Adhesion rings surround invadopodia and promote maturation.
ABSTRACT: Invasion and metastasis are aggressive cancer phenotypes that are highly related to the ability of cancer cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). At the cellular level, specialized actin-rich structures called invadopodia mediate focal matrix degradation by serving as exocytic sites for ECM-degrading proteinases. Adhesion signaling is likely to be a critical regulatory input to invadopodia, but the mechanism and location of such adhesion signaling events are poorly understood. Here, we report that adhesion rings surround invadopodia shortly after formation and correlate strongly with invadopodium activity on a cell-by-cell basis. By contrast, there was little correlation of focal adhesion number or size with cellular invadopodium activity. Prevention of adhesion ring formation by inhibition of RGD-binding integrins or knockdown (KD) of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) reduced the number of ECM-degrading invadopodia and reduced recruitment of IQGAP to invadopodium actin puncta. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed that the rate of extracellular MT1-MMP accumulation at invadopodia was greatly reduced in both integrin-inhibited and ILK-KD cells. Conversely, KD of MT1-MMP reduced invadopodium activity and dynamics but not the number of adhesion-ringed invadopodia. These results suggest a model in which adhesion rings are recruited to invadopodia shortly after formation and promote invadopodium maturation by enhancing proteinase secretion. Since adhesion rings are a defining characteristic of podosomes, similar structures formed by normal cells, our data also suggest further similarities between invadopodia and podosomes.
Project description:Podosomes and invadopodia are actin-based structures at the ventral cell membrane, which have a role in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Little is known about the differences and dynamics underlying these structures. We studied podosome-like structures of oral squamous carcinoma cells and invadopodia of their invasive variant that has undergone a spontaneous epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In 3D imaging, podosomes were relatively large structures that enlarged in time, whereas invadopodia of invasive cells remained small, but were more numerous, degraded more extracellular matrix (ECM) and were morphologically strikingly different from podosomes. In live-cell imaging, highly dynamic, invadopodia-embedded actin tails were frequently released and rocketed through the cytoplasm. Resembling invadopodia, we found new club-ended cell extensions in EMT-experienced cells, which contained actin, cortactin, vinculin and MT1-matrix metalloproteinase. These dynamic cell extensions degraded ECM and, in field emission scanning electron microscopy, protruded from the dorsal cell membrane. Plectin, alphaII-spectrin, talin and focal adhesion kinase immunoreactivities were detected in podosome rings, whereas they were absent from invadopodia. Tensin potentially replaced talin in invadopodia. Integrin alpha(3)beta(1) surrounded both podosomes and invadopodia, whereas integrin alpha(v)beta(5) localized only to invadopodia heads. Pacsin 2, in conjunction with filamin A, was detected early in podosomes, whereas pacsin 2 was not found in invadopodia and filamin A showed delayed accumulation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicated faster reorganization of actin, cortactin and filamin A in podosomes compared to invadopodia. In conclusion, EMT affects the invasion machinery of oral squamous carcinoma cells. Non-invasive squamous carcinoma cells constitutively organize podosomes, whereas invasive cells form invadopodia. The club-ended cell extensions, or externalized invadopodia, are involved in ECM degradation and maintenance of contact to adhesion substrate and surrounding cells during invasion.
Project description:Movement through the extracellular matrix (ECM) requires cells to degrade ECM components, primarily through the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has an essential role in matrix degradation and cell invasion and localizes to subcellular degradative structures termed invadopodia. Trafficking of MT1-MMP to invadopodia is required for the function of these structures, and here we examine the role of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-activating protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane traffic in the transport of MT1-MMP to invadopodia. During invadopodium formation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, increased association of SNAP23, Syntaxin4, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) is detected by coimmunoprecipitation. Blocking the function of these SNAREs perturbs invadopodium-based ECM degradation and cell invasion. Increased level of SNAP23-Syntaxin4-VAMP7 interaction correlates with decreased Syntaxin4 phosphorylation. These results reveal an important role for SNARE-regulated trafficking of MT1-MMP to invadopodia during cellular invasion of ECM.
Project description:MT1-MMP is a potent invasion-promoting membrane protease employed by aggressive cancer cells. MT1-MMP localizes preferentially at membrane protrusions called invadopodia where it plays a central role in degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Previous reports suggested a role for a continuous supply of MT1-MMP in ECM degradation. However, the turnover rate of MT1-MMP and the extent to which the turnover contributes to the ECM degradation at invadopodia have not been clarified. To approach this problem, we first performed FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching) experiments with fluorescence-tagged MT1-MMP focusing on a single invadopodium and found very rapid recovery in FRAP signals, approximated by double-exponential plots with time constants of 26 s and 259 s. The recovery depended primarily on vesicle transport, but negligibly on lateral diffusion. Next we constructed a computational model employing the observed kinetics of the FRAP experiments. The simulations successfully reproduced our FRAP experiments. Next we inhibited the vesicle transport both experimentally, and in simulation. Addition of drugs inhibiting vesicle transport blocked ECM degradation experimentally, and the simulation showed no appreciable ECM degradation under conditions inhibiting vesicle transport. In addition, the degree of the reduction in ECM degradation depended on the degree of the reduction in the MT1-MMP turnover. Thus, our experiments and simulations have established the role of the rapid turnover of MT1-MMP in ECM degradation at invadopodia. Furthermore, our simulations suggested synergetic contributions of proteolytic activity and the MT1-MMP turnover to ECM degradation because there was a nonlinear and marked reduction in ECM degradation if both factors were reduced simultaneously. Thus our computational model provides a new in silico tool to design and evaluate intervention strategies in cancer cell invasion.
Project description:Invadopodia are specialized actin-rich protrusions of metastatic tumor and transformed cells with crucial functions in ECM degradation and invasion. Although early electron microscopy studies described invadopodia as long filament-like protrusions of the cell membrane adherent to the matrix, fluorescence microscopy studies have focused on invadopodia as actin-cortactin aggregates localized to areas of ECM degradation. The absence of a clear conceptual integration of these two descriptions of invadopodial structure has impeded understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that govern invadopodia. To determine the relationship between the membrane filaments identified by electron microscopy and the actin-cortactin aggregates of invadopodia, we applied rapid live-cell high-resolution TIRF microscopy to examine cell membrane dynamics at the cortactin core of the invadopodia of human carcinoma cells. We found that cortactin docking to the cell membrane adherent to 2D fibronectin matrix initiates invadopodium assembly associated with the formation of an invadopodial membrane process that extends from a ventral cell membrane lacuna toward the ECM. The tip of the invadopodial process flattens as it interacts with the 2D matrix, and it undergoes constant rapid ruffling and dynamic formation of filament-like protrusions as the invadopodium matures. To describe this newly discovered dynamic relationship between the actin-cortactin core and invadopodial membranes, we propose a model of the invadopodial complex. Using TIRF microscopy, we also established that - in striking contrast to the invadopodium - membrane at the podosome of a macrophage fails to form any process- or filament-like membrane protrusions. Thus, the undulation and ruffling of the invadopodial membrane together with the formation of dynamic filament-like extensions from the invadopodial cortactin core defines invadopodia as invasive superstructures that are distinct from the podosomes.
Project description:Ca(2+) signaling has been increasingly implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, and yet, the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. In this paper, we report that STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations promote melanoma invasion by orchestrating invadopodium assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Ca(2+) oscillation signals facilitate invadopodial precursor assembly by activating Src. Disruption of Ca(2+) oscillations inhibited invadopodium assembly. Furthermore, STIM1 and Orai1 regulate the proteolysis activity of individual invadopodia. Mechanistically, Orai1 blockade inhibited the recycling of MT1-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) to the plasma membrane and entrapped MT1-MMP in the endocytic compartment to inhibit ECM degradation. STIM1 knockdown significantly inhibited melanoma lung metastasis in a xenograft mouse model, implicating the importance of this pathway in metastatic dissemination. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for Ca(2+)-mediated cancer cell invasion and shed new light on the spatiotemporal organization of store-operated Ca(2+) signals during melanoma invasion and metastasis.
Project description:Invadopodia are actin-rich subcellular protrusions with associated proteases used by cancer cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) . Molecular components of invadopodia include branched actin-assembly proteins, membrane trafficking proteins, signaling proteins, and transmembrane proteinases . Similar structures exist in nontransformed cells, such as osteoclasts and dendritic cells, but are generally called podosomes and are thought to be more involved in cell-matrix adhesion than invadopodia [2-4]. Despite intimate contact with their ECM substrates, it is unknown whether physical or chemical ECM signals regulate invadopodia function. Here, we report that ECM rigidity directly increases both the number and activity of invadopodia. Transduction of ECM-rigidity signals depends on the cellular contractile apparatus [5-7], given that inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II, myosin light chain kinase, and Rho kinase all abrogate invadopodia-associated ECM degradation. Whereas myosin IIA, IIB, and phosphorylated myosin light chain do not localize to invadopodia puncta, active phosphorylated forms of the mechanosensing proteins p130Cas (Cas) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are present in actively degrading invadopodia, and the levels of phospho-Cas and phospho-FAK in invadopodia are sensitive to myosin inhibitors. Overexpression of Cas or FAK further enhances invadopodia activity in cells plated on rigid polyacrylamide substrates. Thus, in invasive cells, ECM-rigidity signals lead to increased matrix-degrading activity at invadopodia, via a myosin II-FAK/Cas pathway. These data suggest a potential mechanism, via invadopodia, for the reported correlation of tissue density with cancer aggressiveness.
Project description:Invasive carcinoma cells use specialized actin polymerization-driven protrusions called invadopodia to degrade and possibly invade through the extracellular matrix (ECM) during metastasis. Phosphorylation of the invadopodium protein cortactin is a master switch that activates invadopodium maturation and function. Cortactin was originally identified as a hyperphosphorylated protein in v-Src-transformed cells, but the kinase or kinases that are directly responsible for cortactin phosphorylation in invadopodia remain unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that the Abl-related nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Arg mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cortactin phosphorylation, triggering actin polymerization in invadopodia, ECM degradation, and matrix proteolysis-dependent tumor cell invasion. Both Src and Arg localize to invadopodia and are required for EGF-induced actin polymerization. Notably, Arg overexpression in Src knockdown cells can partially rescue actin polymerization in invadopodia while Src overexpression cannot compensate for loss of Arg, arguing that Src indirectly regulates invadopodium maturation through Arg activation. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which an EGFR-Src-Arg-cortactin pathway mediates functional maturation of invadopodia and breast cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, they identify Arg as a novel mediator of invadopodia function and a candidate therapeutic target to inhibit tumor invasion in vivo.
Project description:Focal degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is the first step in the invasion of cancer cells. MT1-MMP is a potent membrane proteinase employed by aggressive cancer cells. In our previous study, we reported that MT1-MMP was preferentially located at membrane protrusions called invadopodia, where MT1-MMP underwent quick turnover. Our computer simulation and experiments showed that this quick turnover was essential for the degradation of ECM at invadopodia (Hoshino, D., et al., (2012) PLoS Comp. Biol., 8: e1002479). Here we report on characterization and analysis of the ECM-degrading activity of MT1-MMP, aiming at elucidating a possible reason for its repetitive insertion in the ECM degradation. First, in our computational model, we found a very narrow transient peak in the activity of MT1-MMP followed by steady state activity. This transient activity was due to the inhibition by TIMP-2, and the steady state activity of MT1-MMP decreased dramatically at higher TIMP-2 concentrations. Second, we evaluated the role of the narrow transient activity in the ECM degradation. When the transient activity was forcibly suppressed in computer simulations, the ECM degradation was heavily suppressed, indicating the essential role of this transient peak in the ECM degradation. Third, we compared continuous and pulsatile turnover of MT1-MMP in the ECM degradation at invadopodia. The pulsatile insertion showed basically consistent results with the continuous insertion in the ECM degradation, and the ECM degrading efficacy depended heavily on the transient activity of MT1-MMP in both models. Unexpectedly, however, low-frequency/high-concentration insertion of MT1-MMP was more effective in ECM degradation than high-frequency/low-concentration pulsatile insertion even if the time-averaged amount of inserted MT1-MMP was the same. The present analysis and characterization of ECM degradation by MT1-MMP together with our previous report indicate a dynamic nature of MT1-MMP at invadopodia and the importance of its transient peak in the degradation of the ECM.
Project description:Tumor cell invasion involves targeted localization of proteins required for interactions with the extracellular matrix and for proteolysis. The localization of many proteins during these cell-extracellular matrix interactions relies on membrane trafficking mediated in part by SNAREs. The SNARE protein syntaxin4 (Stx4) is involved in the formation of invasive structures called invadopodia; however, it is unclear how Stx4 function is regulated during tumor cell invasion. Munc18c is known to regulate Stx4 activity, and here we show that Munc18c is required for Stx4-mediated invadopodium formation and cell invasion. Biochemical and microscopic analyses revealed a physical association between Munc18c and Stx4, which was enhanced during invadopodium formation, and that a reduction in Munc18c expression decreases invadopodium formation. We also found that an N-terminal Stx4-derived peptide associates with Munc18c and inhibits endogenous interactions of Stx4 with synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2). Furthermore, expression of the Stx4 N-terminal peptide decreased invadopodium formation and cell invasion in vitro Of note, cells expressing the Stx4 N-terminal peptide exhibited impaired trafficking of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and EGF receptor (EGFR) to the cell surface during invadopodium formation. Our findings implicate Munc18c as a regulator of Stx4-mediated trafficking of MT1-MMP and EGFR, advancing our understanding of the role of SNARE function in the localization of proteins that drive tumor cell invasion.
Project description:Invadopodia are membrane protrusions dynamically assembled by invasive cancer cells in contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Invadopodia are enriched by the structural proteins actin and cortactin as well as metalloproteases such as MT1-MMP, whose function is to degrade the surrounding ECM. During metastasis, invadopodia are necessary for cancer cell intravasation and extravasation. Although signaling pathways involved in the assembly and function of invadopodia are well studied, few studies address invadopodia dynamics and how the cell-ECM interactions contribute to cell invasion. Using iterative analysis based on time-lapse microscopy and mathematical modeling of invasive cancer cells, we found that cells oscillate between invadopodia presence and cell stasis-termed the "invadopodia state"-and invadopodia absence during cell translocation-termed the "migration state." Our data suggest that β1-integrin-ECM binding and ECM cross-linking control the duration of each of the two states. By changing the concentration of cross-linkers in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cultures, we generate an ECM in which 0-0.92 of total lysine residues are cross-linked. Using an ECM with a range of cross-linking degrees, we demonstrate that the dynamics of invadopodia-related functions have a biphasic relationship to ECM cross-linking. At intermediate levels of ECM cross-linking (0.39), cells exhibit rapid invadopodia protrusion-retraction cycles and rapid calcium spikes, which lead to more frequent MT1-MMP delivery, causing maximal invadopodia-mediated ECM degradation. In contrast, both extremely high or low levels of cross-linking lead to slower invadopodia-related dynamics and lower ECM degradation. Additionally, β1-integrin inhibition modifies the dynamics of invadopodia-related functions as well as the length of time cells spend in either of the states. Collectively, these data suggest that β1-integrin-ECM binding nonlinearly translates small physical differences in the extracellular environment to differences in the dynamics of cancer cell behaviors. Understanding the conditions under which invadopodia can be reduced by subtle environment-targeting treatments may lead to combination therapies for preventing metastatic spread.