Fumaroylamino-4,5-epoxymorphinans and related opioids with irreversible ? opioid receptor antagonist effects.
ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that cinnamoyl derivatives of 14?-amino-17-cyclopropylmethyl-7,8-dihydronormorphinone and 7?-aminomethyl-6,14-endoethanonororipavine have pronounced pseudoirreversible ? opioid receptor (MOR) antagonism. The present communication describes the synthesis and evaluation of fumaroylamino analogues of these cinnamoylamino derivatives together with some related fumaroyl derivatives. The predominant activity of the new ligands was MOR antagonism. The fumaroylamino analogues (2a, 5a) of the pseudoirreversible antagonist cinnamoylamino morphinones and oripavines (2b, 5b) were themselves irreversible antagonists in vivo. However the fumaroylamino derivatives had significantly higher MOR efficacy than the cinnamoylamino derivatives in mouse antinociceptive tests. Comparison of 2a and 5a with the prototypic fumaroylamino opioid ?-FNA (1a) shows that they have similar MOR irreversible antagonist actions but differ in the nature of their opioid receptor agonist effects; 2a is a predominant MOR agonist and 5a shows no opioid receptor selectivity, whereas the agonist effect of ?-FNA is clearly ? opioid receptor (KOR) mediated.
Project description:14-O-Cinnamoyl esters of naltrexone (6) were synthesized and evaluated in isolated tissue assays in vitro and in vivo in mouse antinociceptive assays. Their predominant opioid receptor activity was mu receptor (MOR) antagonism, but the unsubstituted cinnamoyl derivative (6a) had partial MOR agonist activity in vitro and in vivo. When compared to the equivalent 14-cinnamoylaminomorphinones (5), the cinnamoyloxy morphinones (6) as MOR antagonists had a shorter duration of action and were less effective as pseudoirreversible antagonists. The antinociceptive activity of the cinnamoyloxycodeinones (7) was not significantly greater than that of the morphinones (6), but they exhibited no evidence of any pseudoirreversible MOR antagonism. In both respects, these profiles differed from those of the equivalent 14-cinnamoylaminocodeinones (4).
Project description:14beta-4'-Chlorocinnamoylaminodihydronormorphinone (2a), and analogues, are selective pseudoirreversible antagonists of the mu opioid receptor (MOR). The preparation of analogues with ethynic bonds, replacing the ethenic bond of 2a, is described. The new ligands, in mouse antinociceptive assays, had pseudoirreversible MOR antagonist activity, which, in the case of 8b was of longer duration than that of 2a. The related codeinone (9b) had only antagonist activity in vivo, in contrast to 2a's codeinone equivalent 3a, which had potent antinociceptive activity.
Project description:The development of tolerance to and dependence on opioid analgesics greatly reduces their long-term usefulness. Previous studies have demonstrated that co-administration of a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist can decrease MOR agonist-induced tolerance and dependence development after chronic exposure. Clinically, a single ligand displaying multiple efficacies (e.g., MOR agonism concurrently with DOR antagonism) would be of increased value over two drugs administered simultaneously. Guided by modeling of receptor-ligand complexes we have developed a series of potent non-selective opioid tetrapeptides that have differing efficacy at MOR and DOR. In particular, our lead peptide (KSK-103) binds with equal affinity to MOR and DOR but acts as a MOR agonist with similar efficacy but greater potency than morphine and a DOR antagonist in cellular assays measuring both G protein stimulation and adenylyl cyclase inhibition.
Project description:Most opioid analgesics used in the treatment of pain are mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. While effective, there are significant drawbacks to opioid use, including the development of tolerance and dependence. However, the coadministration of a MOR agonist with a delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist slows the development of MOR-related side effects, while maintaining analgesia. We have previously reported a series of cyclic mixed efficacy MOR agonist/DOR antagonist ligands. Here we describe the transfer of key features from these cyclic analogs to linear sequences. Using the linear MOR/DOR agonist, Tyr-DThr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Ser-NH2 (DTLES), as a lead scaffold, we replaced Phe(4) with bulkier and/or constrained aromatic residues shown to confer DOR antagonism in our cyclic ligands. These replacements failed to confer DOR antagonism in the DTLES analogs, presumably because the more flexible linear ligands can adopt binding poses that will fit in the narrow binding pocket of the active conformations of both MOR and DOR. Nonetheless, the pharmacological profile observed in this series, high affinity and efficacy for MOR and DOR with selectivity relative to KOR, has also been shown to reduce the development of unwanted side effects. We further modified our lead MOR/DOR agonist with a C-terminal glucoserine to improve bioavailability. The resulting ligand displayed high efficacy and potency at both MOR and DOR and no efficacy at KOR.
Project description:Chronic use of mu-opioid agonists has been shown to cause neurochemical adaptations resulting in tolerance and dependence. While the analgesic effects of these drugs are mediated by mu-opioid receptors (MOR), several studies have shown that antagonism or knockdown of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) can lessen or prevent development of tolerance and dependence. On the basis of computational modeling of putative active and inactive conformations of MOR and DOR, we have synthesized a series of pentapeptides with the goal of developing a MOR agonist/DOR antagonist peptide with similar affinity at both receptors as a tool to probe functional opioid receptor interaction(s). The eight resulting naphthylalanine-substituted cyclic pentapeptides displayed variable mixed-efficacy profiles. The most promising peptide (9; Tyr-c(S-CH(2)-S)[D-Cys-Phe-2-Nal-Cys]NH(2)) displayed a MOR agonist and DOR partial agonist/antagonist profile and bound with equipotent affinity (K(i) approximately 0.5 nM) to both receptors, but also showed kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist activity.
Project description:Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of numerous opioid ligands have shown that introduction of a methyl or ethyl group on the tertiary amino group at position 17 of the epoxymorphinan skeleton generally results in a mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonist while introduction of a cyclopropylmethyl group typically leads to an antagonist. Furthermore, it has been shown that introduction of heterocyclic ring systems at position 6 can favor antagonism. However, it was reported that 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14?-dihydroxy-4,5?-epoxy-6?-[(2'-indolyl)acetamido]morphinan (INTA), which bears a cyclopropylmethyl group at position 17 and an indole ring at position 6, acted as a MOR agonist. We herein report a SAR study on INTA with a series of its complementary derivatives to understand how introduction of an indole moiety with ? or ? linkage at position 6 of the epoxymorphinan skeleton may influence ligand function. Interestingly, one of INTA derivatives, compound 15 (NAN) was identified as a MOR antagonist both in vitro and in vivo. Molecular modeling studies revealed that INTA and NAN may interact with different domains of the MOR allosteric binding site. In addition, INTA may interact with W293 and N150 residues found in the orthosteric site to stabilize MOR activation conformation while NAN does not. These results suggest that INTA and NAN may be bitopic ligands and the type of allosteric interactions with the MOR influence their functional activity. These insights along with our enriched comprehension of the "message-address" concept will to benefit future ligand design.
Project description:The opioid crisis is a significant public health issue with more than 115 people dying from opioid overdose per day in the United States. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14?-dihydroxy-4,5?-epoxy-6?-(indole-7-carboxamido)morphinan (NAN), a ? opioid receptor (MOR) ligand that may be a potential candidate for opioid use disorder treatment that produces less withdrawal signs than naltrexone. The efficacy of NAN was compared to varying efficacy ligands at the MOR, and determined at the ? opioid receptor (DOR) and ? opioid receptor (KOR). NAN was identified as a low efficacy partial agonist for G-protein activation at the MOR and DOR, but had relatively high efficacy at the KOR. In contrast to high efficacy MOR agonists, NAN did not induce MOR internalization, downregulation, or desensitization, but it antagonized agonist-induced MOR internalization and stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ release. Opioid withdrawal studies conducted using morphine-pelleted mice demonstrated that NAN precipitated significantly less withdrawal signs than naltrexone at similar doses. Furthermore, NAN failed to produce fentanyl-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats up to doses that produced dose- and time-dependent antagonism of fentanyl. Overall, these results provide converging lines of evidence that NAN functions mainly as a MOR antagonist and support further consideration of NAN as a candidate medication for opioid use disorder treatment.
Project description:In this letter, we describe a series of 4-substituted piperidine and piperazine compounds based on tetrahydroquinoline 1, a compound that shows balanced, low nanomolar binding affinity for the mu opioid receptor (MOR) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR). We have shown that by changing the length and flexibility profile of the side chain in this position, binding affinity is improved at both receptors by a significant degree. Furthermore, several of the compounds described herein display good efficacy at MOR, while simultaneously displaying DOR antagonism. The MOR agonist/DOR antagonist has shown promise in the reduction of negative side effects displayed by selective MOR agonists, namely the development of dependence and tolerance.
Project description:Ligands from the naltrexamine series have consistently demonstrated agonist activity at kappa opioid receptors (KOR), with varying activity at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Various 6 beta-cinnamoylamino derivatives were made with the aim of generating ligands with a KOR agonist/MOR partial agonist profile, as ligands with this activity may be of interest as treatment agents for cocaine abuse. The ligands all displayed the desired high affinity, nonselective binding in vitro and in the functional assays were high efficacy KOR agonists with some partial agonist activity at MOR. Two of the new ligands (12a, 12b) have been evaluated in vivo, with 12a acting as a KOR agonist and therefore somewhat similar to the previously evaluated analogues 3-6, while 12b displayed predominant MOR agonist activity.
Project description:Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents. Systemic administration of the 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitor JZL184 or the opioid receptor agonist morphine increased social play behavior in adolescent rats. These effects were blocked by systemic pretreatment with either CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) or mu-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonists. The social play-enhancing effects of systemic morphine or JZL184 treatment were also prevented by direct infusion of the CB1R antagonist SR141716 and the MOR antagonist naloxone into the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). Searching for synaptic correlates of these effects in adolescent NAcC excitatory synapses, we observed that CB1R antagonism blocked the effect of the MOR agonist DAMGO and, conversely, that naloxone reduced the effect of a cannabinoid agonist. These results were recapitulated in mice, and completely abolished in CB1R and MOR knockout mice, suggesting that the functional interaction between CB1R and MOR in the NAcC in the modulation of social behavior is widespread in rodents. The data shed new light on the mechanism by which endocannabinoid lipids and opioid peptides interact to orchestrate rodent socioemotional behaviors.