Toll-like receptor adaptor signaling molecule MyD88 on intervertebral disk homeostasis: in vitro, ex vivo studies.
ABSTRACT: MyD88 is an adapter protein that links toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) with downstream signaling molecules. The MyD88 has been found to be an essential mediator in the development of osteoarthritis in articular cartilage. However, the role of the MyD88 pathway has yet to be elucidated in the intervertebral disk (IVD). Using in vitro techniques, we analyzed the effect of MyD88 pathway-specific inhibition on the potent inflammatory and catabolic mediator LPS and IL-1 in bovine and human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells by assessing matrix-degrading enzyme expression, including matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS family). We also analyzed inhibition of MyD88 in the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TLR-2. Finally, we used an ex vivo organ culture model to assess the effects of MyD88 inhibitor (MyD88i) on catabolic factor-induced disk degeneration in mice lumbar disks. In bovine NP cells, MyD88i potently antagonizes LPS- or IL-1-mediated induction of cartilage-degrading enzyme production, including MMP-1, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5. MyD88i also attenuates the LPS- or IL-1-mediated induction of iNOS and TLR-2 gene expression. Our ex vivo findings reveal inhibition of MyD88 via counteraction of IL-1-mediated proteoglycan depletion. The findings from this study demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of inhibition of MyD88 pathway inhibition on IVD homeostasis, suggesting a potential therapeutic benefit of a MyD88i in degenerative disk disease in the future.
Project description:Rabbits with naturally high levels of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), unlike rodents, have become an interesting animal model for the study of lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, as they have similarities to humans in lipid metabolism, cardiovascular physiology and susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis. Rodents, such as mice, are not prone to atherosclerosis as they lack the mass and activity of CETP, as a key player in lipoprotein metabolism. Recently, APOE-knockout in rabbits has been shown to promote atherosclerosis and associated premature IVD degeneration that mimic the symptoms of atherosclerosis and structural changes of IVDs in humans. Here we examined whether APOE-knockout promoted IVD degeneration in rabbits is associated with imbalanced inflammatory catabolic activities, as the underlying problem of biological deterioration that mimic the symptoms of advanced IVD degeneration in humans. We analysed in lumbar nucleus pulposus (NP) of APOE-knockout rabbits the cell viabilities and the intracellular levels of inflammatory, catabolic, anti-catabolic and anabolic proteins derogating IVD matrix. Grades of IVD degeneration were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. NP cells were isolated from homozygous APOE-knockout and wild-type New Zealand White rabbits of similar age. Three-dimensional cell culture with low-glucose was completed in alginate hydrogel. Cell proliferation and intracellular levels of target proteins were examined by MTT and ELISA assays. Alike human NP cells of different disc degeneration grades, NP cells of APOE-knockout and wild-type rabbits showed significantly different in vivo cell population densities (p<0.0001) and similar in vitro proliferation rates. Furthermore, they showed differences in overexpression of selective inflammatory and catabolic proteins (p<0.0001) similar to those found in human NP cells of different disc degeneration grades, such as IL-1?, TNF-?, ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5 and MMP-3. This study showed that premature IVD degeneration in APOE-knockout rabbits was promoted by the accumulation of selective inflammatory catabolic factors that enhanced imbalances between catabolic and anabolic factors mimicking the symptoms of advanced IVD degeneration in humans. Thus, APOE-knockout rabbits could be used as a promising model for therapeutic approaches of degenerative disc disorders.
Project description:Because miR-146a expression in articular chondrocytes is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), we assessed whether miR-146a is linked to cartilage degeneration in the spine. Monolayer cultures of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells from the intervertebral discs (IVD) of bovine tails were transfected with a miR-146a mimic. To provoke inflammatory responses and catabolic extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, cells were co-treated with interleukin-1 (IL-1). Transfection of miR-146a decreases IL-1 induced mRNA levels of inflammatory genes and catabolic proteases in NP cells based on quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Similarly, miR146a suppresses IL-1 induced protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanases as revealed by immunoblotting. Disc segments from wild type (WT) and miR-146a knockout (KO) mice were cultured ex vivo in the presence or absence of IL-1 for 3days. Histological and immuno-histochemical (IHC) analyses of disc organ cultures revealed that IL-1 mediates changes in proteoglycan (PG) content and in-situ levels of catabolic proteins (MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5) in the nucleus pulposus of the disc. However, these IL-1 effects are more pronounced in miR-146a KO discs compared to WT discs. For example, absence of miR-146a increases the percentage of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 positive cells after treatment with IL-1. Thus, miR-146a appears to protect against IL-1 induced IVD degeneration and inflammation. Stimulation of endogenous miR-146a expression or exogenous delivery of miRNA-146a are viable therapeutic strategies that may decelerate disc degeneration and regain a normal homeostatic balance in extracellular matrix production and turn-over.
Project description:The relative resistance of non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) canines to degenerative disc disease (DDD) may be due to a combination of anabolic and anti-catabolic factors secreted by notochordal cells within the intervertebral disc (IVD) nucleus pulposus (NP). Factors known to induce DDD include interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) and/or Fas-Ligand (Fas-L). Therefore we evaluated the ability of notochordal cell conditioned medium (NCCM) to protect NP cells from IL-1ß and IL-1ß +FasL-mediated cell death and degeneration.We cultured bovine NP cells with IL-1ß or IL-1ß+FasL under hypoxic serum-free conditions (3.5% O2) and treated the cells with either serum-free NCCM or basal medium (Advanced DMEM/F-12). We used flow cytometry to evaluate cell death and real-time (RT-)PCR to determine the gene expression of aggrecan, collagen 2, and link protein, mediators of matrix degradation ADAMTS-4 and MMP3, the matrix protection molecule TIMP1, the cluster of differentiation (CD)44 receptor, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and Ank. We then determined the expression of specific apoptotic pathways in bovine NP cells by characterizing the expression of activated caspases-3, -8 and -9 in the presence of IL-1ß+FasL when cultured with NCCM, conditioned medium obtained using bovine NP cells (BCCM), and basal medium all supplemented with 2% FBS.NCCM inhibits bovine NP cell death and apoptosis via suppression of activated caspase-9 and caspase-3/7. Furthermore, NCCM protects NP cells from the degradative effects of IL-1ß and IL-1ß+Fas-L by up-regulating the expression of anabolic/matrix protective genes (aggrecan, collagen type 2, CD44, link protein and TIMP-1) and down-regulating matrix degrading genes such as MMP-3. Expression of ADAMTS-4, which encodes a protein for aggrecan remodeling, is increased. NCCM also protects against IL-1+FasL-mediated down-regulation of Ank expression. Furthermore, NP cells treated with NCCM in the presence of IL-1ß+Fas-L down-regulate the expression of IL-6 by almost 50%. BCCM does not mediate cell death/apoptosis in target bovine NP cells.Notochordal cell-secreted factors suppress NP cell death by inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3/7 activity and by up-regulating genes contributing anabolic activity and matrix protection of the IVD NP. Harnessing the restorative powers of the notochordal cell could lead to novel cellular and molecular strategies in the treatment of DDD.
Project description:Intervertebral disk degeneration (IVDD) is a spinal disk condition caused by an inflammatory response induced by various proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a transcriptional regulator and potential therapeutic target for many diseases, especially in regulating the activation of primary inflammatory response genes. Our study investigated a highly selective CDK9 inhibitor, atuveciclib, which protects nucleus pulposus (NP) cells from proinflammatory stimuli-induced catabolism. The effects of CDK9 inhibition were determined in human and rat NP cells treated with IL-1? in the presence or absence of atuveciclib or small interfering RNA target CDK9. Inhibition of CDK9 led to the attenuation of inflammatory response. In addition, rat intervertebral disk (IVD) explants were used to determine the role of CDK9 inhibition in extracellular matrix degradation. The rat IVDD model also proved that CDK9 inhibition attenuated IVDD, as validated using magnetic resonance imaging and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, CDK9 is a potential therapeutic target to prevent IVDD.
Project description:Cordycepin is a component of the extract obtained from Cordyceps militaris and has many biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory effects. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a degenerative disease that is closely related to the inflammation of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. The effect of cordycepin on NP cells in relation to inflammation and degeneration has not yet been studied. In our study, we used a rat NP cell culture and an intervertebral disc (IVD) organ culture model to examine the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression and the production of matrix degradation enzymes (MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5) and oxidative stress-associated factors (nitric oxide and PGE2). We found a protective effect of cordycepin on NP cells and IVDs against LPS-induced matrix degradation and macrophage infiltration. In addition, western blot and luciferase assay results demonstrated that pretreatment with cordycepin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, the results of our research suggest that cordycepin could exert anti-inflammatory and anti-degenerative effects on NP cells and IVDs by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Therefore, cordycepin may be a potential treatment for IDD in the future.
Project description:Basic science, biologic study.To determine the potential benefits of using resveratrol (RSV) for intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix repair and regeneration.The phytoestrogen RSV is a natural compound found in various plants including grapes and red wines. RSV has been reported to provide a protective effect on articular cartilage in rabbit models for arthritis, but its effect on spine cartilage is unknown. METHODS.: We studied the effect of RSV on bovine IVD cartilage homeostasis by assessing MMP-13 (potent catabolic factor) production, proteoglycan (PG) accumulation and synthesis, and the interaction between RSV and known catabolic factors such as bFGF or IL-1. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which RSV modulates MMP-13 and PG production, we also investigated its downstream target regulatory molecules.Stimulation of bovine disc cells cultured in monolayer with bFGF or IL-1 augmented the production of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 at the transcriptional level and this augmentation was blocked by RSV. Incubation of nucleus pulposus cells with RSV for 21 days significantly increased PG accumulation per cell in a dose-dependent manner, increased PG synthesis, rescued PG losses induced by catabolic reagents bFGF and IL-1, and promoted cell survival to levels seen after incubation with the anabolic protein BMP7 100 ng/mL. Protein-DNA interaction array results suggest that RSV effectively suppresses downstream target molecules of bFGF and IL-1 responsible for oxidative stress, proliferation, and apoptosis.Resveratrol is a potent anabolic mediator of bovine IVD cartilage homeostasis, revealing its potential as a unique biologic treatment to slow the progression of IVD degeneration. These data suggests RSV may have considerable promise in the treatment of disc degeneration.
Project description:The role and mechanism of pyroptosis in intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration are unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the viability and function of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) in IVDs and are related to pyroptosis. We performed microarray analyses of normal and degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) to assess the role of pyroptosis and identify key miRNAs in IVD degeneration. We also evaluated the underlying mechanism of miRNA-mediated pyroptosis in NPCs. In addition, we demonstrated the preventative effects of miRNAs on IVD degeneration in a rat model. The levels of the pyroptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase-1, N-terminal gasdermin D (GSDMD), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-18 in the degenerative NP were significantly higher than those in the normal NP. miRNA-141 was significantly upregulated in the degenerated NP. miR-141 mimic suppressed the matrix synthesis function of NPCs. By contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the expression of TXNIP and NLRP3 were significantly downregulated by an miR-141 inhibitor. Furthermore, the miRNA-141 inhibitor prevented the degeneration of IVDs in vivo. Our findings suggest that miRNA-141 induces pyroptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) catabolism in NPCs by increasing ROS generation and activating TXNIP/NLRP3 signaling. miRNA-141-regulated pyroptosis may be a novel therapeutic target for IVD degeneration.
Project description:Previously we identified a transcription factor, LPS-Induced TNF-alpha Factor (LITAF), mediating inflammatory cytokine expression in LPS-induced processes. To characterize the role of LITAF in vivo, we generated a macrophage-specific LITAF-deficient mouse (macLITAF(-/-)). Our data demonstrate that in macrophages (i) several cytokines (such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, sTNF-RII, and CXCL16) are induced at lower levels in macLITAF(-/-) compared with LITAF(+/+) control macrophages; (ii) macLITAF(-/-) mice are more resistant to LPS-induced lethality. To further identify LITAF signaling pathways, we tested mouse TLR-2(-/-), -4(-/-), and -9(-/-) and WT peritoneal macrophages exposed to LPS. Using these cells, we now show that LITAF expression can be induced after challenge either with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis via agonism at TLR-2, or with LPS from Escherichia coli via agonism at TLR-4, both requiring functional MyD88. We also show that, in response to LPS, the MyD88-dependent LITAF pathway differs from the NF-kappaB pathway. Furthermore, using a kinase array, p38alpha was found to mediate LITAF phosphorylation and the inhibition of p38alpha with a p38-specific inhibitor (SB203580) blocked LITAF nuclear translocation and reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein levels. Finally, macLITAF(-/-) macrophages rescued by LITAF cDNA transfection restored levels of TNF-alpha similar to those observed in WT cells. We conclude that LITAF is an important mediator of the LPS-induced inflammatory response that can be distinguished from NF-kappaB pathway and that p38alpha is the specific kinase involved in the pathway linking LPS/MyD88/LITAF to TNF.
Project description:Outside-in signals from ?(2) integrins require immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif adapters in myeloid cells that are known to dampen TLR responses. However, the relationship between ?(2) integrins and TLR regulation is unclear. Here we show that deficiency in ?(2) integrins (Itgb2(-/-) ) causes hyperresponsiveness to TLR stimulation, demonstrating that ?(2) integrins inhibit signals downstream of TLR ligation. Itgb2(-/-) macrophages and dendritic cells produced more IL-12 and IL-6 than WT cells when stimulated with TLR agonists and Itgb2(-/-) mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than WT mice when injected with LPS. TLR hypersensitivity was not the result of insufficient ABIN-3, A20, Hes-1, or IRAK-M expression, nor to changes in IL-10 production or sensitivity, though Itgb2(-/-) macrophages had reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation after LPS treatment. Furthermore, a Cbl-b-MyD88 regulatory axis is not required for TLR inhibition in macrophages. Instead, Itgb2(-/-) macrophages presented with enhanced I?B? degradation, leading to changes in NF-?B recruitment to target promoters and elevated cytokine, chemokine, and anti-apoptotic gene transcription. Thus, ?(2) integrins limit TLR signaling by inhibiting NF-?B pathway activation and promoting p38 MAPK activation, thereby fine-tuning TLR-induced inflammatory responses.