Variation in genes related to obesity, weight, and weight change and risk of contralateral breast cancer in the WECARE Study population.
ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI), a known breast cancer risk factor, could influence breast risk through mechanistic pathways related to sex hormones, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and altered levels of adipose-derived hormones. Results from studies of the relationship between BMI and second primary breast cancer have been mixed. To explore the relationship between BMI and asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC), we examined whether variants in genes related to obesity, weight, and weight change are associated with CBC risk.Variants in 20 genes [182 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)] involved in adipose tissue metabolism, energy balance, insulin resistance, and inflammation, as well as those identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMI and type II-diabetes were evaluated. We examined the association between variants in these genes and the risk of CBC among Caucasian participants [643 cases with CBC and 1,271 controls with unilateral breast cancer (UBC)] in the population-based Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study using conditional logistic regression.After adjustment for multiple comparisons, no statistically significant associations between any variant and CBC risk were seen. Stratification by menopausal or estrogen receptor (ER) status did not alter these findings.Among women with early-onset disease who survive a first breast cancer diagnosis, there was no association between variation in obesity-related genes and risk of CBC.Genetic variants in genes related to obesity are not likely to strongly influence subsequent risk of developing a second primary breast cancer.
Project description:Tamoxifen has been shown to greatly reduce risk of recurrence and contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Still, second primary contralateral breast cancer is the most common malignancy to follow a first primary breast cancer. Genetic variants in CYP2D6 and other drug-metabolizing enzymes that alter the metabolism of tamoxifen may be associated with CBC risk in women who receive the drug. This is the first study to investigate the impact of this variation on risk of CBC in women who receive tamoxifen. From the population-based Women's Environment Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study, we included 624 Caucasian women with CBC (cases) and 1,199 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls) with complete information on tumor characteristics and treatment. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of CBC associated with 112 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 genes involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen among tamoxifen users and non-users. After adjustment for multiple testing, no significant association was observed between any of the genotyped variants and CBC risk in either tamoxifen users or non-users. These results suggest that when using a tagSNP approach, common variants in selected genes involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen are not associated with risk of CBC among women treated with the drug.
Project description:Background:Women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) are at risk of developing a subsequent contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Common variants are associated with breast cancer risk. Whether these influence CBC risk is unknown. Methods:Participants were breast cancer cases from the population-based Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study. Sixty-seven established breast cancer risk loci were genotyped directly or by imputation in 1459 case subjects with CBC and 2126 UBC control subjects. An unweighted polygenic risk score (PRS) was created by summing the number of risk alleles for each directly genotyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), or for imputed loci, the imputed dosage. A weighted PRS was calculated similarly, but where each SNP's contribution was weighted by the published per-allele log odds ratio. Unweighted and weighted polygenic risk scores and CBC risk were modeled using conditional logistic regression. Cumulative CBC risk was estimated and benchmarked using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population incidence rates. Results:Both unweighted and weighted PRS were statistically significantly associated with CBC risk. The adjusted risk ratio of CBC in women in the upper quartile of unweighted PRS compared with the lowest quartile was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33 to 2.00). The estimated 10-year cumulative risk for women in the upper quartile of the unweighted PRS was 7.4% (95% CI = 6.0% to 9.1%). For women in the upper quartile of the weighted PRS, the risk ratio for CBC was 1.75 (95% CI = 1.41 to 2.18) compared with women in the lowest quartile. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity by age, treatment (radiation therapy dose, tamoxifen, chemotherapy), estrogen receptor status of the first primary, histology of the first primary, length of at-risk period for CBC, or breast cancer family history. Conclusions:Common genomic variants associated with the development of first primary breast cancer are also associated with the development of CBC; the risk is strongest among those who carry more risk alleles.
Project description:Ionizing radiation (IR) is a breast carcinogen that induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and variation in genes involved in the DNA DSB response has been implicated in radiation-induced breast cancer. The Women's Environmental, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) study is a population-based study of cases with contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and matched controls with unilateral breast cancer. The location-specific radiation dose received by the contralateral breast was estimated from radiotherapy records and mathematical models. One hundred fifty-two SNPs in six genes (CHEK2, MRE11A, MDC1, NBN, RAD50, TP53BP1) involved in the DNA DSBs response were genotyped. No variants or haplotypes were associated with CBC risk (649 cases and 1,284 controls) and no variants were found to interact with radiation dose. Carriers of a RAD50 haplotype exposed to ?1 gray (Gy) had an increased risk of CBC compared with unexposed carriers (Rate ratios [RR] = 4.31 [95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.93-9.62]); with an excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy = 2.13 [95% CI 0.61-5.33]). Although the results of this study were largely null, carriers of a haplotype in RAD50 treated with radiation had a greater CBC risk than unexposed carriers. This suggests that carriers of this haplotype may be susceptible to the DNA-damaging effects of radiation therapy associated with radiation-induced breast cancer.
Project description:BRCA1 and BRCA2 screening in women at high-risk of breast cancer results in the identification of both unambiguously defined deleterious mutations and sequence variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS). We examined a population-based sample of young women with contralateral breast cancer (CBC, n=705) or unilateral breast cancer (UBC, n=1398). We identified 470 unique sequence variants, of which 113 were deleterious mutations. The remaining 357 VUS comprised 185 unique missense changes, 60% were observed only once, while 3% occurred with a frequency of >10%. Deleterious mutations occurred three times more often in women with CBC (15.3%) than in women with UBC (5.2%), whereas combined, VUS were observed in similar frequencies in women with CBC and UBC. A protein alignment algorithm defined 16 rare VUS, occurring at highly conserved residues and/or conferring a considerable biochemical difference, the majority located in the BRCA2 DNA-binding domain. We confirm a multiplicity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 VUS that occur at a wide range of allele frequencies. Although some VUS inflict chemical differences at conserved residues, suggesting a deleterious effect, the majority are not associated with an increased risk of CBC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tamoxifen treatment greatly reduces a woman's risk of developing a second primary breast cancer. There is, however, substantial variability in treatment response, some of which may be attributed to germline genetic variation. CYP2D6 is a key enzyme in the metabolism of tamoxifen to its active metabolites, and variants in this gene have been associated with reduced tamoxifen metabolism. The impact of variation on risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) is unknown. METHODS:Germline DNA from 1514 CBC cases and 2203 unilateral breast cancer controls was genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms, one three-nucleotide insertion-deletion, and a full gene deletion. Each variant has an expected impact on enzyme activity, which in combination allows for the classification of women as extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizers (EM, IM, and PM respectively). Each woman was assigned one of six possible diplotypes and a corresponding CYP2D6 activity score (AS): EM/EM (AS = 2), EM/IM (AS = 1.5), EM/PM (AS = 1), IM/IM (AS = 0.75), IM/PM (AS = 0.5), and PM/PM (AS = 0). We also collapsed categories of the AS to generate an overall phenotype (EM, AS ≥ 1; IM, AS = 0.5-0.75; PM, AS = 0). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tamoxifen treatment and risk of CBC in our study population were estimated using conditional logistic regression, stratified by AS. RESULTS:Among women with AS ≥ 1 (i.e., EM), tamoxifen treatment was associated with a 20-55% reduced RR of CBC (AS = 2, RR = - 0.81, 95% CI 0.62-1.06; AS = 1.5, RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.30-0.68; and AS = 1, RR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.74). Among women with no EM alleles and at least one PM allele (i.e., IM and PM), tamoxifen did not appear to impact the RR of CBC in this population (AS = 0.5, RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.59-1.96; and AS = 0, RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.58-2.35) (p for homogeneity = - 0.02). CONCLUSION:This study suggests that the CYP2D6 phenotype may contribute to some of the observed variability in the impact of tamoxifen treatment for a first breast cancer on risk of developing CBC.
Project description:Women who receive chemotherapy for a first primary breast cancer have been observed to have a reduced risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC), however, whether the genetic profile of a patient modifies this protective effect is currently not understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of germline genetic variation in genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and targets on the association between chemotherapy and risk of CBC.From the population-based Women's Environment Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study, we included 636 Caucasian women with CBC (cases) and 1,224 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). The association between common chemotherapeutic regimens, CMF and FAC/FEC, and risk of CBC stratified by genotype of 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes selected for their known involvement in metabolism, action, and transport of breast cancer chemotherapeutic agents, were determined using conditional logistic regression.CMF (RR = 0.5, 95 % CI 0.4, 0.7) and FAC/FEC (RR = 0.7, 95 % CI 0.4, 1.0) are associated with lower CBC risk relative to no chemotherapy in multivariable-adjusted models. Here we show that genotype of selected genes involved in the metabolism and uptake of these therapeutic agents does not significantly alter the protective effect of either CMF or FAC/FEC on risk of CBC.The results of this study show that germline genetic variation in selected gene does not significantly alter the protective effect of CMF, FAC, and FEC on risk of CBC.
Project description:Mammographic density (MD) is an established predictor of risk of a first breast cancer, but the relationship of MD to contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk is not clear, including the roles of age, mammogram timing, and change with treatment. Multivariable prediction models for CBC risk are needed and MD could contribute to these.We conducted a case-control study of MD and CBC risk in phase II of the WECARE study where cases had a CBC diagnosed ??2 years after first diagnosis at age <55 years and controls had unilateral breast cancer (UBC) with similar follow-up time. We retrieved film mammograms of the unaffected breast from two time points, prior to/at the time of the first diagnosis (253 CBC cases, 269 UBC controls) and ??6 months up to 48 months following the first diagnosis (333 CBC cases, 377 UBC controls). Mammograms were digitized and percent MD (%MD) was measured using the thresholding program Cumulus. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between %MD and CBC, adjusted for age, treatment, and other factors related to CBC, were estimated using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between treatment modality and change in %MD in 467 women with mammograms at both time points.For %MD assessed following diagnosis, there was a statistically significant trend of increasing CBC with increasing %MD (p = 0.03). Lower density (<25%) was associated with reduced risk of CBC compared to 25 to <?50% density (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49, 0.98). Similar, but weaker, associations were noted for %MD measurements prior to/at diagnosis. The relationship appeared strongest in women aged <?45 years and non-existent in women aged 50 to 54 years. A decrease of ??10% in %MD between first and second mammogram was associated marginally with reduced risk of CBC (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40, 1.01) compared to change of <10%. Both tamoxifen and chemotherapy were associated with statistically significant 3% decreases in %MD (p <?0.01).Post-diagnosis measures of %MD may be useful to include in CBC risk prediction models with consideration of age at diagnosis. Chemotherapy is associated with reductions in %MD, similar to tamoxifen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Excess body weight and weight gain have been reported to independently increase the risk of several cancers. There are few published studies in nationally representative populations of women on specific, 'obesity-related' cancers in relation to prior weight change and relevant confounders. METHODS:Based on self-reported anthropometry, we prospectively assessed body mass index (BMI), weight change over 6 years and subsequent obesity-related cancer risk in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios and restricted cubic splines to model potential non-linear dose-response relationships. RESULTS:Excess body weight increased the risk of overall obesity-related cancer, postmenopausal breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial and kidney cancer, with endometrial cancer showing a threefold elevated risk. High weight gain ( ≥ 10 kg) increased the risk of overall obesity-related cancer, postmenopausal breast, endometrial and pancreatic cancer. The association between high weight gain and pancreatic cancer was strong, with 91% increased risk. CONCLUSIONS:Maintaining stable weight in middle adulthood, irrespective of BMI category at baseline, and avoiding excess body weight are both important in the prevention of several obesity-related cancers in women. Our finding of increased risk of pancreatic cancer in women with moderate and high weight gain is novel.
Project description:Rare deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Whether or not common variants in these genes are independently associated with risk of breast cancer remains unclear. In this study, we included 632 Caucasian women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC, cases) and 1,221 women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC, controls) from the WECARE (Women's Environment, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology) Study. BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutation status was measured using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography followed by direct sequencing, yielding including 88 BRCA1 and 60 BRCA2 deleterious mutation carriers. We also genotyped samples on the Illumina Omni1-Quad platform. We assessed the association between CBC risk and common (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BRCA1 (n SNPs = 22) and BRCA2 (n SNPs = 30) and haplotypes using conditional logistic regression accounting for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation status. We found no significant associations between any single-SNPs or haplotypes of BRCA1 or BRCA2 and risk of CBC among all women. When we stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status, we found suggestive evidence that risk estimates for selected SNPs in BRCA1 (rs8176318, rs1060915, and rs16940) and BRCA2 (rs11571686, rs206115, and rs206117) may differ in non-carriers and carriers of deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. One common haplotype on BRCA1 was inversely significantly associated with risk only among non-BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. The association between common variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and risk of CBC may differ depending on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We analyzed data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (36 164 women aged 40-79 years at baseline in 1988-1990 with no previous diagnosis of breast cancer and available information on weight and height) to examine the association between baseline body mass index (BMI)/weight gain from age 20 years and breast cancer risk in a non-Western population.<h4>Methods</h4>The participants were followed prospectively from enrollment until 1999-2003 (median follow-up: 12.3 years). During follow-up, breast cancer incidence was mainly confirmed through record linkage to population-based cancer registries. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association between breast cancer risk and body size.<h4>Results</h4>In 397 644.1 person-years of follow-up, we identified 234 breast cancer cases. Among postmenopausal women, the adjusted HR increased with BMI, with a significant linear trend (P < 0.0001). Risk was significantly increased among women with a BMI of 24 or higher (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.09-2.08 for BMI of 24-28.9, and 2.13, 1.09-4.16 for BMI ? 29) as compared with women with a BMI of 20 to 23.9. Weight gain after age 20 years and consequent overweight/obesity were combined risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer risk. This combined effect was stronger among women aged 60 years or older. However, the HRs were not significant in premenopausal women.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings support the hypothesis that weight gain and consequent overweight/obesity are combined risk factors for breast cancer among postmenopausal women, particularly those aged 60 years or older.