Genome sequence of strain IMCC14465, isolated from the East Sea, belonging to the PS1 clade of Alphaproteobacteria.
ABSTRACT: Strain IMCC14465 was isolated from surface seawater of the East Sea using dilution-to-extinction culturing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the PS1 clade, which is closely related to the OCS116 clade in the Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we report the genome sequence of IMCC14465, the first isolate of the PS1 clade.
Project description:Mixotrophic marine bacteria from the SUP05 clade are ubiquitous in the ocean. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of "Candidatus Thioglobus singularis" strain PS1, the first cultured mixotrophic representative from the SUP05 clade.
Project description:The balance between autotrophy and heterotrophy regulates the size of the ocean’s carbon sink. The contribution of a particular bacterial or archaeal lineage to carbon flux is determined by its metabolism, which may vary within lineages and may depend on environmental conditions. Members of the SUP05 clade are often described as a single lineage of chemoautotrophic gammaproteobacterial sulfur-oxidizers (GSOs). Like other SUP05, the Arctic96BD-19 subclade contains the genetic potential for carbon fixation through the Calvin cycle yet differs from other strictly chemoautotrophic SUP05 in its potential to also consume exogenous organic matter from surrounding seawater. The balance between organic carbon production and consumption in Arctic96BD-19 is not well understood and could have global implications to carbon cycling in the world’s oceans. Here we used genomic reconstructions, physiological growth experiments, and proteomics to characterize central carbon and energy processing of Ca. Thioglobus singularis strain PS1, a representative of the Arctic96BD-19 subclade of SUP05 that was isolated from Puget Sound, WA, USA. The addition of either complex organic matter from phytoplankton lysate or individual phytoplankton-derived organic compounds significantly enhanced the growth of PS1. Proteins involved in methylotrophic pathways for carbon assimilation and energy generation were significantly upregulated when lysate was added to the growth media, suggesting that PS1 uses methylated compounds derived from marine organisms. Although sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation are defining characteristics of the GSO clade, strain PS1 did not require reduced inorganic sulfur for growth and there was little evidence of carbon fixation. These data indicate that strain PS1 functions primarily as an organic carbon consumer, suggesting that the role of widespread Arctic96BD-19 may be largely heterotrophic.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>According to the endosymbiont hypothesis, the mitochondrial system for aerobic respiration was derived from an ancestral Alphaproteobacterium. Phylogenetic studies indicate that the mitochondrial ancestor is most closely related to the Rickettsiales. Recently, it was suggested that Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique, a member of the SAR11 clade that is highly abundant in the oceans, is a sister taxon to the mitochondrial-Rickettsiales clade. The availability of ocean metagenome data substantially increases the sampling of Alphaproteobacteria inhabiting the oxygen-containing waters of the oceans that likely resemble the originating environment of mitochondria.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We present a phylogenetic study of the origin of mitochondria that incorporates metagenome data from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition. We identify mitochondrially related sequences in the GOS dataset that represent a rare group of Alphaproteobacteria, designated OMAC (Oceanic Mitochondria Affiliated Clade) as the closest free-living relatives to mitochondria in the oceans. In addition, our analyses reject the hypothesis that the mitochondrial system for aerobic respiration is affiliated with that of the SAR11 clade.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Our results allude to the existence of an alphaproteobacterial clade in the oxygen-rich surface waters of the oceans that represents the closest free-living relative to mitochondria identified thus far. In addition, our findings underscore the importance of expanding the taxonomic diversity in phylogenetic analyses beyond that represented by cultivated bacteria to study the origin of mitochondria.
Project description:The complete genome sequence of "Candidatus Puniceispirillum marinum" IMCC1322, the first cultured representative of the SAR116 clade in the Alphaproteobacteria, is reported here. The genome contains genes for proteorhodopsin, aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, dimethylsulfoniopropionate demethylase, and C(1) compound metabolism. The genome information proposes the SAR116 group to be metabolic generalists in ocean nutrient cycling.
Project description:Novel large, rod-shaped magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were discovered in intertidal sediments of the Yellow Sea, China. They biomineralized more than 300 rectangular magnetite magnetosomes per cell. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that they are affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria and may represent a new genus of MTB.
Project description:Strain HIMB55 is a phylogenetically unique member of the OM60/NOR5 clade of the Gammaproteobacteria isolated from coastal seawater of Kaneohe Bay on the northeastern shore of Oahu, Hawaii, by extinction culturing in seawater-based oligotrophic medium. Here we present the genome sequence of strain HIMB55, including genes for bacteriochlorophyll-based phototrophy.
Project description:Bacteria capable of reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) to N2 separate into clade I and clade II organisms on the basis of nos operon structures and nosZ sequence features. To explore the possible ecological consequences of distinct nos clusters, the growth of bacterial isolates with either clade I (Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DCP-Ps1, Shewanella loihica strain PV-4) or clade II (Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB, Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C) nosZ with N2O was examined. Growth curves did not reveal trends distinguishing the clade I and clade II organisms tested; however, the growth yields of clade II organisms exceeded those of clade I organisms by 1.5- to 1.8-fold. Further, whole-cell half-saturation constants (Kss) for N2O distinguished clade I from clade II organisms. The apparent Ks values of 0.324 ± 0.078 ?M for D. aromatica and 1.34 ± 0.35 ?M for A. dehalogenans were significantly lower than the values measured for P. stutzeri (35.5 ± 9.3 ?M) and S. loihica (7.07 ± 1.13 ?M). Genome sequencing demonstrated that Dechloromonas denitrificans possessed a clade II nosZ gene, and a measured Ks of 1.01 ± 0.18 ?M for N2O was consistent with the values determined for the other clade II organisms tested. These observations provide a plausible mechanistic basis for why the relative activity of bacteria with clade I nos operons compared to that of bacteria with clade II nos operons may control N2O emissions and determine a soil's N2O sink capacity.Anthropogenic activities, in particular fertilizer application for agricultural production, increase N2O emissions to the atmosphere. N2O is a strong greenhouse gas with ozone destruction potential, and there is concern that nitrogen may become the major driver of climate change. Microbial N2O reductase (NosZ) catalyzes N2O reduction to environmentally benign dinitrogen gas and represents the major N2O sink process. The observation that bacterial groups with clade I nosZ versus those with clade II nosZ exhibit distinct affinities to N2O has implications for N2O flux models, and these distinct characteristics may provide opportunities to curb N2O emissions from relevant soil ecosystems.
Project description:Bacteria in the class Alphaproteobacteria have a wide variety of lifestyles and physiologies. They include pathogens of humans and livestock, agriculturally valuable strains, and several highly abundant marine groups. The ancestor of mitochondria also originated in this clade. Despite significant effort to investigate the phylogeny of the Alphaproteobacteria with a variety of methods, there remains considerable disparity in the placement of several groups. Recent emphasis on phylogenies derived from multiple protein-coding genes remains contentious due to disagreement over appropriate gene selection and the potential influences of systematic error. We revisited previous investigations in this area using concatenated alignments of the small and large subunit (SSU and LSU) rRNA genes, as we show here that these loci have much lower GC bias than whole genomes. This approach has allowed us to update the canonical 16S rRNA gene tree of the Alphaproteobacteria with additional important taxa that were not previously included, and with added resolution provided by concatenating the SSU and LSU genes. We investigated the topological stability of the Alphaproteobacteria by varying alignment methods, rate models, taxon selection and RY-recoding to circumvent GC content bias. We also introduce RYMK-recoding and show that it avoids some of the information loss in RY-recoding. We demonstrate that the topology of the Alphaproteobacteria is sensitive to inclusion of several groups of taxa, but it is less affected by the choice of alignment and rate methods. The majority of topologies and comparative results from Approximately Unbiased tests provide support for positioning the Rickettsiales and the mitochondrial branch within a clade. This composite clade is a sister group to the abundant marine SAR11 clade (Pelagibacterales). Furthermore, we add support for taxonomic assignment of several recently sequenced taxa. Accordingly, we propose three subclasses within the Alphaproteobacteria: the Caulobacteridae, the Rickettsidae, and the Magnetococcidae.
Project description:Strain HTCC2083 was isolated from Oregon seawater using dilution-to-extinction culturing and represents a novel member of the Roseobacter clade. The draft genome sequence of HTCC2083 is presented here. The genome is predicted to contain genes for aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy, sulfite-oxidizing chemolithotrophy, anapleurotic CO(2) fixation, carbon monoxide oxidation, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) utilization.
Project description:Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods manipulate host reproduction to increase the fitness of infected females. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is one such manipulation, in which uninfected females produce few or no offspring when they mate with infected males. To date, two bacterial endosymbionts, Wolbachia and Cardinium, have been reported as CI inducers. Only Wolbachia induces complete CI, which causes 100% offspring mortality in incompatible crosses. Here we report a third CI inducer that belongs to a unique clade of Alphaproteobacteria detected within the coconut beetle, Brontispa longissima This beetle comprises two cryptic species, the Asian clade and the Pacific clade, which show incompatibility in hybrid crosses. Different bacterial endosymbionts, a unique clade of Alphaproteobacteria in the Pacific clade and Wolbachia in the Asian clade, induced bidirectional CI between hosts. The former induced complete CI (100% mortality), whereas the latter induced partial CI (70% mortality). Illumina MiSeq sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns showed that the predominant bacterium detected in the Pacific clade of B. longissima was this unique clade of Alphaproteobacteria alone, indicating that this endosymbiont was responsible for the complete CI. Sex distortion did not occur in any of the tested crosses. The 1,160 bp of 16S rRNA gene sequence obtained for this endosymbiont had only 89.3% identity with that of Wolbachia, indicating that it can be recognized as a distinct species. We discuss the potential use of this bacterium as a biological control agent.