Effects of gastric bypass surgery on female reproductive function.
ABSTRACT: Reproductive function may improve after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms and time-related changes are unclear.The objective of the study was to determine whether ovulation frequency/quality as well as associated reproductive parameters improve after Roux en Y gastric bypass surgery.This was a prospective cohort study that enrolled female subjects from 2005 to 2008 with study visits at baseline and then 1, 3, 6, 12, and up to 24 months after surgery.The study was conducted at an academic health center.Twenty-nine obese, reproductive-aged women not using confounding medications participated in the study.The primary outcome was integrated levels of urinary progestin (pregnanediol 3-glururonide) from daily urinary collections at 12 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were changes in vaginal bleeding, other biometric, hormonal, ultrasound, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measures, and Female Sexual Function Index.Ninety percent of patients with morbid obesity had ovulatory cycles at baseline, and the ovulatory frequency and luteal phase quality (based on integrated pregnanediol 3-glururonide levels) were not modified by bariatric surgery. The follicular phase was shorter postoperatively [6.5 d shorter at 3 months and 7.9-8.9 d shorter at 6-24 months (P < 0.01)]. Biochemical hyperandrogenism improved, largely due to an immediate postoperative increase in serum SHBG levels (P < 0.01), with no change in clinical hyperandrogenism (sebum production, acne, hirsutism). Bone density was preserved, contrasting with a significant loss of lean muscle mass and fat (P < 0.001), reflecting preferential abdominal fat loss (P < 0.001). Female sexual function improved 28% (P = 0.02) by 12 months.Ovulation persists despite morbid obesity and the changes from bypass surgery. Reproductive function after surgery is characterized by a shortened follicular phase and improved female sexual function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Morbid obesity is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, which has been attributed to increased thrombotic activity. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain this increased risk, including an inflammatory state with upregulation of procoagulant and antifibrinolytic proteins. We therefore hypothesize that patients with morbid obesity are hypercoagulable and will revert to normal after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate changes in the hypercoagulable state after bariatric surgery. SETTING:University Hospital, Bariatric Center of Excellence, United States. METHODS:Thromboelastography (TEG) data were collected on 72 subjects with morbid obesity, with 36 who had 6 months of follow-up after bariatric surgery. TEG data of 75 healthy subjects (HS) without obesity, recent trauma or surgery, acute infection, or chronic conditions (e.g., liver, cardiovascular, or kidney disease; cancer; diabetes; autoimmune or inflammatory disorders; and disorders of coagulation) were used for comparison. TEG was performed alone and with the addition of 75 and 150 ng/mL tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to quantify fibrinolysis resistance (tPA-challenged TEG). RESULTS:The bariatric surgery cohort had a median age of 40.5 years, a median body mass index of 44.6 kg/m2, and 90% female patients. Median body mass index reduced significantly 6 months post surgery but remained elevated compared with the HS group (31.4 versus 25.4 kg/m2, P < .0001). At 6 months post surgery, subjects had longer reaction time (mean difference, 1.3; P = .02), lower maximum amplitude (-2.4, P = .01), and increased fibrinolysis with low-dose (3.1, P < .0001) and high-dose tPA-challenged TEG (9, P < .0001). Compared with HS, the postsurgery TEG values were still more likely to be abnormal (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with morbid obesity form stronger clots more rapidly and are more resistant to fibrinolysis than subjects without obesity. Bariatric surgery significantly improved the hypercoagulable profile and fibrinolysis resistance of morbid obesity.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view.
Project description:<b>Introduction: </b>Female patients expect improved quality of life, including sexual health and regain of fertility after bariatric surgery. Little has been published on to the extent to which patients' expectations are met by the weight loss after surgery.<br><br><b>Aim: </b>To explore how women perceive the effects of bariatric surgery on quality of life, focusing on sexual health and fertility.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>A qualitative study based on thematic analysis, supported by questionnaire data. Interviews following a semistructured guide were conducted with childless women (n = 11) aged 25-34 years recruited from a university-affiliated Swedish bariatric center. The interviews took place 18 months after surgery in the participants' homes or at the hospital and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed with a thematic approach. Questionnaires were filled in at the time of the interviews and compared with preoperative data using a Wilcoxon test for paired data.<br><br><b>Main outcome measures: </b>Participants described experiences related to female sexual health after bariatric surgery. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaires were administered preoperatively and postoperatively.<br><br><b>Results: </b>"A new beginning" was identified as the master theme, with 3 underlying subthemes: "Being worthy of love," "Exploring sexuality," and "Considering parenthood." The participants described a transformation into being more comfortable with themselves that affected all areas of life, including sexual life. These findings were supported by lower scores for depression, 6.5 vs 2, and improved total Female Sexual Function Index scores, median 23.3 preoperatively and 29.1 postoperatively, P = .012.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Improved body image and enhanced self-esteem play important roles in improved sexual functioning in women after bariatric surgery. Nilsson-Condori E, Järvholm S, Thurin-Kjellberg A, et al. A New Beginning: Young Women's Experiences and Sexual Function 18 Months After Bariatric Surgery. Sex Med 2020;8:730-739.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Initial weight loss after bariatric surgery has been associated with improvements in reproductive hormones and sexual functioning in women. Few studies have investigated the durability of these changes. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this paper is to investigate changes in sex hormones, sexual functioning, and relevant psychosocial constructs over 4 years in women who underwent bariatric surgery. SETTING:The setting is a prospective cohort of 106 women from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery consortium. METHODS:Changes in sex hormones were assessed by blood assay. Sexual functioning, quality of life (QOL), body image, depressive symptoms, and marital adjustment were assessed by psychometric measures. RESULTS:Women lost on average (95% confidence interval) 32.3% (30.4%, 34.3%) at postoperative year 3 and 30.6% (28.5%, 32.8%) at postoperative year 4. Compared to baseline, women experienced significant changes at 4 years in all hormones assessed, except estradiol. Women reported significant improvements in sexual functioning (i.e., arousal, desire, and satisfaction) through year 3, but these changes were not maintained through year 4. Changes in relationship quality followed a similar pattern. Improvements in physical aspects of QOL, body image, and depressive symptoms were maintained through 4 years. CONCLUSIONS:Improvements in reproductive hormones and physical aspects of QOL, body image, and depressive symptoms were maintained 4 years after bariatric surgery. Improvements in sexual functioning, relationship satisfaction, and mental components of QOL eroded over time.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Obesity is associated with hyperestrogenism along with other hormonal abnormalities affecting the menstrual cycle. The most effective and decisive method of obesity treatment is bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of bariatric surgery on menstrual cycle, the incidence of menstrual abnormalities, hyperandrogenism manifestation, and contraception use. MATERIALS AND METHODS:It was a cross-sectional study of 515 pre-menopausal women who had undergone bariatric surgery between 1999 and 2017 in a bariatric center. Data was collected via anonymous questionnaire, and the questions covered a 1-year period before the surgery and the last year before questionnaire completion. RESULTS:Before the surgery, 38.6% of the patients reported irregular menstruations in comparison with 25.0% after bariatric surgery (RR?=?0.65; 95%CI 0.53-0.79). The mean number of menstruations per year did not differ before and after surgery (10.2?±?3.9 vs 10.4?±?3.3; p?<?.45). There were no statistically significant differences in terms of prolonged menstruations, acne, and hirsutism prevalence. A total of 14.4% of patients before surgery reported estrogen-based contraception use in comparison with 15.0% after the surgery (p?<?.95). There were no significant differences in the frequency of OC use (11.0% before surgery vs 13.6% 12 months after the surgery vs 11.5% at the moment of survey administration; p?<?0.46). CONCLUSION:Bariatric surgery improves the regularity of the menstrual cycle in obese women in reproductive age. The lack of any changes in the combined hormonal contraception (CHC) use, especially OC, before and after bariatric surgery may be a result of a possibly low level of contraception counseling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity may impair sexual function through multiple mechanisms, but little is known about sexual dysfunction among adults with severe obesity seeking bariatric procedures. OBJECTIVES:To describe sexual function and associated factors before bariatric surgery. SETTING:Ten U.S. clinical facilities. METHODS:Before bariatric surgery, 2225 of 2458 Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 study participants (79% female, median age 45 years and median body mass index 46 kg/m2) completed a survey about sexual function over the past month. Mixed effects ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently related to 4 domains of sexual function. RESULTS:One third of women (34%) and one quarter of men (25%) were not sexually active, alone or with a partner, in the past month. Twenty-six percent of women and 12% of men reported no sexual desire. Physical health limited sexual activity at least moderately in 38% of women and 44% of men. About one half of the women (49%) and the men (54%) were moderately or very dissatisfied with their sexual life. Among women, older age, being Caucasian, urinary incontinence, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use were associated with poorer sexual function in multiple domains. In men, older age, not being married, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use were associated with poorer sexual function in multiple domains. CONCLUSION:Before bariatric surgery, approximately one half of women and men with severe obesity are dissatisfied with their sexual life. Older age, severity of depressive symptoms, and antidepressant medication use are associated with poorer sexual function in both sexes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Despite rising rates of obesity among patients with HIV, the potential role for weight loss surgery in this population remains less clear. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the role of bariatric surgery on relevant clinical outcomes among hospitalized obese patients with HIV. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis using the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2004 to 2014. Using Poisson regression, adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) were derived for clinical outcomes in patients with prior-bariatric surgery compared with those without bariatric surgery. PATIENTS:Patients with discharge co-diagnoses of morbid obesity and HIV. INTERVENTION:Bariatric surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included renal failure, urinary tract infection, malnutrition, sepsis, pneumonia, respiratory failure, thromboembolic events, gastrointestinal strictures, micronutrient deficiency, length of stay, and hospitalization costs. RESULTS:Among 7803 patients with discharge diagnoses of HIV and morbid obesity, 346 patients (4.4%) had bariatric surgery. The proportion of bariatric surgery in obese patients with HIV initially declined by -0.10% per year from 2004 to 2009 (Ptrend?<?0.05), then increased at an annual rate of +0.33% from 2012 to 2014 (Ptrend?<?0.05). On multivariable analysis, bariatric surgery did not influence mortality (P?=?0.98). Bariatric surgery was associated with decreased risk for renal failure, respiratory failure, and sepsis (all P?<?0.001). However, bariatric surgery increased the risk for postoperative strictures (IRR 2.5; 95% CI 1.5-4.5; P?=?0.001). CONCLUSION:Though initially underutilized, bariatric surgery in morbidly obese HIV patients is increasing and appears to be well tolerated and effective in significantly reducing life-threatening morbidity.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Bariatric surgery is considered the most efficient treatment for morbid obesity and its related diseases. However, its role as a metabolic modifier is not well understood. We aimed to determine biosignatures of response to bariatric surgery and elucidate short-term metabolic adaptations.<h4>Methods</h4>We used a LC- and FIA-ESI-MS/MS approach to quantify acylcarnitines, (lyso)phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, amino acids, biogenic amines and hexoses in serum samples of subjects with morbid obesity (n = 39) before and 1, 3 and 6 months after bariatric surgery. K-means cluster analysis allowed to distinguish metabotypes of response to bariatric surgery.<h4>Results</h4>For the first time, global metabolic changes following bariatric surgery independent of the baseline health status of the subjects have been revealed. We identify two metabolic phenotypes (metabotypes) at the interval 6 months-baseline after surgery, which presented differences in the levels of compounds of urea metabolism, gluconeogenic precursors and (lyso)phospholipid particles. Clinically, metabotypes were different in terms of the degree of improvement in insulin resistance, cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and uric acid independent of the magnitude of weight loss.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study opens new perspectives and new hypotheses on the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery and understanding of the biology of obesity and its associated diseases.
Project description:Neurological complications are frequently recognized with weight reduction surgeries for morbid obesity. The spectrum of peripheral neuropathies complicating the weight loss surgery is wide, and among them, the acute axonal peripheral neuropathy resembling Guillain-Barre syndrome is rare and only less than a dozen cases are reported. We present three cases, which after bariatric surgery developed acute polyneuropathy that rapidly progressed over 4 weeks from the onset. All patients responded to aggressive parenteral Vitamin B1 and B12 replacement therapy. These cases highlight the fact that bariatric surgery although is a promising option to treat morbid obesity; it is certainly not devoid of potential neurological complications due to micronutrient deficiencies. Delay in the diagnosis of acute polyneuropathy may worsen its long-term sequelae. A multidisciplinary team management with careful nutritional monitoring at regular interval is crucial in all patients for early recognition and intervention to avoid these complications after bariatric surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bariatric surgery can effectively treat morbid obesity; however, micronutrient deficiencies are common despite recommendations for high-dose supplements. Genetic predisposition to deficiencies underscores necessary identification of high-risk candidates. Personalized nutrition (PN) can be a tool to manage these deficiencies. METHODS:Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched. Articles involving genetic testing, micronutrient metabolism, and bariatric surgery were included. RESULTS:Studies show associations between genetic variants and micronutrient metabolism. Research demonstrates genetic testing to be a predictor for outcomes among obesity and bariatric surgery populations. There is limited research in bariatric surgery and micronutrient genetic variants. CONCLUSION:Genotype-based PN is becoming feasible to provide an effective treatment of micronutrient deficiencies associated with bariatric surgery. The role of genomic technology in micronutrient recommendations needs further investigation.