Base-pairing preferences, physicochemical properties and mutational behaviour of the DNA lesion 8-nitroguanine.
ABSTRACT: 8-Nitro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-nitrodG) is a relatively unstable, mutagenic lesion of DNA that is increasingly believed to be associated with tissue inflammation. Due to the lability of the glycosidic bond, 8-nitrodG cannot be incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) by chemical DNA synthesis and thus very little is known about its physicochemical properties and base-pairing preferences. Here we describe the synthesis of 8-nitro-2'-O-methylguanosine, a ribonucleoside analogue of this lesion, which is sufficiently stable to be incorporated into ODNs. Physicochemical studies demonstrated that 8-nitro-2'-O-methylguanosine adopts a syn conformation about the glycosidic bond; thermal melting studies and molecular modelling suggest a relatively stable syn-8-nitroG·anti-G base pair. Interestingly, when this lesion analogue was placed in a primer-template system, extension of the primer by either avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase (AMV-RT) or human DNA polymerase β (pol β), was significantly impaired, but where incorporation opposite 8-nitroguanine did occur, pol β showed a 2:1 preference to insert dA over dC, while AMV-RT incorporated predominantly dC. The fact that no 8-nitroG·G base pairing is seen in the primer extension products suggests that the polymerases may discriminate against this pairing system on the basis of its poor geometric match to a Watson-Crick pair.
Project description:N(2),3-Ethenoguanine (N(2),3-?G) is one of the exocyclic DNA adducts produced by endogenous processes (e.g. lipid peroxidation) and exposure to bioactivated vinyl monomers such as vinyl chloride, which is a known human carcinogen. Existing studies exploring the miscoding potential of this lesion are quite indirect because of the lability of the glycosidic bond. We utilized a 2'-fluoro isostere approach to stabilize this lesion and synthesized oligonucleotides containing 2'-fluoro-N(2),3-?-2'-deoxyarabinoguanosine to investigate the miscoding potential of N(2),3-?G by Y-family human DNA polymerases (pols). In primer extension assays, pol ? and pol ? replicated through N(2),3-?G, whereas pol ? and REV1 yielded only 1-base incorporation. Steady-state kinetics revealed that dCTP incorporation is preferred opposite N(2),3-?G with relative efficiencies in the order of pol ? > REV1 > pol ? ? pol ?, and dTTP misincorporation is the major miscoding event by all four Y-family human DNA pols. Pol ? had the highest dTTP misincorporation frequency (0.71) followed by pol ? (0.63). REV1 misincorporated dTTP and dGTP with much lower frequencies. Crystal structures of pol ? with N(2),3-?G paired to dCTP and dTTP revealed Hoogsteen-like base pairing mechanisms. Two hydrogen bonds were observed in the N(2),3-?G:dCTP base pair, whereas only one appears to be present in the case of the N(2),3-?G:dTTP pair. Base pairing mechanisms derived from the crystal structures explain the slightly favored dCTP insertion for pol ? in steady-state kinetic analysis. Taken together, these results provide a basis for the mutagenic potential of N(2),3-?G.
Project description:The synthesis of a caged RNA phosphoramidite building block containing the oxidatively damaged base 5-hydroxycytidine (5-HOrC) has been accomplished. To determine the effect of this highly mutagenic lesion on complementary base recognition and coding properties, this building block was incorporated into a 12-mer oligoribonucleotide for T(m) and CD measurements and a 31-mer template strand for primer extension experiments with HIV-, AMV- and MMLV-reverse transcriptase (RT). In UV-melting experiments, we find an unusual biphasic transition with two distinct T(m)'s when 5-HOrC is paired against a DNA or RNA complement with the base guanine in opposing position. The higher T(m) closely matches that of a C-G base pair while the lower is close to that of a C-A mismatch. In single nucleotide extension reactions, we find substantial misincorporation of dAMP and to a lesser extent dTMP, with dAMP almost equaling that of the parent dGMP in the case of HIV-RT. A working hypothesis for the biphasic melting transition does not invoke tautomeric variability of 5-HOrC but rather local structural perturbations of the base pair at low temperature induced by interactions of the 5-HO group with the phosphate backbone. The properties of this RNA damage is discussed in the context of its putative biological function.
Project description:One common oxidative DNA lesion, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine (8-oxoG), is highly mutagenic in vivo due to its anti-conformation forming a Watson-Crick base pair with correct deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate (dCTP) and its syn-conformation forming a Hoogsteen base pair with incorrect deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP). Here, we utilized time-resolved X-ray crystallography to follow 8-oxoG bypass by human DNA polymerase ? (hPol?). In the 12 solved structures, both Watson-Crick (anti-8-oxoG:anti-dCTP) and Hoogsteen (syn-8-oxoG:anti-dATP) base pairing were clearly visible and were maintained throughout the chemical reaction. Additionally, a third Mg(2+) appeared during the process of phosphodiester bond formation and was located between the reacting ?- and ?-phosphates of the dNTP, suggesting its role in stabilizing reaction intermediates. After phosphodiester bond formation, hPol? reopened its conformation, pyrophosphate was released, and the newly incorporated primer 3'-terminal nucleotide stacked, rather than base paired, with 8-oxoG. These structures provide the first real-time pictures, to our knowledge, of how a polymerase correctly and incorrectly bypasses a DNA lesion.
Project description:The major product of oxidative base damage is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine (8odG). The coding potential of this lesion is modulated by its glycosidic torsion angle that controls whether its Watson-Crick or Hoogsteen edge is used for base pairing. The 2.0-A structure of DNA polymerase (pol) beta bound with 8odGTP opposite template adenine indicates that the modified nucleotide assumes the mutagenic syn conformation and that the nonmutagenic anti conformation would be incompatible with efficient DNA synthesis.
Project description:Human DNA polymerase iota is a lesion bypass polymerase of the Y family, capable of incorporating nucleotides opposite a variety of lesions in both near error-free and error-prone bypass. With undamaged templating purines polymerase iota normally favors Hoogsteen base pairing. Polymerase iota can incorporate nucleotides opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-derived adenine lesion (dA*); while mainly error-free, the identity of misincorporated bases is influenced by local sequence context. We performed molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the structural basis for lesion bypass. Our results suggest that hydrogen bonds between the benzo[a]pyrenyl moiety and nearby bases limit the movement of the templating base to maintain the anti glycosidic bond conformation in the binary complex in a 5'-CAGA*TT-3' sequence. This facilitates correct incorporation of dT via a Watson-Crick pair. In a 5'-TTTA*GA-3' sequence the lesion does not form these hydrogen bonds, permitting dA* to rotate around the glycosidic bond to syn and incorporate dT via a Hoogsteen pair. With syn dA*, there is also an opportunity for increased misincorporation of dGTP. These results expand our understanding of the versatility and flexibility of polymerase iota and its lesion bypass functions in humans.
Project description:In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.
Project description:Oxanine (Oxa, O), one of the major damaged bases from guanine generated by NO- or HNO2-induced nitrosative deamination, has been considered as a mutagen-potent lesion. For exploring more detailed properties of Oxa, large-scale preparation of Oxa-containing oligodeoxynucleotide (Oxa-ODN) with the desired base sequence is a prerequisite. In the present study, we have developed a chemical synthesis procedure of Oxa-ODNs and characterized thermodynamic properties of Oxa in DNA strands. First, 2'-deoxynucleoside of Oxa (dOxo) obtained from 2'-deoxyguanosine by HNO2-nitrosation was subjected to 5'-O-selective tritylation to give 5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-dOxo (DMT-dOxo) with a maximum yield of 70%. Subsequently, DMT-dOxo was treated with conventional phosphoramidation, which resulted in DMT-dOxo-amidite monomer with a maximum yield of 72.5%. The amidite obtained was used for synthesizing Oxa-ODNs: the coupling yields for Oxa incorporation were over 93%. The prepared Oxa-ODNs were employed for analyzing the thermodynamic properties of DNA duplexes containing base-matches of O:N [N; C (cytosine), T (thymine), G (guanine) or A (adenine)]. Melting temperatures (Tm) and thermodynamic stability (DeltaG37(0)) were found to be lower by 6.83 approximately 13.41 degrees C and 2.643 approximately 6.047 kcal mol(-1), respectively, compared with those of oligodeoxynucleotides, which had the same base sequence except that O:N was replaced by G:C (wild type). It has also been found that Oxa-pairing with cytosine shows relatively high stability in DNA duplex compared with other base combinations. The orders of DeltaDeltaG37(0) were O:C > O:T > O:A > O:G. The chemical synthesis procedure and thermodynamic characteristics of Oxa-ODNs established here will be helpful for elucidating the biological significance of Oxa in relation to genotoxic and repair mechanisms.
Project description:We report the synthesis, structure, and pairing properties in DNA of an isostere for deoxyadenosine which lacks all hydrogen-bonding functionality on the Watson-Crick pairing edge. A deoxyribo-nucleoside derivative of 4-methylbenzimidazole (1), which was recently shown to be inserted into DNA by Klenow DNA polymerase (Morales, J. C.; Kool, E. T. Nature Struct. Biol.1998, 5, 950), is prepared from 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-bis-O-p-toluoyl-?-D-erythro-pentofuranose. The X-ray crystal structure of the nucleoside confirms that the compound is a close steric match for deoxyadenosine (2), although the methylbenzimidazole base is in the syn glycosidic orientation in the crystal. In D(2)O solution, 1H NMR studies show that 1 and 2 have similar (60% vs 70% S) sugar conformations and anti glycosidic orientations. Compound 1 is incorporated into a 12mer oligodeoxynucleotide and its base pairing properties in duplexes assessed by thermal denaturation. The results show that 1 has low affinity for the four natural bases but displays a stronger preference for being situated opposite a nonpolar difluorotoluene nucleoside analogue of thymine (3). The structural similarities of 1 and 2, combined with recent polymerase studies, add support to the hypothesis that steric complementarity plays an important role in base pair replication by polymerase enzymes and that Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are not absolute requirements. Compound 1 should have significant utility as a probe of the importance of electrostatic effects in protein-DNA and protein-nucleotide binding as well as in DNA replication.
Project description:Bypass across DNA lesions by specialized polymerases is essential for maintenance of genomic stability. Human DNA polymerase iota (poliota) is a bypass polymerase of the Y family. Crystal structures of poliota suggest that Hoogsteen base pairing is employed to bypass minor groove DNA lesions, placing them on the spacious major groove side of the enzyme. Primer extension studies have shown that poliota is also capable of error-free nucleotide incorporation opposite the bulky major groove adduct N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-AAF). We present molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations suggesting that Watson-Crick base pairing could be employed in poliota for bypass of dG-AAF. In poliota with Hoogsteen-paired dG-AAF the bulky AAF moiety would reside on the cramped minor groove side of the template. The Hoogsteen-capable conformation distorts the active site, disrupting interactions necessary for error-free incorporation of dC opposite the lesion. Watson-Crick pairing places the AAF rings on the spacious major groove side, similar to the position of minor groove adducts observed with Hoogsteen pairing. Watson-Crick-paired structures show a well-ordered active site, with a near reaction-ready ternary complex. Thus our results suggest that poliota would utilize the same spacious region for lesion bypass of both major and minor groove adducts. Therefore, purine adducts with bulk on the minor groove side would use Hoogsteen pairing, while adducts with the bulky lesion on the major groove side would utilize Watson-Crick base pairing as indicated by our MD simulations for dG-AAF. This suggests the possibility of an expanded role for poliota in lesion bypass.
Project description:trans-4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is the major peroxidation product of ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. Michael addition of the N(2)-amino group of dGuo to HNE followed by ring closure of N1 onto the aldehyde results in four diastereomeric 1,N(2)-dGuo (1,N(2)-HNE-dGuo) adducts. The (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct was incorporated into the 18-mer templates 5'-d(TCATXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3' and d(TCACXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3', where X = (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct. These differed in the identity of the template 5'-neighbor base, which was either Thy or Cyt, respectively. Each of these templates was annealed with either a 13-mer primer 5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3' or a 14-mer primer 5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTCC)-3'. The addition of dNTPs to the 13-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP insertion opposite to the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct, whereas the 14-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP extension past a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo:dCyd pair. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) belongs to the Y-family of error-prone polymerases. Replication bypass studies in vitro reveal that this polymerase inserted dNTPs opposite the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct in a sequence-specific manner. If the template 5'-neighbor base was dCyt, the polymerase inserted primarily dGTP, whereas if the template 5'-neighbor base was dThy, the polymerase inserted primarily dATP. The latter event would predict low levels of Gua ? Thy mutations during replication bypass when the template 5'-neighbor base is dThy. When presented with a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo:dCyd pair, the polymerase conducted full-length primer extension. Structures for ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) complexes with all four template-primers were obtained. For the 18-mer:13-mer template-primers in which the polymerase was confronted with the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct, the (6S,8R,11S)-1,N(2)-dGuo lesion remained in the ring-closed conformation at the active site. The incoming dNTP, either dGTP or dATP, was positioned with Watson-Crick pairing opposite the template 5'-neighbor base, dCyt or dThy, respectively. In contrast, for the 18-mer:14-mer template-primers with a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo:dCyd pair, ring opening of the adduct to the corresponding N(2)-dGuo aldehyde species occurred. This allowed Watson-Crick base pairing at the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo:dCyd pair.