Lithium storage mechanisms in purpurin based organic lithium ion battery electrodes.
ABSTRACT: Current lithium batteries operate on inorganic insertion compounds to power a diverse range of applications, but recently there is a surging demand to develop environmentally friendly green electrode materials. To develop sustainable and eco-friendly lithium ion batteries, we report reversible lithium ion storage properties of a naturally occurring and abundant organic compound purpurin, which is non-toxic and derived from the plant madder. The carbonyl/hydroxyl groups present in purpurin molecules act as redox centers and reacts electrochemically with Li-ions during the charge/discharge process. The mechanism of lithiation of purpurin is fully elucidated using NMR, UV and FTIR spectral studies. The formation of the most favored six membered binding core of lithium ion with carbonyl groups of purpurin and hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-4 positions respectively facilitated lithiation process, whereas hydroxyl group at C-2 position remains unaltered.
Project description:Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.
Project description:One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg(-1) for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries.
Project description:The 3D flowerlike iron sulfide (F-FeS) is successfully synthesized via a facile one-step sulfurization process, and the electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are investigated. Compared with bulk iron sulfide, we find that the unique structural features, overall flowerlike structure, composed of several dozen nanopetals and numerous small size iron sulfide particles embedded within the fine nanopetals, and hierarchical pore structure features provide signification improvements in lithium storage performance, with a high-rate discharge capacity of 779.0 mAh g-1 at a rate of 5 A g-1, due to effectively alleviating the volume expansion during the lithiation/delithiation process, and shorting the diffusion length of both lithium ion and electron. Especially, an excellent cycling stability are achieved, a high discharge capacity of 890 mAh g-1 retained at a rate of 1.0 A g-1, suggesting its promising applications in lithium ion batteries (LIBs).
Project description:Molybdenum disulfide is considered one of the most promising anodes for lithium-ion batteries due to its high specific capacity; however, it suffers from an unstable solid electrolyte interphase. Understanding its structural evolution and reaction mechanism upon charging/discharging is crucial for further improvements in battery performance. Herein, the interfacial processes of solid electrolyte interphase film formation and lithiation/delithiation on ultra-flat monolayer molybdenum disulfide are monitored by in situ atomic force microscopy. The live formation of ultra-thin and dense films can be induced by the use of fluoroethylene carbonate as an additive to effectively protect the anode electrodes. The evolution of the fluoroethylene carbonate-derived solid electrolyte interphase film upon cycling is quantitatively analysed. Furthermore, the formation of wrinkle-structure networks upon lithiation process is distinguished in detailed steps, and accordingly, structure-reactivity correlations are proposed. These quantitative results provide an in-depth understanding of the interfacial mechanism in molybdenum disulfide-based lithium-ion batteries.
Project description:Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives.
Project description:Herein, recent progress in the field of tin oxide (SnO2 )-based nanosized and nanostructured materials as conversion and alloying/dealloying-type anodes in lithium-ion batteries and beyond (sodium- and potassium-ion batteries) is briefly discussed. The first section addresses the importance of the initial SnO2 micro- and nanostructure on the conversion and alloying/dealloying reaction upon lithiation and its impact on the microstructure and cyclability of the anodes. A further section is dedicated to recent advances in the fabrication of diverse 0D to 3D nanostructures to overcome stability issues induced by large volume changes during cycling. Additionally, the role of doping on conductivity and synergistic effects of redox-active and -inactive dopants on the reversible lithium-storage capacity and rate capability are discussed. Furthermore, the synthesis and electrochemical properties of nanostructured SnO2 /C composites are reviewed. The broad research spectrum of SnO2 anode materials is finally reflected in a brief overview of recent work published on Na- and K-ion batteries.
Project description:Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell.
Project description:Silicides are attractive novel active materials for use in the negative-electrodes of next-generation lithium-ion batteries that use certain ionic-liquid electrolytes; however, the reaction mechanism of the above combination is yet to be clarified. Possible reactions at the silicide electrode are as follows: deposition and dissolution of Li metal on the electrode, lithiation and delithiation of Si, which would result from the phase separation of the silicide, and alloying and dealloying of the silicide with Li. Herein, we examined these possibilities using various analysis methods. The results revealed that the lithiation and delithiation of silicide occurred.
Project description:Exploring electrochemically chapped graphite/graphene composites derived from the bulk carbon rod of the spent Zn/carbon primary cell is for the advanced high-capacity lithium-ion battery anode. It is found that the synthesized graphitic carbon has grain boundary defects with multilayered exfoliation. Such material exhibits an average specific capacity of 458 mA h g–1 at 0.2 C, which is higher than the theoretical specific capacity (372 mA h g–1) of graphite. The differential specific capacity calculations also show no significant difference in lithiation and delithiation potentials for the exfoliated sample at the low voltage. However, two additional plateaus have also been observed at ?1.2 and 2.5 V, which confirms the formation of the LiC3 phase similar to lithiation of graphene. Hence, the superior lithiation ability and thecycling stability of defected graphite/graphene flakes may be useful for the sustainable development of next-generation high energy lithium-ion batteries. Also, waste recovery tends to reduce the risk of environmental pollution and the cost of raw materials.
Project description:Lead germanate-graphene nanosheets (PbGeO3-GNS) composites have been prepared by an efficient one-step, in-situ hydrothermal method and were used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). The PbGeO3 nanowires, around 100-200 nm in diameter, are highly encapsulated in a graphene matrix. The lithiation and de-lithiation reaction mechanisms of the PbGeO3 anode during the charge-discharge processes have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical characterization. Compared with pure PbGeO3 anode, dramatic improvements in the electrochemical performance of the composite anodes have been obtained. In the voltage window of 0.01-1.50 V, the composite anode with 20 wt.% GNS delivers a discharge capacity of 607 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. Even at a high current density of 1600 mA g(-1), a capacity of 406 mAh g(-1) can be achieved. Therefore, the PbGeO3-GNS composite can be considered as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries.