Strong signatures of selection in the domestic pig genome.
ABSTRACT: Domestication of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and subsequent selection have resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs for a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, reproduction, and coat color. Here we have used whole-genome resequencing to reveal some of the loci that underlie phenotypic evolution in European domestic pigs. Selective sweep analyses revealed strong signatures of selection at three loci harboring quantitative trait loci that explain a considerable part of one of the most characteristic morphological changes in the domestic pig--the elongation of the back and an increased number of vertebrae. The three loci were associated with the NR6A1, PLAG1, and LCORL genes. The latter two have repeatedly been associated with loci controlling stature in other domestic animals and in humans. Most European domestic pigs are homozygous for the same haplotype at these three loci. We found an excess of derived nonsynonymous substitutions in domestic pigs, most likely reflecting both positive selection and relaxed purifying selection after domestication. Our analysis of structural variation revealed four duplications at the KIT locus that were exclusively present in white or white-spotted pigs, carrying the Dominant white, Patch, or Belt alleles. This discovery illustrates how structural changes have contributed to rapid phenotypic evolution in domestic animals and how alleles in domestic animals may evolve by the accumulation of multiple causative mutations as a response to strong directional selection.
Project description:Chinese domestic pigs have experienced strong artificial selection for thousands of years. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the selection-causing phenotypic changes in Chinese domestic pigs are still largely unknown. Here we used whole-genome resequencing data of 54 pigs from 9 Chinese diverse breeds and 16 wild boars from 7 localities across China to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection in the process of domestication. A total of 14 candidate domestication regions were detected by selective sweep analyses of genetic differentiation and variability, and a set of genes in these candidate domestication regions were found to be related to metabolic process, development, reproduction, olfactory, behavior, and nervous system. The most promising candidate gene under selection - TBX19 - probably underlies the metabolic alteration and developmental traits, and may also associate with timidity of Chinese domestic pigs. Intriguingly, we found that the haplotype at TBX19 locus shared by nearly all Chinese domestic pigs was possibly introgressed from another Sus species. We also revealed the AHR gene associated with female reproduction is under strong positive selection. These results advance our understanding of the evolutionary history of Chinese domestic pigs and shed insights into identifying functionally important genes/mutations contributing to the phenotypic diversity in pigs.
Project description:The recent geographic expansion of wild boars and the even more recent development of numerous domestic pigs have spurred exploration on pig domestic origins. The porcine KIT gene has been showed to affect pleiotropic effects, blood parameters, and coat colour phenotypes, especially the white colour phenotype formation in European commercial breeds. Here, we described the use of SNPs to identify different selection patterns on the porcine KIT gene and the phylogenetic relationships of the inferred haplotypes. The phylogenetic tree revealed four clades in European and Asian wild and domestic pigs: two major clades with European and Asian origins and one minor clade with Iberian origins as well as the other minor clade in Asia, consistent with the major introgression of domestic Asian pigs in Europe around 18th -19th century. The domestication history of pigs, which occurred in the domestication centers (Europe and Asia), has also been demonstrated by mtDNA analysis. Furthermore, both Asian and European domestic pigs evolved under purifying selection. This study indicated that domestic pigs in Europe and Asia have different lineage origins but the porcine KIT gene was undergoing a purifying selection during their evolutional histories.
Project description:Since 10,000 BC, continuous human selection has led to intense genetic and phenotypic changes in pig (Sus scrofa) domestication. Through whole genome analysis of 257 individuals, we demonstrated artificial unidirectional and bidirectional selection as the primary force to shape the convergent and divergent changes between Chinese domestic pigs (CHD) and European domestic pigs (EUD). We identified 31 genes in unidirectional selection regions that might be related to fundamental domestication requirements in pigs. And these genes belong predominantly to categories related to the nervous system, muscle development, and especially to metabolic diseases. In addition, 35 genes, representing different breeding preference, were found under bidirectional selection for the distinct leanness and reproduction traits between CHD and EUD. The convergent genetic changes, contributing physical and morphological adaption, represent the common concerns on pig domestication. And the divergent genetic changes reflect distinct breeding goals between Chinese and European pigs. Using ITPR3, AHR and NMU as examples, we explored and validated how the genetic variations contribute to the phenotype changes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Identifying the phenotypic responses to domestication remains a long-standing and important question for researchers studying its early history. The great diversity in domestic animals and plants that exists today bears testament to the profound changes that domestication has induced in their ancestral wild forms over the last millennia. Domestication is a complex evolutionary process in which wild organisms are moved to new anthropogenic environments. Although modern genetics are significantly improving our understanding of domestication and breed formation, little is still known about the associated morphological changes linked to the process itself. In order to explore phenotypic variation induced by different levels of human control, we analysed the diversity of dental size, shape and allometry in modern free-living and captive wild, wild x domestic hybrid, domestic and insular Sus scrofa populations. RESULTS:We show that domestication has created completely new dental phenotypes not found in wild boar (although the amount of variation amongst domestic pigs does not exceed that found in the wild). Wild boar tooth shape also appears to be biogeographically structured, likely the result of post-glacial recolonisation history. Furthermore, distinct dental phenotypes were also observed among domestic breeds, probably the result of differing types and intensity of past and present husbandry practices. Captivity also appears to impact tooth shape. Wild x domestic hybrids possess second molars that are strictly intermediate in shape between wild boar and domestic pigs (third molars, however, showing greater shape similarity with wild boar) while their size is more similar to domestic pigs. The dental phenotypes of insular Sus scrofa populations found on Corsica and Sardinia today (originally introduced by Neolithic settlers to the islands) can be explained either by feralization of the original introduced domestic swine or that the founding population maintained a wild boar phenotype through time. CONCLUSIONS:Domestication has driven significant phenotypic diversification in Sus scrofa. Captivity (environmental control), hybridization (genome admixture), and introduction to islands all correspond to differing levels of human control and may be considered different stages of the domestication process. The relatively well-known genetic evolutionary history of pigs shows a similar complexity at the phenotypic level.
Project description:Copy number variable regions (CNVRs) can result in drastic phenotypic differences and may therefore be subject to selection during domestication. Studying copy number variation in relation to domestication is highly relevant in pigs because of their very rich natural and domestication history that resulted in many different phenotypes. To investigate the evolutionary dynamic of CNVRs, we applied read depth method on next generation sequence data from 16 individuals, comprising wild boars and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia.We identified 3,118 CNVRs with an average size of 13 kilobases comprising a total of 39.2 megabases of the pig genome and 545 overlapping genes. Functional analyses revealed that CNVRs are enriched with genes related to sensory perception, neurological process and response to stimulus, suggesting their contribution to adaptation in the wild and behavioral changes during domestication. Variations of copy number (CN) of antimicrobial related genes suggest an ongoing process of evolution of these genes to combat food-borne pathogens. Likewise, some genes related to the omnivorous lifestyle of pigs, like genes involved in detoxification, were observed to be CN variable. A small portion of CNVRs was unique to domestic pigs and may have been selected during domestication. The majority of CNVRs, however, is shared between wild and domesticated individuals, indicating that domestication had minor effect on the overall diversity of CNVRs. Also, the excess of CNVRs in non-genic regions implies that a major part of these variations is likely to be (nearly) neutral. Comparison between different populations showed that larger populations have more CNVRs, highlighting that CNVRs are, like other genetic variation such as SNPs and microsatellites, reflecting demographic history rather than phenotypic diversity.CNVRs in pigs are enriched for genes related to sensory perception, neurological process, and response to stimulus. The majority of CNVRs ascertained in domestic pigs are also variable in wild boars, suggesting that the domestication of the pig did not result in a change in CNVRs in domesticated pigs. The majority of variable regions were found to reflect demographic patterns rather than phenotypic.
Project description:Despite having only begun approximately 10,000 years ago, the process of domestication has resulted in a degree of phenotypic variation within individual species normally associated with much deeper evolutionary time scales. Though many variable traits found in domestic animals are the result of relatively recent human-mediated selection, uncertainty remains as to whether the modern ubiquity of long-standing variable traits such as coat color results from selection or drift, and whether the underlying alleles were present in the wild ancestor or appeared after domestication began. Here, through an investigation of sequence diversity at the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) locus, we provide evidence that wild and domestic pig (Sus scrofa) haplotypes from China and Europe are the result of strikingly different selection pressures, and that coat color variation is the result of intentional selection for alleles that appeared after the advent of domestication. Asian and European wild boar (evolutionarily distinct subspecies) differed only by synonymous substitutions, demonstrating that camouflage coat color is maintained by purifying selection. In domestic pigs, however, each of nine unique mutations altered the amino acid sequence thus generating coat color diversity. Most domestic MC1R alleles differed by more than one mutation from the wild-type, implying a long history of strong positive selection for coat color variants, during which time humans have cherry-picked rare mutations that would be quickly eliminated in wild contexts. This pattern demonstrates that coat color phenotypes result from direct human selection and not via a simple relaxation of natural selective pressures.
Project description:Copy number variations (CNVs) refer to large insertions, deletions and duplications in the genomic structure ranging from one thousand to several million bases in size. Since the development of next generation sequencing technology, several methods have been well built for detection of copy number variations with high credibility and accuracy. Evidence has shown that CNV occurring in gene region could lead to phenotypic changes due to the alteration in gene structure and dosage. However, it still remains unexplored whether CNVs underlie the phenotypic differences between Chinese and Western domestic pigs. Based on the read-depth methods, we investigated copy number variations using 49 individuals derived from both Chinese and Western pig breeds. A total of 3,131 copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were identified with an average size of 13.4 Kb in all individuals during domestication, harboring 1,363 genes. Among them, 129 and 147 CNVRs were Chinese and Western pig specific, respectively. Gene functional enrichments revealed that these CNVRs contribute to strong disease resistance and high prolificacy in Chinese domestic pigs, but strong muscle tissue development in Western domestic pigs. This finding is strongly consistent with the morphologic characteristics of Chinese and Western pigs, indicating that these group-specific CNVRs might have been preserved by artificial selection for the favored phenotypes during independent domestication of Chinese and Western pigs. In this study, we built high-resolution CNV maps in several domestic pig breeds and discovered the group specific CNVs by comparing Chinese and Western pigs, which could provide new insight into genomic variations during pigs' independent domestication, and facilitate further functional studies of CNV-associated genes.
Project description:Animal domestication involved drastic phenotypic changes driven by strong artificial selection and also resulted in new populations of breeds, established by humans. This study aims to identify genes that show evidence of recent artificial selection during pig domestication.Whole-genome resequencing of 30 individual pigs from domesticated breeds, Landrace and Yorkshire, and 10 Asian wild boars at ~16-fold coverage was performed resulting in over 4.3 million SNPs for 19,990 genes. We constructed a comprehensive genome map of directional selection by detecting selective sweeps using an F ST-based approach that detects directional selection in lineages leading to the domesticated breeds and using a haplotype-based test that detects ongoing selective sweeps within the breeds. We show that candidate genes under selection are significantly enriched for loci implicated in quantitative traits important to pig reproduction and production. The candidate gene with the strongest signals of directional selection belongs to group III of the metabolomics glutamate receptors, known to affect brain functions associated with eating behavior, suggesting that loci under strong selection include loci involved in behaviorial traits in domesticated pigs including tameness.We show that a significant proportion of selection signatures coincide with loci that were previously inferred to affect phenotypic variation in pigs. We further identify functional enrichment related to behavior, such as signal transduction and neuronal activities, for those targets of selection during domestication in pigs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Identification of selection signatures can provide a direct insight into the mechanism of artificial selection and allow further disclosure of the candidate genes related to the animals' phenotypic variation. Domestication and subsequent long-time selection have resulted in extensive phenotypic changes in domestic pigs, involving a number of traits, like behavior, body composition, disease resistance, reproduction and coat color. In this study, based on genotypes obtained from PorcineSNP60 Illumina assay we attempt to detect both diversifying and within-breed selection signatures in 530 pigs belonging to four breeds: Polish Landrace, Pu?awska, Z?otnicka White and Z?otnicka Spotted, of which the last three are a subject of conservative breeding and substantially represent the native populations. RESULTS:A two largely complementary statistical methods were used for signatures detection, including: pairwise FST and relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) test. Breed-specific diversifying selection signals included several genes involved in processes connected with fertility, growth and metabolism which are potentially responsible for different phenotypes of the studied breeds. The diversifying selection signals also comprised PPARD gene that was previously found to have a large effect on the shape of the external ear in pigs or two genes encoding neuropeptide Y receptors (Y2 and Y5) involved in fat deposition and stress response which are important features differentiating the studied breeds. REHH statistics allowed detecting several within-breed selection signatures overlapping with genes connected with a range of functions including, among others: metabolic pathways, immune system response or implantation and development of the embryo. CONCLUSIONS:The study provides many potential candidate genes with implication for traits selected in the individual breeds and gives strong basis for further studies aiming at identification of sources of variation among the studied pig breeds.
Project description:Pigs have experienced long-term selections, resulting in dramatic phenotypic changes. Structural variants (SVs) are reported to exert extensive impacts on phenotypic changes. We built a high resolution and informative SV map based on high-depth sequencing data from 66 Chinese domestic and wild pigs. We inferred the SV formation mechanisms in the pig genome and used SVs as materials to perform a population-level analysis. We detected the selection signals on chromosome X for northern Chinese domestic pigs, as well as the differentiated loci across the whole genome. Analysis showed that these loci differ between southern and northern Chinese domestic pigs. Our results based on SVs provide new insights into genetic differences in Chinese pigs.