Attenuation of miR-126 activity expands HSC in vivo without exhaustion.
ABSTRACT: Lifelong blood cell production is governed through the poorly understood integration of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic control of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and activation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) coordinately regulate multiple targets within signaling networks, making them attractive candidate HSC regulators. We report that miR-126, a miRNA expressed in HSC and early progenitors, plays a pivotal role in restraining cell-cycle progression of HSC in vitro and in vivo. miR-126 knockdown by using lentiviral sponges increased HSC proliferation without inducing exhaustion, resulting in expansion of mouse and human long-term repopulating HSC. Conversely, enforced miR-126 expression impaired cell-cycle entry, leading to progressively reduced hematopoietic contribution. In HSC/early progenitors, miR-126 regulates multiple targets within the PI3K/AKT/GSK3? pathway, attenuating signal transduction in response to extrinsic signals. These data establish that miR-126 sets a threshold for HSC activation and thus governs HSC pool size, demonstrating the importance of miRNA in the control of HSC function.
Project description:Life-long blood cell production is governed through the poorly understood integration of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic control of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and activation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) coordinately regulate multiple targets within signaling networks making them attractive candidate HSC regulators. We report that miR-126, a miRNA expressed in HSC and early progenitors, plays a pivotal role in restraining cell cycle progression of HSC in vitro and in vivo. miR-126 knockdown using lentiviral sponges increased HSC proliferation without inducing exhaustion, resulting in expansion of mouse and human long-term repopulating HSC. Conversely, enforced miR-126 expression impaired cell cycle entry leading to progressively reduced hematopoietic contribution. In HSC/early progenitors, miR-126 regulates multiple targets within the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway thus attenuating signal transduction in response to extrinsic signals. These data establish that miR-126 sets a threshold for HSC activation and thus governs HSC pool size, demonstrating the importance of miRNA in the control of HSC function. Total RNA was extracted from cord blood Lin- cells and treated with mir126 shRNA or mir126 containing viral particles (and corresponding controls)
Project description:To investigate miRNA function in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells (LSC), we generated a prognostic LSC-associated miRNA signature derived from functionally validated subpopulations of AML samples. For one signature miRNA, miR-126, high bioactivity aggregated all in vivo patient sample LSC activity into a single sorted population, tightly coupling miR-126 expression to LSC function. Through functional studies, miR-126 was found to restrain cell cycle progression, prevent differentiation, and increase self-renewal of primary LSC in vivo. Compared with prior results showing miR-126 regulation of normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) cycling, these functional stem effects are opposite between LSC and HSC. Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis demonstrates that miR-126 targets the PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling pathway, preserving LSC quiescence and promoting chemotherapy resistance.
Project description:The PicTar program predicted that microRNA-126 (miR-126), miR-145, and let-7s target highly conserved sites within the Hoxa9 homeobox. There are increased nucleotide constraints in the three microRNA seed sites among Hoxa9 genes beyond that required to maintain protein identity, suggesting additional functional conservation. In preliminary experiments, forced expression of these microRNAs in Hoxa9-immortalized bone marrow cells downregulated the HOXA9 protein and caused loss of biological activity. The microRNAs were shown to target their predicted sites within the homeobox. miR-126 and Hoxa9 mRNA are coexpressed in hematopoietic stem cells and downregulated in parallel during progenitor cell differentiation; however, miR-145 is barely detectable in hematopoietic cells, and let-7s are highly expressed in bone marrow progenitors, suggesting that miR-126 may function in normal hematopoietic cells to modulate HOXA9 protein. In support of this hypothesis, expression of miR-126 alone in MLL-ENL-immortalized bone marrow cells decreased endogenous HOXA9 protein, while inhibition of endogenous miR-126 increased expression of HOXA9 in F9 cells.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRs) play an important role in cell differentiation and maintenance of cell identity, but relatively little is known of their functional role in modulating human hematopoietic lineage differentiation. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide a model system to study early human hematopoiesis. We differentiated hESCs by embryoid body (EB) formation and compared the miR expression profile of undifferentiated hESCs to CD34(+) EB cells. miRs-126/126* were the most enriched of the 7 miRs that were up-regulated in CD34(+) cells, and their expression paralleled the kinetics of hematopoietic transcription factors RUNX1, SCL, and PU.1. To define the role of miRs-126/126* in hematopoiesis, we created hESCs overexpressing doxycycline-regulated miRs-126/126* and analyzed their hematopoietic differentiation. Induction of miRs-126/126* during both EB differentiation and colony formation reduced the number of erythroid colonies, suggesting an inhibitory role of miRs-126/126* in erythropoiesis. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 9 (PTPN9), a protein tyrosine phosphatase that is required for growth and expansion of erythroid cells, is one target of miR-126. PTPN9 restoration partially relieved the suppressed erythropoiesis caused by miRs-126/126*. Our results define an important function of miRs-126/126* in negative regulation of erythropoiesis, providing the first evidence for a role of miR in hematopoietic differentiation of hESCs.
Project description:It is generally assumed that gain- and loss-of-function manipulations of a functionally important gene should lead to the opposite phenotypes. We show in this study that both overexpression and knockout of microRNA (miR)-126 surprisingly result in enhanced leukemogenesis in cooperation with the t(8;21) fusion genes AML1-ETO/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and AML1-ETO9a (a potent oncogenic isoform of AML1-ETO). In accordance with our observation that increased expression of miR-126 is associated with unfavorable survival in patients with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we show that miR-126 overexpression exhibits a stronger effect on long-term survival and progression of AML1-ETO9a-mediated leukemia stem cells/leukemia initiating cells (LSCs/LICs) in mice than does miR-126 knockout. Furthermore, miR-126 knockout substantially enhances responsiveness of leukemia cells to standard chemotherapy. Mechanistically, miR-126 overexpression activates genes that are highly expressed in LSCs/LICs and/or primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, likely through targeting ERRFI1 and SPRED1, whereas miR-126 knockout activates genes that are highly expressed in committed, more differentiated hematopoietic progenitor cells, presumably through inducing FZD7 expression. Our data demonstrate that miR-126 plays a critical but 2-faceted role in leukemia and thereby uncover a new layer of miRNA regulation in cancer. Moreover, because miR-126 depletion can sensitize AML cells to standard chemotherapy, our data also suggest that miR-126 represents a promising therapeutic target.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: miR-126, the miRNA considered to be specially expressed in endothelial cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells, is strongly associated with angiogenesis. The purpose is to evaluate the role of miR-126 in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms. METHODS: The expression of miR-126 was detected in hypoxia-treated RF/6A cells and diabetic retinas using real-time PCR. The miR-126 was up- or down-regulated by transfecting miR-126-mimics or inhibitors into RF/6A cells. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. The protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were assessed by immunoblotting. RESULTS: A significantly decreased expression of miR-126 was found in hypoxia-treated RF/6A cells in a time-dependent manner compared with normoxic condition. The expression of miR-126 was also reduced in the retina tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The expression of VEGF and MMP-9 proteins was increased in hypoxia-induced RF/6A cells. In the functional analysis, miR-126-mimic significantly reduced the percentage of RF/6A cells in S phases compared with the negative control under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the VEGF and MMP-9 protein levels were sharply decreased in hypoxia-induced RF/6A cells pretreated with miR-126-mimics and increased in the cells pretreated with miR-126-inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: miR-126 is down-regulated under hypoxic condition both in vitro and in vivo and may halt the hypoxia-induce neovascularization by suspending the cell cycle progression and inhibiting the expression of VEGF and MMP-9.
Project description:Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a central phenomenon in kidney transplantation and AKI. Integrity of the renal peritubular capillary network is an important limiting factor in the recovery from IRI. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) facilitates vascular regeneration by functioning as an angiomiR and by modulating mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We hypothesized that overexpression of miR-126 in the hematopoietic compartment could protect the kidney against IRI via preservation of microvascular integrity. Here, we demonstrate that hematopoietic overexpression of miR-126 increases neovascularization of subcutaneously implanted Matrigel plugs in mice. After renal IRI, mice overexpressing miR-126 displayed a marked decrease in urea levels, weight loss, fibrotic markers, and injury markers (such as kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin). This protective effect was associated with a higher density of the peritubular capillary network in the corticomedullary junction and increased numbers of bone marrow-derived endothelial cells. Hematopoietic overexpression of miR-126 increased the number of circulating Lin(-)/Sca-1(+)/cKit(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Additionally, miR-126 overexpression attenuated expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 on Lin(-)/Sca-1(+)/cKit(+) cells in the bone marrow and increased renal expression of its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1, thus favoring mobilization of Lin(-)/Sca-1(+)/cKit(+) cells toward the kidney. Taken together, these results suggest overexpression of miR-126 in the hematopoietic compartment is associated with stromal cell-derived factor 1/CXCR4-dependent vasculogenic progenitor cell mobilization and promotes vascular integrity and supports recovery of the kidney after IRI.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma is a highly vascular tumor of lymphatic endothelial origin. Many deregulated miRNAs, including miR-126-3p, have been identified in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues. miR-126-3p is the most highly endothelial-specific miRNA that regulates vascular integrity and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of miR-126-3p on Kaposi's sarcoma cells through transfection of a miRNA mimic and inhibitor. Moreover, we searched the target gene (PIK3R2) of miR-126-3p using bioinformatics software and further verified PIK3R2 using luciferase reporter assays, Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. The results demonstrated that miR-126-3p inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle progression, induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion of SLK cells. The bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that PIK3R2 mRNA is a direct target of miR-126-3p. Moreover, the level of expression of the PIK3R2 gene was downregulated in SLK cells transfected with miR-126-3p siRNAs. Therefore, our data demonstrated that miR-126-3p is a tumor suppressor miRNA that acts by targeting PIK3R2 in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Kaposi's sarcoma.
Project description:Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in individuals with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (hereafter referred to as CML LSCs) are responsible for initiating and maintaining clonal hematopoiesis. These cells persist in the bone marrow (BM) despite effective inhibition of BCR-ABL kinase activity by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Here we show that although the microRNA (miRNA) miR-126 supported the quiescence, self-renewal and engraftment capacity of CML LSCs, miR-126 levels were lower in CML LSCs than in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) from healthy individuals. Downregulation of miR-126 levels in CML LSCs was due to phosphorylation of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing 1 (SPRED1) by BCR-ABL, which led to inhibition of the RAN-exportin-5-RCC1 complex that mediates miRNA maturation. Endothelial cells (ECs) in the BM supply miR-126 to CML LSCs to support quiescence and leukemia growth, as shown using mouse models of CML in which Mir126a (encoding miR-126) was conditionally knocked out in ECs and/or LSCs. Inhibition of BCR-ABL by TKI treatment caused an undesired increase in endogenous miR-126 levels, which enhanced LSC quiescence and persistence. Mir126a knockout in LSCs and/or ECs, or treatment with a miR-126 inhibitor that targets miR-126 expression in both LSCs and ECs, enhanced the in vivo anti-leukemic effects of TKI treatment and strongly diminished LSC leukemia-initiating capacity, providing a new strategy for the elimination of LSCs in individuals with CML.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA)-126 is a known regulator of hematopoietic stem cell quiescence. We engineered murine hematopoiesis to express miRNA-126 across all differentiation stages. Thirty percent of mice developed monoclonal B cell leukemia, which was prevented or regressed when a tetracycline-repressible miRNA-126 cassette was switched off. Regression was accompanied by upregulation of cell-cycle regulators and B cell differentiation genes, and downregulation of oncogenic signaling pathways. Expression of dominant-negative p53 delayed blast clearance upon miRNA-126 switch-off, highlighting the relevance of p53 inhibition in miRNA-126 addiction. Forced miRNA-126 expression in mouse and human progenitors reduced p53 transcriptional activity through regulation of multiple p53-related targets. miRNA-126 is highly expressed in a subset of human B-ALL, and antagonizing miRNA-126 in ALL xenograft models triggered apoptosis and reduced disease burden. Study 1: Turning off miR-126 expression from an experimental murine B-ALL in vivo; Study 2: Modulation of miR-126 expression in human cord blood stem and progenitor cell populations in vitro.