Association of vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, and interferon gamma gene polymorphisms with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Chronic hyperglycemia and hypoxemia are believed to be causal factors in the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) among individuals with type 2 diabetes. It is hypothesized that formation of new blood vessels in the retina due to prolonged hypoxia is associated with increased expression of several growth factors and angiogenic cytokines. In the present study, we investigated the association of genetic polymorphisms in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), and interferon ? (IFN-?) genes, which may be responsible for the hypoxia-induced VEGF-mediated neovascularization pathway for the pathogenesis of PDR. METHODS: Our case-control association study composed of 493 ethnically matched volunteers (253 with PDR [cases] and 240 diabetic controls [DC]). Gene polymorphisms were determined with Taqman-based real-time PCR and amplification refractory mutation analysis system PCR. RESULTS: The VEGF-460C (rs833061C; p=0.0043) and IFN-? +874T (rs2430561T; p=0.0011) alleles were significantly associated with PDR. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations at VEGF-460C and IFN-? +874T might accelerate the pathogenesis of retinal neovascularization in PDR.
Project description:Prior to the development of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in the 1970s, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was the most common cause of blindness in diabetic patients. The diabetic retinopathy study demonstrated that PRP could decrease severe visual loss from PDR by 50%. Since then and for the past four decades, PRP has been the treatment of choice for eyes with PDR. In the past decade, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has become the treatment of choice for diabetic macular edema (DME). When treated intensively with anti-VEGF drugs, about one-third of eyes with DME experience an improvement in their diabetic retinopathy severity scale. Randomized clinical trials comparing ranibizumab to PRP and aflibercept to PRP have shown that VEGF inhibitors cause regression of intraocular neovascularization but need to be given on a fairly regular basis. Despite these promising results, concerns about treatment adherence have surfaced. Patients with PDR that are treated solely with anti-VEGF drugs and somehow interrupt their treatment are at a high risk of developing irreversible blindness. Combination treatment of PRP plus an anti-VEGF drug may be the treatment of choice for PDR.
Project description:Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Recent studies have shown that beyond their effect in lowing glucose, DPP-4 inhibitors mitigate DM-related microvascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy. However, the mechanism by which pathological retinal neovascularization, a major clinical manifestation of diabetic retinopathy, is inhibited is unclear. This study sought to examine the effects of evogliptin, a potent DPP-4 inhibitor, on pathological retinal neovascularization in mice and elucidate the mechanism by which evogliptin inhibits angiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key factor in the vascular pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In a murine model of PDR, an intravitreal injection of evogliptin significantly suppressed aberrant retinal neovascularization. In human endothelial cells, evogliptin reduced VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Western blot analysis showed that evogliptin inhibited the phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with VEGF-induced cell adhesion and migration. Moreover, evogliptin substantially inhibited the VEGF-induced activation of adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6), a small guanosine 5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) that regulates VEGF receptor 2 signal transduction. Direct activation of Arf6 using a chemical inhibitor of Arf-directed GTPase-activating protein completely abrogated the inhibitory effect of evogliptin on VEGF-induced activation of the angiogenic signaling pathway, which suggests that evogliptin suppresses VEGF-induced angiogenesis by blocking Arf6 activation. Our results provide insights into the molecular mechanism of the direct inhibitory effect of the DPP-4 inhibitor evogliptin on pathological retinal neovascularization. In addition to its glucose-lowering effect, the antiangiogenic effect of evogliptin could also render it beneficial for individuals with PDR.
Project description:Diabetic eye disease is the most common cause of severe vision loss in the working-age population in the developed world, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is its most vision-threatening sequela. In PDR, retinal ischemia leads to the up-regulation of angiogenic factors that promote neovascularization. Therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delay the development of neovascularization in some, but not all, diabetic patients, implicating additional factor(s) in PDR pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that the angiogenic potential of aqueous fluid from PDR patients is independent of VEGF concentration, providing an opportunity to evaluate the contribution of other angiogenic factor(s) to PDR development. We identify angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) as a potent angiogenic factor whose expression is up-regulated in hypoxic retinal Müller cells in vitro and the ischemic retina in vivo. Expression of ANGPTL4 was increased in the aqueous and vitreous of PDR patients, independent of VEGF levels, correlated with the presence of diabetic eye disease, and localized to areas of retinal neovascularization. Inhibition of ANGPTL4 expression reduced the angiogenic potential of hypoxic Müller cells; this effect was additive with inhibition of VEGF expression. An ANGPTL4 neutralizing antibody inhibited the angiogenic effect of aqueous fluid from PDR patients, including samples from patients with low VEGF levels or receiving anti-VEGF therapy. Collectively, our results suggest that targeting both ANGPTL4 and VEGF may be necessary for effective treatment or prevention of PDR and provide the foundation for studies evaluating aqueous ANGPTL4 as a biomarker to help guide individualized therapy for diabetic eye disease.
Project description:Aim:To compare anti-vascular growth factor (anti-VEGF) pharmacotherapy with pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Method:PubMed, Embase, Medline, the ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were reviewed systemically. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) on anti-VEGF therapy versus PRP or anti-VEGF agent combined with PRP versus PRP for PDR are eligible to be included. Outcome measures were regression and recurrence of neovascularization, change in best corrected vision acuity, development of vitreous hemorrhage, and need for vitrectomy. A meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). Results:Twelve RCT