Loss of SUFU function in familial multiple meningioma.
ABSTRACT: Meningiomas are the most common primary tumors of the CNS and account for up to 30% of all CNS tumors. An increased risk of meningiomas has been associated with certain tumor-susceptibility syndromes, especially neurofibromatosis type II, but no gene defects predisposing to isolated familial meningiomas have thus far been identified. Here, we report on a family of five meningioma-affected siblings, four of whom have multiple tumors. No NF2 mutations were identified in the germline or tumors. We combined genome-wide linkage analysis and exome sequencing, and we identified in suppressor of fused homolog (Drosophila), SUFU, a c.367C>T (p.Arg123Cys) mutation segregating with the meningiomas in the family. The variation was not present in healthy controls, and all seven meningiomas analyzed displayed loss of the wild-type allele according to the classic two-hit model for tumor-suppressor genes. In silico modeling predicted the variant to affect the tertiary structure of the protein, and functional analyses showed that the activity of the altered SUFU was significantly reduced and therefore led to dysregulated hedgehog (Hh) signaling. SUFU is a known tumor-suppressor gene previously associated with childhood medulloblastoma predisposition. Our genetic and functional analyses indicate that germline mutations in SUFU also predispose to meningiomas, particularly to multiple meningiomas. It is possible that other genic mutations resulting in aberrant activation of the Hh pathway might underlie meningioma predisposition in families with an unknown etiology.
Project description:We have recently shown that the breast cancer (BRCA)1-associated protein-1 tumor suppressor gene (BAP1) is inactivated in a subset of clinically aggressive meningiomas that display rhabdoid histomorphology. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 protein provides a rapid and inexpensive method for screening suspected cases. Notably, some patients with BAP1-mutant meningiomas have germline BAP1 mutations and BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS). It appears that nearly all patients with germline BAP1 mutations develop malignancies by age 55, most frequently uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma, or renal cell carcinoma, although other cancers have also been associated with BAP1 TPDS. Therefore, when confronted with a patient with a potentially high-grade rhabdoid meningioma, it is important that neuropathologists assess the BAP1 status of the tumor and that the patient's family history of cancer is carefully ascertained. In the appropriate clinical setting, genetic counseling and germline BAP1 DNA sequencing should be performed. A cancer surveillance program for individuals who carry germline BAP1 mutations may help identify tumors such as uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma at early and treatable stages. Because BAP1-mutant meningiomas are rare tumors, multi-institutional efforts will be needed to evaluate therapeutic strategies and to further define the clinicopathologic features of these tumors.
Project description:Importance:Meningiomas and schwannomas are usually sporadic, isolated tumors occurring in adults older than 60 years and are rare in children and young adults. Multiple schwannomas and/or meningiomas are more frequently associated with a tumor suppressor syndrome and, accordingly, trigger genetic testing, whereas solitary tumors do not. Nevertheless, apparently sporadic tumors in young patients may herald a genetic syndrome. Objective:To determine the frequency of the known heritable meningioma- or schwannoma-predisposing mutations in children and young adults presenting with a solitary meningioma or schwannoma. Design, Setting, and Participants:Using the database of the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, this cohort study analyzed lymphocyte DNA from young individuals prospectively referred to the clinic for genetic testing between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2016, on presentation with a single meningioma (n?=?42) or schwannoma (n?=?135) before age 25 years. Sequencing data were also examined from an additional 39 patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 who were retrospectively identified as having a solitary tumor before age 25 years. Patients with schwannoma were screened for NF2, SMARCB1, and LZTR1 gene mutations, while patients with meningioma were screened for NF2, SMARCB1, SMARCE1, and SUFU. Main Outcomes and Measures:The type of underlying genetic mutation, or lack of a predisposing mutation, was associated with the presenting tumor type and subsequent development of additional tumors or other features of known schwannoma- and meningioma-predisposing syndromes. Results:In 2 cohorts of patients who presented with an isolated meningioma (n?=?42; median [range] age, 11 [1-24] years; 22 female) or schwannoma (n?=?135; median [range] age, 18 [0.2-24] years; 60 female) before age 25 years, 16 of 42 patients (38%) had a predisposing mutation to meningioma and 27 of 135 patients (20%) to schwannoma, respectively. In the solitary meningioma cohort, 34 of 63 patients (54%) had a constitutional mutation in a known meningioma predisposition gene. Twenty-five of 63 patients (40%) had a constitutional NF2 mutation, and 9 (14%) had a constitutional SMARCE1 mutation. In the cohort of those who developed a solitary schwannoma before age 25 years, 44 of 153 patients (29%) had an identifiable genetic predisposition. Twenty-four patients (55%) with a spinal schwannoma had a constitutional mutation, while only 20 (18%) with a cranial schwannoma had a constitutional predisposition (P?<?.001). Of 109 cranial schwannomas, 106 (97.2%) were vestibular. Four of 106 people (3.8%) with a cranial schwannoma had an LZTR1 mutation (3 were vestibular schwannomas and 1 was a nonvestibular schwannoma), and 9 (8.5%) had an NF2 mutation. Conclusions and Relevance:A significant proportion of young people with an apparently sporadic solitary meningioma or schwannoma had a causative predisposition mutation. This finding has important clinical implications because of the risk of additional tumors and the possibility of familial disease. Young patients presenting with a solitary meningioma or schwannoma should be referred for genetic testing.
Project description:This meta-analysis aims to examine the association between being overweight/obese and risk of meningiomas and gliomas as well as overall brain/central nervous system (CNS) tumors.Potentially eligible publications were sought in PubMed up to June 30, 2014. Random-effects meta-analysis and dose-response meta-regression analysis was conducted. Cochran Q statistic, I-squared and tau-squared were used for the assessment of between-study heterogeneity. The analysis was performed using Stata/SE version 13 statistical software.A total of 22 studies were eligible, namely 14 cohort studies (10,219 incident brain/CNS tumor cases, 1,319 meningioma and 2,418 glioma cases in a total cohort size of 10,143,803 subjects) and eight case-control studies (1,009 brain/CNS cases, 1,977 meningioma cases, 1,265 glioma cases and 8,316 controls). In females, overweight status/obesity was associated with increased risk for overall brain/CNS tumors (pooled RR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, 10 study arms), meningiomas (pooled RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.13-1.43, 16 study arms) and gliomas (pooled RR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.32, six arms). Obese (BMI>30 kg/m2) females seemed particularly aggravated in terms of brain/CNS tumor (pooled RR = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.05-1.36, six study arms) and meningioma risk (pooled RR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.28-1.71, seven arms). In males, overweight/obesity status correlated with increased meningioma risk (pooled RR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.22-2.04, nine study arms), whereas the respective association with overall brain/CNS tumor or glioma risk was not statistically significant. Dose-response meta-regression analysis further validated the findings.Our findings highlight obesity as a risk factor for overall brain/CNS tumors, meningiomas and gliomas among females, as well as for meningiomas among males.
Project description:Currently, there is an incomplete understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor. Several familial syndromes are characterized by increased meningioma risk, and the genetics of these syndromes provides mechanistic insight into sporadic disease. The best defined of these syndromes is neurofibromatosis type 2, which is caused by a mutation in the NF2 gene and has a meningioma incidence of approximately 50%. This finding led to the subsequent discovery that NF2 loss-of-function occurs in up to 60% of sporadic tumors. Other important familial diseases with increased meningioma risk include nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1), Cowden syndrome, Werner syndrome, BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and familial meningiomatosis caused by germline mutations in the SMARCB1 and SMARCE1 genes. For each of these syndromes, the diagnostic criteria, incidence in the population, and frequency of meningioma are presented to review the relevant clinical information for these conditions. The genetic mutations, molecular pathway derangements, and relationship to sporadic disease for each syndrome are described in detail to identify targets for further investigation. Familial syndromes characterized by meningiomas often affect genes and pathways that are also implicated in a subset of sporadic cases, suggesting key molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Further studies are needed to resolve the functional relevance of specific genes whose significance in sporadic disease remains to be elucidated.
Project description:Meningiomas are one of the most common tumors of the Central nervous system (CNS). This study aims to identify the autoantibody biomarkers in meningiomas using high-density human proteome arrays (~17,000 full-length recombinant human proteins). Screening of sera from 15 unaffected healthy individuals, 10 individuals with meningioma grade I and 5 with meningioma grade II was performed. This comprehensive proteomics based investigation revealed the dysregulation of 489 and 104 proteins in grades I and II of meningioma, respectively, along with the enrichment of several signalling pathways, which might play a crucial role in the manifestation of the disease. Autoantibody targets like IGHG4, CRYM, EFCAB2, STAT6, HDAC7A and CCNB1 were significantly dysregulated across both the grades. Further, we compared this to the tissue proteome and gene expression profile from GEO database. Previously reported upregulated proteins from meningioma tissue-based proteomics obtained from high-resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated an aggravated autoimmune response, emphasizing the clinical relevance of these targets. Some of these targets like SELENBP1 were tested for their presence in tumor tissue using immunoblotting. In the light of highly invasive diagnostic modalities employed to diagnose CNS tumors like meningioma, these autoantibody markers offer a minimally invasive diagnostic platform which could be pursued further for clinical translation.
Project description:Meningiomas are common tumors that account for approximately one third of CNS tumors diagnosed every year. They are classified by the World Health Organization in grades I-III. Higher grades have an increased rate of growth, invasiveness, rate of recurrence, and worse outcomes than lower grades. Most meningiomas are grade I, while ~18% of meningiomas are grade II and III in hospital-based series. Meningiomas are typically "benign" tumors that are treated with surgery and radiation. However, when they recur or are unresectable, treatment options are very limited, especially since they are chemotherapy-resistant. Recent advances in the treatment of cancers with immunotherapy have focused on checkpoint blockade as well as other types of immunotherapy. There is emerging evidence supporting the use of immunotherapy as a potentially effective treatment strategy for meningioma patients. The immune microenvironment of meningiomas is a complex interplay of genetic alterations, immunomodulatory protein expression, and tumor-immune cell interactions. Meningiomas are known to be infiltrated by immune cells including microglia, macrophages, B-cells, and T-cells. Several mechanisms contribute to decreased an ti-tumor immune response, allowing tumor growth and evasion of the immune system. We discuss the most current knowledge on the immune micro-environment of meningiomas, preclinical findings of immunotherapy in meningiomas, meningioma immunotherapy clinical trials, and also offer insight into future prospects for immunotherapies in meningiomas.
Project description:We investigated 67 meningothelial tumors (20 benign meningiomas, 34 atypical meningiomas, and 13 anaplastic meningiomas) for losses of genetic information from chromosome arms 1p and 9p, as well as for deletion, mutation, and expression of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A (p16(INKa)/MTS1), p14(ARF), CDKN2B (p15(INK4b)/MTS2) (all located at 9p21) and CDKN2C (1p32). Comparative genomic hybridization and microsatellite analysis showed losses on 1p in 11 anaplastic meningiomas (85%), 23 atypical meningiomas (68%), and 5 benign meningiomas (25%). One atypical meningioma with loss of heterozygosity on 1p carried a somatic CDKN2C mutation (c.202C>T: R68X). Losses on 9p were found in five anaplastic meningiomas (38%), six atypical meningiomas (18%), and one benign meningioma (5%). Six anaplastic meningiomas (46%) and one atypical meningioma (3%) showed homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B genes. Two anaplastic meningiomas carried somatic point mutations in CDKN2A (c.262G>T: E88X and c.262G>A: E88K) and p14(ARF) (c.305G>T: G102V and c.305G>A: G102E). One anaplastic meningioma, three atypical meningiomas, and one benign meningioma without a demonstrated homozygous deletion or mutation of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), or CDKN2B lacked detectable transcripts from at least one of these genes. Hypermethylation of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B could be demonstrated in one of these cases. Taken together, our results indicate that CDKN2C is rarely altered in meningiomas. However, the majority of anaplastic meningiomas either show homozygous deletions of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B, mutations in CDKN2A and p14(ARF), or lack of expression of one or more of these genes. Thus, inactivation of the G(1)/S-phase cell-cycle checkpoint is an important aberration in anaplastic meningiomas.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Merkel cell carcinoma is a neuroendocrine malignancy. Suppressor of fused (SUFU) is a tumor suppressor oncogene that participates in the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. The aim of the study was to describe a patient whose Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrated a SUFU genomic alteration. CASE STUDY: The Hh signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of several tumors, including nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome that is associated with an alteration of the patched-1 (PTCH1) gene. Targeted molecular therapy against smoothened (SMO) with vismodegib has been shown to be an effective therapeutic intervention for patients with PTCH-1 mutation. The reported patient was presented with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Analysis of his tumor, using a next-generation sequencing-based assay, demonstrated a genomic aberration of SUFU protein, a component of the Hh signaling pathway that acts downstream to SMO and, therefore, is unlikely to be responsive to vismodegib. Of interest, arsenic trioxide or bromo and extra C-terminal inhibitors impact signals downstream to SUFU, making this aberration conceivably druggable. His tumor has initially been managed with chemotherapy (carboplatin and etoposide) and subsequent radiation therapy is planned. CONCLUSION: The pathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma is multifactorial, and related to ultraviolet radiation exposure, immunosuppression, and Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a patient with a mutation in SUFU, a potentially actionable component of the Hh signaling pathway.
Project description:Suppressor of Fused (SuFu), a tumour suppressor mutated in medulloblastoma, is a central player of Hh signalling, a pathway crucial for development and deregulated in cancer. Although the control of Gli transcription factors by SuFu is critical in Hh signalling, our understanding of the mechanism regulating this key event remains limited. Here, we show that the Itch/?-arrestin2 complex binds SuFu and induces its Lys63-linked polyubiquitylation without affecting its stability. This process increases the association of SuFu with Gli3, promoting the conversion of Gli3 into a repressor, which keeps Hh signalling off. Activation of Hh signalling antagonises the Itch-dependent polyubiquitylation of SuFu. Notably, different SuFu mutations occurring in medulloblastoma patients are insensitive to Itch activity, thus leading to deregulated Hh signalling and enhancing medulloblastoma cell growth. Our findings uncover mechanisms controlling the tumour suppressive functions of SuFu and reveal that their alterations are implicated in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.
Project description:Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligases direct cell survival decisions by controlling protein ubiquitylation and degradation. Sufu (Suppressor of fused) is a central regulator of Hh (Hedgehog) signaling and acts as a tumor suppressor by maintaining the Gli (Glioma-associated oncogene homolog) transcription factors inactive. Although Sufu has a pivotal role in Hh signaling, the players involved in controlling Sufu levels and their role in tumor growth are unknown. Here, we show that Fbxl17 (F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 17) targets Sufu for proteolysis in the nucleus. The ubiquitylation of Sufu, mediated by Fbxl17, allows the release of Gli1 from Sufu for proper Hh signal transduction. Depletion of Fbxl17 leads to defective Hh signaling associated with an impaired cancer cell proliferation and medulloblastoma tumor growth. Furthermore, we identify a mutation in Sufu, occurring in medulloblastoma of patients with Gorlin syndrome, which increases Sufu turnover through Fbxl17-mediated polyubiquitylation and leads to a sustained Hh signaling activation. In summary, our findings reveal Fbxl17 as a novel regulator of Hh pathway and highlight the perturbation of the Fbxl17-Sufu axis in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma.