TBK1 kinase addiction in lung cancer cells is mediated via autophagy of Tax1bp1/Ndp52 and non-canonical NF-?B signalling.
ABSTRACT: K-Ras dependent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells are 'addicted' to basal autophagy that reprograms cellular metabolism in a lysosomal-sensitive manner. Here we demonstrate that the xenophagy-associated kinase TBK1 drives basal autophagy, consistent with its known requirement in K-Ras-dependent NSCLC proliferation. Furthermore, basal autophagy in this context is characterised by sequestration of the xenophagy cargo receptor Ndp52 and its paralogue Tax1bp1, which we demonstrate here to be a bona fide cargo receptor. Autophagy of these cargo receptors promotes non-canonical NF-?B signalling. We propose that this TBK1-dependent mechanism for NF-?B signalling contributes to autophagy addiction in K-Ras driven NSCLC.
Project description:NDP52 and TAX1BP1, two SKIP carboxyl homology (SKICH) domain-containing autophagy receptors, play crucial roles in selective autophagy. The autophagic functions of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 are regulated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which may associate with them through the adaptor NAP1. However, the molecular mechanism governing the interactions of NAP1 with NDP52 and TAX1BP1, as well as the effects induced by TBK1-mediated phosphorylation of NDP52 and TAX1BP1, remains elusive. Here, we report the atomic structures of the SKICH regions of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 in complex with NAP1, which not only uncover the mechanistic bases underpinning the specific interactions of NAP1 with the SKICH domains of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 but also reveal the binding mode of a SKICH domain. Moreover, we uncovered that the SKICH domains of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 share a general binding mode to interact with NAP1. Finally, we also evaluated the currently known TBK1-mediated phosphorylation sites in the SKICH domains of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 on the basis of their interactions with NAP1. In all, our findings provide mechanistic insights into the interactions of NAP1 with NDP52 and TAX1BP1, and are valuable for further understanding the functions of these proteins in selective autophagy.
Project description:Xenophagy, a selective autophagy pathway that protects the cytosol against bacterial invasion, relies on cargo receptors that juxtapose bacteria and phagophore membranes. Whether phagophores are recruited from a constitutive pool or are generated de novo at prospective cargo remains unknown. Phagophore formation in situ would require recruitment of the upstream autophagy machinery to prospective cargo. Here, we show that, essential for anti-bacterial autophagy, the cargo receptor NDP52 forms a trimeric complex with FIP200 and SINTBAD/NAP1, which are subunits of the autophagy-initiating ULK and the TBK1 kinase complex, respectively. FIP200 and SINTBAD/NAP1 are each recruited independently to bacteria via NDP52, as revealed by selective point mutations in their respective binding sites, but only in their combined presence does xenophagy proceed. Such recruitment of the upstream autophagy machinery by NDP52 reveals how detection of cargo-associated "eat me" signals, induction of autophagy, and juxtaposition of cargo and phagophores are integrated in higher eukaryotes.
Project description:Autophagy plays a key role during Salmonella infection, by eliminating these pathogens following escape into the cytosol. In this process, selective autophagy receptors, including the myosin VI adaptor proteins optineurin and NDP52, have been shown to recognize cytosolic pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that myosin VI and TAX1BP1 are recruited to ubiquitylated Salmonella and play a key role in xenophagy. The absence of TAX1BP1 causes an accumulation of ubiquitin-positive Salmonella, whereas loss of myosin VI leads to an increase in ubiquitylated and LC3-positive bacteria. Our structural studies demonstrate that the ubiquitin-binding site of TAX1BP1 overlaps with the myosin VI binding site and point mutations in the TAX1BP1 zinc finger domains that affect ubiquitin binding also ablate binding to myosin VI. This mutually exclusive binding and the association of TAX1BP1 with LC3 on the outer limiting membrane of autophagosomes may suggest a molecular mechanism for recruitment of this motor to autophagosomes. The predominant role of TAX1BP1, a paralogue of NDP52, in xenophagy is supported by our evolutionary analysis, which demonstrates that functionally intact NDP52 is missing in Xenopus and mice, whereas TAX1BP1 is expressed in all vertebrates analysed. In summary, this work highlights the importance of TAX1BP1 as a novel autophagy receptor in myosin VI-mediated xenophagy. Our study identifies essential new machinery for the autophagy-dependent clearance of Salmonella typhimurium and suggests modulation of myosin VI motor activity as a potential therapeutic target in cellular immunity.
2015-01-01 | S-EPMC4599966 | BioStudies
Project description:Autophagosome formation requires multiple autophagy-related (ATG) factors. However, we find that a subset of autophagy substrates remains robustly targeted to the lysosome in the absence of several core ATGs, including the LC3 lipidation machinery. To address this unexpected result, we performed genome-wide CRISPR screens identifying genes required for NBR1 flux in ATG7KO cells. We find that ATG7-independent autophagy still requires canonical ATG factors including FIP200. However, in the absence of LC3 lipidation, additional factors are required including TAX1BP1 and TBK1. TAX1BP1's ability to cluster FIP200 around NBR1 cargo and induce local autophagosome formation enforces cargo specificity and replaces the requirement for lipidated LC3. In support of this model, we define a ubiquitin-independent mode of TAX1BP1 recruitment to NBR1 puncta, highlighting that TAX1BP1 recruitment and clustering, rather than ubiquitin binding per se, is critical for function. Collectively, our data provide a mechanistic basis for reports of selective autophagy in cells lacking the lipidation machinery, wherein receptor-mediated clustering of upstream autophagy factors drives continued autophagosome formation.
Project description:Iron is vital for many homeostatic processes, and its liberation from ferritin nanocages occurs in the lysosome. Studies indicate that ferritin and its binding partner nuclear receptor coactivator-4 (NCOA4) are targeted to lysosomes by a form of selective autophagy. By using genome-scale functional screening, we identify an alternative lysosomal transport pathway for ferritin that requires FIP200, ATG9A, VPS34, and TAX1BP1 but lacks involvement of the ATG8 lipidation machinery that constitutes classical macroautophagy. TAX1BP1 binds directly to NCOA4 and is required for lysosomal trafficking of ferritin under basal and iron-depleted conditions. Under basal conditions ULK1/2-FIP200 controls ferritin turnover, but its deletion leads to TAX1BP1-dependent activation of TBK1 that regulates redistribution of ATG9A to the Golgi enabling continued trafficking of ferritin. Cells expressing an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated TBK1 allele are incapable of degrading ferritin suggesting a molecular mechanism that explains the presence of iron deposits in patient brain biopsies.
Project description:Selective autophagy recycles damaged organelles?and clears intracellular pathogens to prevent their aberrant accumulation. How ULK1 kinase is targeted and activated during selective autophagic events remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used chemically inducible dimerization?(CID) assays in tandem with CRISPR KO lines to systematically analyze the molecular basis of selective autophagosome biogenesis. We demonstrate that ectopic placement of NDP52 on mitochondria or peroxisomes is sufficient to initiate selective autophagy by focally localizing and activating the ULK1 complex. The capability of NDP52 to induce mitophagy is dependent on its interaction with the FIP200/ULK1 complex, which is facilitated by TBK1. Ectopically tethering ULK1 to cargo bypasses the requirement for autophagy receptors and TBK1. Focal activation of ULK1 occurs independently of AMPK and mTOR. Our findings provide a parsimonious model of selective autophagy, which highlights the coordination of ULK1 complex localization by autophagy receptors and TBK1 as principal drivers of targeted autophagosome biogenesis.
Project description:Invading microbial pathogens can be eliminated selectively by xenophagy. Ubiquitin-mediated autophagy receptors are phosphorylated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and recruited to ubiquitinated bacteria to facilitate autophagosome formation during xenophagy, but the molecular mechanism underlying TBK1 activation in response to microbial infection is not clear. Here, we show that bacterial infection increases Ca2+ levels to activate TBK1 for xenophagy via the Ca2+-binding protein TBC1 domain family member 9 (TBC1D9). Mechanistically, the ubiquitin-binding region (UBR) and Ca2+-binding motif of TBC1D9 mediate its binding with ubiquitin-positive bacteria, and TBC1D9 knockout suppresses TBK1 activation and subsequent recruitment of the ULK1 complex. Treatment with a Ca2+ chelator impairs TBC1D9-ubiquitin interactions and TBK1 activation during xenophagy. TBC1D9 is also recruited to damaged mitochondria through its UBR and Ca2+-binding motif, and is required for TBK1 activation during mitophagy. These results indicate that TBC1D9 controls TBK1 activation during xenophagy and mitophagy through Ca2+-dependent ubiquitin-recognition.
Project description:During immune responses, naive T cells transition from small quiescent cells to rapidly cycling cells. We have found that T cells lacking TAX1BP1 exhibit delays in growth of cell size and cell cycling. TAX1BP1-deficient T cells exited G0 but stalled in S phase, due to both bioenergetic and biosynthetic defects. These defects were due to deficiencies in mTOR complex formation and activation. These mTOR defects in turn resulted from defective autophagy induction. TAX1BP1 binding of LC3 and GABARAP via its LC3-interacting region (LIR), but not its ubiquitin-binding domain, supported T cell proliferation. Supplementation of TAX1BP1-deficient T cells with metabolically active L-cysteine rescued mTOR activation and proliferation but not autophagy. These studies reveal that TAX1BP1 drives a specialized form of autophagy, providing critical amino acids that activate mTOR and enable the metabolic transition of activated T cells.
Project description:The selective autophagy pathways of xenophagy and mitophagy are initiated when the adaptor NDP52 recruits the ULK1 complex to autophagic cargo. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was used to map the membrane and NDP52 binding sites of the ULK1 complex to unique regions of the coiled coil of the FIP200 subunit. Electron microscopy of the full-length ULK1 complex shows that the FIP200 coiled coil projects away from the crescent-shaped FIP200 N-terminal domain dimer. NDP52 allosterically stimulates membrane-binding by FIP200 and the ULK1 complex by promoting a more dynamic conformation of the membrane-binding portion of the FIP200 coiled coil. Giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) reconstitution confirmed that membrane recruitment by the ULK1 complex is triggered by NDP52 engagement. These data reveal how the allosteric linkage between NDP52 and the ULK1 complex could drive the first membrane recruitment event of phagophore biogenesis in xenophagy and mitophagy.
Project description:The degradation of cytosol-invading pathogens by autophagy, a process known as xenophagy, is an important mechanism of the innate immune system. Inside the host, Salmonella Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and resides within a specialized intracellular compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole. A fraction of these bacteria does not persist inside the vacuole and enters the host cytosol. Salmonella Typhimurium that invades the host cytosol becomes a target of the autophagy machinery for degradation. The xenophagy pathway has recently been discovered, and the exact molecular processes are not entirely characterized. Complete kinetic data for each molecular process is not available, so far. We developed a mathematical model of the xenophagy pathway to investigate this key defense mechanism. In this paper, we present a Petri net model of Salmonella xenophagy in epithelial cells. The model is based on functional information derived from literature data. It comprises the molecular mechanism of galectin-8-dependent and ubiquitin-dependent autophagy, including regulatory processes, like nutrient-dependent regulation of autophagy and TBK1-dependent activation of the autophagy receptor, OPTN. To model the activation of TBK1, we proposed a new mechanism of TBK1 activation, suggesting a spatial and temporal regulation of this process. Using standard Petri net analysis techniques, we found basic functional modules, which describe different pathways of the autophagic capture of Salmonella and reflect the basic dynamics of the system. To verify the model, we performed in silico knockout experiments. We introduced a new concept of knockout analysis to systematically compute and visualize the results, using an in silico knockout matrix. The results of the in silico knockout analyses were consistent with published experimental results and provide a basis for future investigations of the Salmonella xenophagy pathway.