R mutation carriers and common obesity. In addition, the treatment led to clinically relevant decreases in fasting glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and normalization of glucose tolerance. We conclude that liraglutide reduces body weight and blood glucose levels in hetero- and homozygous MC4R mutation carriers. This serves as proof-of-concept that MC4Rs are not required for the body weight and glucose lowering effects of GLP-1 RAs and that liraglutide may be used as part of the treatment of obesity and T2D due to MC4R mutations.
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene represent the most frequent cause of monogenic obesity in humans. MC4R mutation analysis in a cohort of 77 children with morbid obesity identified previously unreported heterozygous mutations (P272L, N74I) in two patients inherited from their obese mothers. A rare polymorphism (I251L, allelic frequency: 1/100) reported to protect against obesity was found in another obese patient. When expressed in neuronal cells, the cell surface abundance of wild-type MC4R and of the N74I and I251L variants and the cAMP generated by these receptors in response to exposure to the agonist, α-MSH, were not different. Conversely, MC4R P272L was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and had reduced cell surface expression and signaling (by ≈ 3-fold). The chemical chaperone PBA, which promotes protein folding of wild-type MC4R, had minimal effects on the distribution and signaling of the P272L variant. In contrast, incubation with UBE-41, a specific inhibitor of ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, inhibited ubiquitination of MC4R P272L and increased its cell surface expression and signaling to similar levels as wild-type MC4R. UBE41 had much less profound effects on MC4R I316S, another obesity-linked MC4R variant trapped in the ER. These data suggest that P272L is retained in the ER by a propensity to be ubiquitinated in the face of correct folding, which is only minimally shared by MC4R I316S. Thus, studies that combine clinical screening of obese patients and investigation of the functional defects of the obesity-linked MC4R variants can identify specific ways to correct these defects and are the first steps towards personalized medicine.