Molecular basis for SNX-BAR-mediated assembly of distinct endosomal sorting tubules.
ABSTRACT: Sorting nexins (SNXs) are regulators of endosomal sorting. For the SNX-BAR subgroup, a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain is vital for formation/stabilization of tubular subdomains that mediate cargo recycling. Here, by analysing the in vitro membrane remodelling properties of all 12 human SNX-BARs, we report that some, but not all, can elicit the formation of tubules with diameters that resemble sorting tubules observed in cells. We reveal that SNX-BARs display a restricted pattern of BAR domain-mediated dimerization, and by resolving a 2.8 Å structure of a SNX1-BAR domain homodimer, establish that dimerization is achieved in part through neutralization of charged residues in the hydrophobic BAR-dimerization interface. Membrane remodelling also requires functional amphipathic helices, predicted to be present in all SNX-BARs, and the formation of high order SNX-BAR oligomers through selective 'tip-loop' interactions. Overall, the restricted and selective nature of these interactions provide a molecular explanation for how distinct SNX-BAR-decorated tubules are nucleated from the same endosomal vacuole, as observed in living cells. Our data provide insight into the molecular mechanism that generates and organizes the tubular endosomal network.
Project description:Retromer is an endosomal sorting device that orchestrates capture and packaging of cargo into transport carriers coated with sorting nexin BAR domain proteins (SNX-BARs). We report that fission of retromer SNX-BAR-coated tubules from yeast endosomes is promoted by Vps1, a dynamin-related protein that localizes to endosomes decorated by retromer SNX-BARs and Mvp1, a SNX-BAR that is homologous to human SNX8. Mvp1 exhibits potent membrane remodeling activity in vitro, and it promotes association of Vps1 with the endosome in vivo. Retrograde transport carriers bud from the endosome coated by retromer and Mvp1, and cargo export is deficient in mvp1- and vps1-null cells, but with distinct endpoints; cargo export is delayed in mvp1-null cells, but cargo export completely fails in vps1-null cells. The results indicate that Mvp1 promotes Vps1-mediated fission of retromer- and Mvp1-coated tubules that bud from the endosome, revealing a functional link between the endosomal sorting and fission machineries to produce retrograde transport carriers.
Project description:Clathrin has been implicated in retromer-mediated trafficking, but its precise function remains elusive. Given the importance of retromers for efficient endosomal sorting, we have sought to clarify the relationship between clathrin and the SNX-BAR retromer. We find that the retromer SNX-BARs do not interact directly or indirectly with clathrin. In addition, we observe that SNX-BAR-retromer tubules and carriers are not clathrin coated. Furthermore, perturbing clathrin function, by overexpressing a dominant-negative clathrin or through suppression of clathrin expression, has no detectable effect on the frequency of SNX-BAR-retromer tubulation. We propose that SNX-BAR-retromer-mediated membrane deformation and carrier formation does not require clathrin, and hence the role of clathrin in SNX-BAR-retromer function would appear to lie in pre-SNX-BAR-retromer cargo sorting.
Project description:The sorting nexins (SNXs) are a family of peripheral membrane proteins that direct protein trafficking decisions within the endocytic network. Emerging evidence in yeast and mammalian cells implicates a subgroup of SNXs in selective and non-selective forms of autophagy. Using siRNA and CRISPR-Cas9, we demonstrate that the SNX-BAR protein SNX4 is needed for efficient LC3 (also known as MAP1LC3) lipidation and autophagosome assembly in mammalian cells. SNX-BARs exist as homo- and hetero-dimers, and we show that SNX4 forms functional heterodimers with either SNX7 or SNX30 that associate with tubulovesicular endocytic membranes. Detailed image-based analysis during the early stages of autophagosome assembly reveals that SNX4-SNX7 is an autophagy-specific SNX-BAR heterodimer, required for efficient recruitment and/or retention of core autophagy regulators at the nascent isolation membrane. SNX4 partially colocalises with juxtanuclear ATG9A-positive membranes, with our data linking the autophagy defect upon SNX4 disruption to the mis-trafficking and/or retention of ATG9A in the Golgi region. Taken together, our findings show that the SNX4-SNX7 heterodimer coordinates ATG9A trafficking within the endocytic network to establish productive autophagosome assembly sites, thus extending knowledge of SNXs as positive regulators of autophagy.
Project description:Endosomes are the major protein-sorting hubs of the endocytic pathway. They sort proteins destined for degradation into internal vesicles while in parallel recycling receptors via tubular carriers back to the Golgi. Tubule formation depends on the Rab7/Ypt7-interacting retromer complex, consisting of the sorting nexin dimer (SNX-BAR) and the trimeric cargo selection complex (CSC). Fusion of mature endosomes with the lysosome-like vacuole also requires Rab7/Ypt7. Here we solve a major problem in understanding this dual function of endosomal Rab7/Ypt7, using a fully reconstituted system, including purified, full-length yeast SNX-BAR and CSC, whose overall structure we present. We reveal that the membrane-active SNX-BAR complex displaces Ypt7 from cargo-bound CSC during formation of recycling tubules. This explains how a single Rab can coordinate recycling and fusion on endosomes.
Project description:Endocytic recycling of internalized transmembrane proteins is essential for many important physiological processes. Recent studies have revealed that retromer-related Sorting Nexin family (SNX)-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) proteins can directly recognize cargoes like cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) and Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R); however, it remains poorly understood how SNX-BARs select specific cargo proteins and whether they recognize additional ligands. Here, we discovered that the binding between SNX-BARs and CI-MPR or IGF1R is mediated by the phox-homology (PX) domain of SNX5 or SNX6 and a bipartite motif, termed SNX-BAR-binding motif (SBM), in the cargoes. Using this motif, we identified over 70 putative SNX-BAR ligands, many of which play critical roles in apoptosis, cell adhesion, signal transduction, or metabolite homeostasis. Remarkably, SNX-BARs could cooperate with both SNX27 and retromer in the recycling of ligands encompassing the SBM, PDZ-binding motif, or both motifs. Overall, our studies establish that SNX-BARs function as a direct cargo-selecting module for a large set of transmembrane proteins transiting the endosome, in addition to their roles in phospholipid recognition and biogenesis of tubular structures.
Project description:Endosomal recycling of transmembrane proteins requires sequence-dependent recognition of motifs present within their intracellular cytosolic domains. In this study, we have reexamined the role of retromer in the sequence-dependent endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) transport of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR). Although the knockdown or knockout of retromer does not perturb CI-MPR transport, the targeting of the retromer-linked sorting nexin (SNX)-Bin, Amphiphysin, and Rvs (BAR) proteins leads to a pronounced defect in CI-MPR endosome-to-TGN transport. The retromer-linked SNX-BAR proteins comprise heterodimeric combinations of SNX1 or SNX2 with SNX5 or SNX6 and serve to regulate the biogenesis of tubular endosomal sorting profiles. We establish that SNX5 and SNX6 associate with the CI-MPR through recognition of a specific WLM endosome-to-TGN sorting motif. From validating the CI-MPR dependency of SNX1/2-SNX5/6 tubular profile formation, we provide a mechanism for coupling sequence-dependent cargo recognition with the biogenesis of tubular profiles required for endosome-to-TGN transport. Therefore, the data presented in this study reappraise retromer's role in CI-MPR transport.
Project description:The endo-lysosomal network serves an essential role in determining the fate of endocytosed transmembrane proteins and their associated proteins and lipids. Sorting nexins (SNXs) play a central role in the functional organisation of this network. Comprising over 30 proteins in humans, SNXs are classified into sub-groups based on the presence of additional functional domains. Sorting nexin-20 (SNX20) and sorting nexin-21 (SNX21) comprise the SNX-PXB proteins. The presence of a predicted protein-protein interaction domain, termed the PX-associated B (PXB) domain, has led to the proposal that they function as endosome-associated scaffolds. Here, we used unbiased quantitative proteomics to define the SNX21 interactome. We reveal that the N-terminal extension of SNX21 interacts with huntingtin (Htt) whereas the PXB domain appears to associate with septins, a family of cytoskeletal- and membrane-associated proteins. In establishing that these interactions are sufficient for SNX21 to recruit Htt and septins on to an endosomal population, we reveal a scaffolding function for this sorting nexin. Our work paves the way for a more-detailed mechanistic analysis of the role(s) of the SNX-PXB proteins in endosomal biology.
Project description:Sorting nexins (SNX) are a family of PX domain-containing proteins with pivotal roles in trafficking and signaling. SNX-BARs, which also have a curvature-generating Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain, have membrane-remodeling functions, particularly at the endosome. The minimal PX-BAR module is a dimer mediated by BAR-BAR interactions. Many SNX-BAR proteins, however, additionally have low-complexity N-terminal regions of unknown function. Here, we present the cryo-EM structure of the full-length SNX-BAR Mvp1, which is an autoinhibited tetramer. The tetramer is a dimer of dimers, wherein the membrane-interacting BAR surfaces are sequestered and the PX lipid-binding sites are occluded. The N-terminal low-complexity region of Mvp1 is essential for tetramerization. Mvp1 lacking its N-terminus is dimeric and exhibits enhanced membrane association. Membrane binding and remodeling by Mvp1 therefore requires unmasking of the PX and BAR domain lipid-interacting surfaces. This work reveals a tetrameric configuration of a SNX-BAR protein that provides critical insight into SNX-BAR function and regulation.
Project description:The yeast SNX4 sub-family of sorting nexin containing a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs domain (SNX-BAR) proteins, Snx4/Atg24, Snx41 and Atg20/Snx42, are required for endocytic recycling and selective autophagy. Here, we show that Snx4 forms 2 functionally distinct heterodimers: Snx4-Atg20 and Snx4-Snx41. Each heterodimer coats an endosome-derived tubule that mediates retrograde sorting of distinct cargo; the v-SNARE, Snc1, is a cargo of the Snx4-Atg20 pathway, and Snx4-Snx41 mediates retrograde sorting of Atg27, an integral membrane protein implicated in selective autophagy. Live cell imaging of individual endosomes shows that Snx4 and the Vps5-Vps17 retromer SNX-BAR heterodimer operate concurrently on a maturing endosome. Consistent with this, the yeast dynamin family protein, Vps1, which was previously shown to promote fission of retromer-coated tubules, promotes fission of Snx4-Atg20 coated tubules. The results indicate that the yeast SNX-BAR proteins coat 3 distinct types of endosome-derived carriers that mediate endosome-to-Golgi retrograde trafficking.
Project description:Many microtubule motors have been shown to couple to endosomal membranes. These motors include dynein in addition to many different kinesin family members. Sorting nexins (SNXs) are central to the organization and function of endosomes. These proteins can actively shape endosomal membranes and couple directly or indirectly to the minus-end microtubule motor dynein. Motor proteins acting on endosomes drive their motility, dictate their morphology and affect cargo segregation. We have used well-characterized members of the SNX family to elucidate motor coupling using high-resolution light microscopy coupled with depletion of specific microtubule motors. Endosomal domains labelled with SNX1, SNX4 and SNX8 couple to discrete combinations of dynein and kinesin motors. These specific combinations govern the structure and motility of each SNX-coated membrane in addition to the segregation of distinct functional endosomal subdomains. Taken together, our data show that these key features of endosome dynamics are governed by the same set of opposing microtubule motors. Thus, microtubule motors help to define the mosaic layout of endosomes that underpins cargo sorting.