TNF superfamily member 13, APRIL, inhibits allergic lung inflammation.
ABSTRACT: The T-cell functions of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL, also known as TNFSF13) remain largely undefined. We previously showed that APRIL suppressed Th2 cytokine production in cultured CD4(+) T cells and Th2 antibody responses. Here we show that APRIL suppresses allergic lung inflammation, which is associated with diminished expression of the transcription factor c-maf. Mice deficient in the April gene (April(-/-) mice) had significantly aggravated lung inflammation compared with WT mice in the ovalbumin-induced allergic lung inflammation model. Likewise, blockade of APRIL in WT mice by the APRIL-receptor fusion protein, transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI)-Ig, enhanced lung inflammation. Transfer of APRIL-sufficient, ovalbumin-specific, TCR-transgenic CD4(+) T (OT-II) cells to April(-/-) mice restored the suppressive effect of APRIL on lung inflammation. Mechanistically, the expression of the Th2 cytokine transcription factor c-maf, but not GATA-3, was markedly enhanced in April(-/-) CD4(+) T cells at the RNA and protein level and under non-polarizing (Th neutral, ThN) and Th2-polarizing conditions. Since c-maf transactivates the IL-4 gene, the increased c-maf expression in April(-/-) mice readily explains increased Th2 cytokine production. Independent of its effect on IL-4, APRIL suppressed IL-13 expression. APRIL thus may regulate lung inflammation in a dual way, by acting on c-maf expression and by directly controlling IL-13 production.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Asthmatic and allergic inflammation is mediated by TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13). Although we have learned much about how TH2 cells are differentiated, the TH2 checkpoint mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVES:In this study we investigate how monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1; encoded by the Zc3h12a gene) regulates IL-5-producing TH2 cell differentiation and TH2-mediated inflammation. METHODS:The functions of Zc3h12a-/- CD4 T cells were evaluated by checking the expression of TH2 cytokines and transcription factors in vivo and in vitro. Allergic airway inflammation of Zc3h12a-/- mice was examined with murine asthma models. In addition, antigen-specific CD4 T cells deficient in MCPIP1 were transferred to wild-type recipient mice, challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM), and accessed for TH2 inflammation. RESULTS:Zc3h12a-/- mice have spontaneous severe lung inflammation, with an increase in mainly IL-5- and IL-13-producing but not IL-4-producing TH2 cells in the lung. Mechanistically, differentiation of IL-5-producing Zc3h12a-/- TH2 cells is mediated through Notch signaling and Gata3 independent of IL-4. Gata3 mRNA is stabilized in Zc3h12a-/- TH2 cells. MCPIP1 promotes Gata3 mRNA decay through the RNase domain. Furthermore, deletion of MCPIP1 in OVA- or HDM-specific T cells leads to significantly increased TH2-mediated airway inflammation in OVA or HDM murine models of asthma. CONCLUSIONS:Our study reveals that MCPIP1 regulates the development and function of IL-5-producing TH2 cells through the Notch/Gata3 pathway. MCPIP1 represents a new and promising target for the treatment of asthma and other TH2-mediated diseases.
Project description:The IL-4 receptor ? (IL-4R?) chain has a broad expression pattern and participates in IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, allowing it to influence several pathological components of allergic lung inflammation. We previously reported that IL-4R? expression on both bone marrow-derived and non-bone marrow-derived cells contributed to the severity of allergic lung inflammation. There was a correlation between the number of macrophages expressing the IL-4R?, CD11b, and IA(d), and the degree of eosinophilia in ovalbumin challenged mice. The engagement of the IL-4R? by IL-4 or IL-13 is able to stimulate the alternative activation of macrophages (AAM). The presence of AAM has been correlated with inflammatory responses to parasites and allergens. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-4R?? AAM play an active role in allergic lung inflammation. To directly determine the role of AAM in allergic lung inflammation, M-CSF-dependent macrophages (BMM) were prepared from the bone-marrow of IL-4R? positive and negative mice and transferred to IL-4R?xRAG2(-/-) mice. Wild type TH2 cells were provided exogenously.Mice receiving IL-4R?(+/+) BMM showed a marked increase in the recruitment of eosinophils to the lung after challenge with ovalbumin as compared to mice receiving IL-4R?(-/-) BMM. As expected, the eosinophilic inflammation was dependent on the presence of TH2 cells. Furthermore, we observed an increase in cells expressing F4/80 and Mac3, and the AAM marker YM1/2 in the lungs of mice receiving IL-4R?(+/+) BMM. The BAL fluid from these mice contained elevated levels of eotaxin-1, RANTES, and CCL2.These results demonstrate that transfer of IL-4R? + macrophages is sufficient to enhance TH2-driven, allergic inflammation. They further show that stimulation of macrophages through IL-4R? leads to their alternative activation and positive contribution to the TH2-driven allergic inflammatory response in the lung. Since an increase in AAM and their products has been observed in patients with asthma exacerbations, these results suggest that AAM may be targeted to alleviate exacerbations.
Project description:It is not clear why the development of protective Th2 cells is poor in type 1 diabetes (T1D). c-Maf transactivates the IL-4 gene promoting Th2 cell development; therefore, abnormalities in c-Maf may contribute to reduced IL-4 production by CD4 cells from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we demonstrate that despite normal expression, c-Maf binds poorly to the IL-4 promoter (IL-4p) in NOD CD4 cells. Immunoblotting demonstrates that c-Maf can be modified at lysine 33 by SUMO-1 (small ubiquitin-like modifier 1). Sumoylation is facilitated by direct interaction with the E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and increases following T cell stimulation. In transfected cells, sumoylation decreases c-Maf transactivation of IL-4p-driven luciferase reporter activity, reduces c-Maf binding to the IL-4p in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and enhances c-Maf localization into promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies. Sumoylation of c-Maf is increased in NOD CD4 cells as compared with CD4 cells from diabetes-resistant B10.D2 mice, suggesting that increased c-Maf sumoylation contributes to immune deviation in T1D by reducing c-Maf access to and transactivation of the IL-4 gene.
Project description:IL-11 and IL-11 receptor (R)alpha are induced by Th2 cytokines. However, the role(s) of endogenous IL-11 in antigen-induced Th2 inflammation has not been fully defined. We hypothesized that IL-11, signaling via IL-11Ralpha, plays an important role in aeroallergen-induced Th2 inflammation and mucus metaplasia. To test this hypothesis, we compared the responses induced by the aeroallergen ovalbumin (OVA) in wild-type (WT) and IL-11Ralpha-null mutant mice. We also generated and defined the effects of an antagonistic IL-11 mutein on pulmonary Th2 responses. Increased levels of IgE, eosinophilic tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammation, IL-13 production, and increased mucus production and secretion were noted in OVA-sensitized and -challenged WT mice. These responses were at least partially IL-11 dependent because each was decreased in mice with null mutations of IL-11Ralpha. Importantly, the administration of the IL-11 mutein to OVA-sensitized mice before aerosol antigen challenge also caused a significant decrease in OVA-induced inflammation, mucus responses, and IL-13 production. Intraperitoneal administration of the mutein to lung-specific IL-13-overexpressing transgenic mice also reduced BAL inflammation and airway mucus elaboration. These studies demonstrate that endogenous IL-11R signaling plays an important role in antigen-induced sensitization, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway mucus production. They also demonstrate that Th2 and IL-13 responses can be regulated by interventions that manipulate IL-11 signaling in the murine lung.
Project description:IL-18 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases including pulmonary infection, pulmonary fibrosis, lung injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unknown whether IL-18 plays any role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We hypothesized that overexpression of mature IL-18 protein in the lungs may exacerbate disease activities of asthma. We established lung-specific IL-18 transgenic mice on a Balb/c genetic background. Female mice sensitized- and challenged- with antigen (ovalbumin) were used as a mouse asthma model. Pulmonary inflammation and emphysema were not observed in the lungs of naïve transgenic mice. However, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammatory cells accompanied with CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages were significantly increased in ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged transgenic mice, as compared to wild type Balb/c mice. We also demonstrate that IL-18 induces IFN-γ, IL-13, and eotaxin in the lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged transgenic mice along with an increase in IL-13 producing CD4(+) T cells. Treatment with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody or deletion of the IL-13 gene improves ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and reduces airway inflammatory cells in transgenic mice. Overexpressing the IL-18 protein in the lungs induces type 1 and type 2 cytokines and airway inflammation, and results in increasing airway hyperresponsiveness via CD4(+) T cells and IL-13 in asthma.
Project description:Chitin is a ubiquitous polysaccharide in fungi, insects, allergens, and parasites that is released at sites of infection. Its role in the generation of tissue inflammation, however, is not fully understood.We hypothesized that chitin is an important adjuvant for adaptive immunity.Mice were injected with a solution of ovalbumin and chitin.We used in vivo and ex vivo/in vitro approaches to characterize the ability of chitin fragments to foster adaptive immune responses against ovalbumin and compared these responses to those induced by aluminum hydroxide (alum). In vivo, ovalbumin challenge caused an eosinophil-rich pulmonary inflammatory response, Th2 cytokine elaboration, IgE induction, and mucus metaplasia in mice that had been sensitized with ovalbumin plus chitin or ovalbumin plus alum. Toll-like receptor-2, MyD88, and IL-17A played critical roles in the chitin-induced responses, and MyD88 and IL-17A played critical roles in the alum-induced responses. In vitro, CD4(+) T cells from mice sensitized with ovalbumin plus chitin were incubated with ovalbumin-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. In these experiments, CD4(+) T-cell proliferation, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-?, and IL-17A production were appreciated. Toll-like receptor-2, MyD88, and IL-17A played critical roles in these in vitro adjuvant properties of chitin. TLR-2 was required for cell proliferation, whereas IL-17 and TLR-2 were required for cytokine elaboration. IL-17A also inhibited the generation of adaptive Th1 responses.These studies demonstrate that chitin is a potent multifaceted adjuvant that induces adaptive Th2, Th1, and Th17 immune responses. They also demonstrate that the adjuvant properties of chitin are mediated by a pathway(s) that involves and is regulated by TLR-2, MyD88, and IL-17A.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) mitigate inflammation in mouse models of acute lung injury. However, specific mechanisms of BMSC actions on CD4 T lymphocyte-mediated inflammation in vivo remain poorly understood. Limited data suggests promotion of Th2 phenotype in models of Th1-mediated diseases. However, whether this might alleviate or worsen Th2-mediated diseases such as allergic asthma is unknown. To ascertain the effects of systemic administration of BMSCs in a mouse model of Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airways inflammation was induced in wild-type C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice as well as in interferon-? (IFN?) receptor null mice. Effects of systemic administration during antigen sensitization of either syngeneic or allogeneic BMSC on airways hyperreactivity, lung inflammation, antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes, and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Both syngeneic and allogeneic BMSCs inhibited airways hyperreactivity and lung inflammation through a mechanism partly dependent on IFN?. However, contrary to existing data, BMSCs did not affect antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte proliferation but rather promoted Th1 phenotype in vivo as assessed by both OVA-specific CD4 T lymphocyte cytokine production and OVA-specific circulating immunoglobulins. BMSCs treated to prevent release of soluble mediators and a control cell population of primary dermal skin fibroblasts only partly mimicked the BMSC effects and in some cases worsened inflammation. In conclusion, BMSCs inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation by influencing antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocyte differentiation. Promotion of a Th1 phenotype in antigen-specific CD4 T lymphocytes by BMSCs is sufficient to inhibit Th2-mediated allergic airways inflammation through an IFN?-dependent process.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mechanisms that regulate maintenance of persistent TH2 cells and potentiate allergic inflammation are not well understood. OBJECTIVE:The function of serine protease inhibitor 2A (Spi2A) was studied in mouse TH2 cells, and the serine protease inhibitor B3 (SERPINB3) and SERPINB4 genes were studied in TH2 cells from patients with grass pollen allergy. METHODS:Spi2A-deficient TH2 cells were studied in in vitro culture or in vivo after challenge of Spi2A knockout mice with ovalbumin in alum. Expression of SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 mRNA was measured in in vitro-cultured TH2 cells and in ex vivo CD27-CD4+ cells and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) 2 from patients with grass pollen allergy by using quantitative PCR. SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 mRNA levels were knocked down in cultured CD27-CD4+ cells with small hairpin RNA. RESULTS:There were lower levels of in vitro-polarized TH2 cells from Spi2A knockout mice (P < .005) and in vivo after ovalbumin challenge (P < .05), higher levels of apoptosis (Annexin V positivity, P < .005), and less lung allergic inflammation (number of lung eosinophils, P < .005). In vitro-polarized TH2 cells from patients with grass pollen allergy expressed higher levels of both SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 mRNA (both P < .05) compared with unpolarized CD4 T cells. CD27-CD4+ from patients with grass pollen allergy expressed higher levels of both SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 mRNA (both P < .0005) compared with CD27+CD4+ cells. ILC2 expressed higher levels of both SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 mRNA (both P < .0005) compared with ILC1. Knockdown of either SERPINB3 or SERPINB4 mRNA (both P < .005) levels resulted in decreased viability of CD27-CD4+ compared with control transduced cells. CONCLUSION:The Serpins Spi2A in mice and SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 in allergic patients control the viability of TH2 cells. This provides proof of principle for a therapeutic approach for allergic disease through ablation of allergic memory TH2 cells through SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 mRNA downregulation.
Project description:Resistin-like molecule alpha (Retnla), also known as 'Found in inflammatory zone 1', is a secreted protein that has been found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice and plays a role as a regulator of T helper (Th)2-driven inflammation. However, the role of Retnla in the progress of Th2-driven airway inflammation is not yet clear. To better understand the function of Retnla in Th2-driven airway inflammation, we generated Retnla-overexpressing (Retnla-Tg) mice. Retnla-Tg mice showed increased expression of Retnla protein in BAL fluid and airway epithelial cells. Retnla overexpression itself did not induce any alteration in lung histology or lung function compared to non-Tg controls. However, OVA-sensitized/challenged Retnla-Tg mice had decreased numbers of cells in BAL and inflammatory cells accumulating in the lung. They also showed a reduction in mucus production in the airway epithelium, concomitant with a decreased Muc5ac level. These results were accompanied by reduced levels of Th2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, with no effect on levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin isotypes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ERK was markedly reduced in the lungs of OVA-challenged Retnla-Tg mice. Taken together, these results indicates that Retnla protects against Th2-mediated inflammation in an experimental mouse model of asthma, suggesting that therapeutic approaches to enhance the production of Retnla or Retnla-like molecules could be valuable for preventing allergic lung inflammation.
Project description:Interleukin-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is critical for the development and survival of multiple haematopoietic lineages. Mice lacking IL-15 have selective defects in populations of several pro-allergic immune cells including natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, and memory CD8+ T cells. We therefore hypothesized that IL-15-/- mice will have reduced inflammatory responses during the development of allergic airway disease (AAD).To determine whether IL-15-/- mice have attenuated allergic responses in a mouse model of AAD.C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and IL-15-/- mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and the development of AAD was ascertained by examining changes in airway inflammatory responses, Th2 responses, and lung histopathology.Here, we report that IL-15-/- mice developed enhanced allergic responses in an OVA-induced model of AAD. In the absence of IL-15, OVA-challenged mice exhibited enhanced bronchial eosinophilic inflammation, elevated IL-13 production, and severe lung histopathology in comparison with WT mice. In addition, increased numbers of CD4+ T and B cells in the spleens and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were also observed. Examination of OVA-challenged IL-15R?-/- animals revealed a similar phenotype resulting in enhanced airway eosinophilia compared to WT mice. Adoptive transfer of splenic CD8+ T cells from OVA-sensitized WT mice suppressed the enhancement of eosinophilia in IL-15-/- animals to levels observed in WT mice, but had no further effects.These data demonstrate that mice with an endogenous IL-15 deficiency are susceptible to the development of severe, enhanced Th2-mediated AAD, which can be regulated by CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, the development of disease as well as allergen-specific Th2 responses occurs despite deficiencies in several IL-15-dependent cell types including NK, NKT, and ?? T cells, suggesting that these cells or their subsets are dispensable for the induction of AAD in IL-15-deficient mice.