ROS production is essential for the apoptotic function of E2F1 in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines.
ABSTRACT: In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3? blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator.
Project description:Accumulation of amyloid-? (A?), which results in the formation of senile plaques that cause oxidative damage and neuronal cell death, has been accepted as the major pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, inhibition of A?-induced oxidative damage and neuronal cell apoptosis represents the effective strategies in combating AD. Ginsenoside Re (Re) has pharmacological effects against A?-induced neurotoxicity. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. The present study evaluated the effect of Re against A?-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, and investigated the underlying mechanism. We demonstrate that Re inhibits the A?-triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as indicated by maintenance of mitochondrial functional, elevated Bcl-2/Bax ratio, reduced cytochrome c release, and inactivation of caspase-3/9. Re attenuated A?-evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) phosphorylation, and JNK activation. ROS-scavenging abrogated the ability of Re to alter ASK-1 activation. Simultaneously, inhibition of JNK abolished Re-induced Bax downregulation in A?-challenged SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, Re enhanced activation of the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in A?-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA targeting Nrf2 abolished the protective effect of Re. Our findings indicate that Re could be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Two active compounds, baicalein and its glycoside baicalin were found in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and reported to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of baicalein on the rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to parkinsonism. METHODS: Cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by MTT assay. The degree of nuclear apoptosis was evaluated with a fluorescent DNA-binding probe Hoechst 33258. The production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were determined by fluorescent staining with DCFH-DA and Rhodanmine 123, respectively. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was determined by the Western blots. RESULTS: Baicalein significantly increased viability and decreased rotenone-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pre- and subsequent co-treatment with baicalein preserved the cell morphology and attenuated the nuclear apoptotic characteristics triggered by rotenone. Baicalein antagonized rotenone-induced overproduction of ROS, loss of ??m, the increased expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and the decreased expression of Bcl-2. CONCLUSION: The antioxidative effect, mitochondrial protection and modulation of anti-and pro-apoptotic proteins are related to the neuroprotective effects of baicalein against rotenone induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.
Project description:AIM: We have investigated the effects of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), a product of lipid peroxidation, on Abeta(1-42)-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. METHODS: The viability of cultured SH-SY5Y cells was measured using a CCK-8 kit. Apoptosis was determined by Chip-based flow cytometric assay. The mRNA transcription of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were detected by using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR and the protein levels of Bax and caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blotting. The cytosolic calcium concentration of SH-SY5Y cells was tested by calcium influx assay. G2A expression in SH-SY5Y cells was silenced by small interfering RNA. RESULTS: Long-term exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to LPC augmented the neurotoxicity of Abeta(1-42). Furthermore, after LPC treatment, the Bax/Bcl-x(L) ratio and the expression levels, as well as the activity of caspase-3 were, elevated, whereas the expression level of TRAF1 was reduced. Because LPC was reported to be a specific ligand for the orphan G-protein coupled receptor, G2A, we investigated LPC-mediated changes in calcium levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrated that LPC can enhance the Abeta(1-42)-induced elevation of intracellular calcium. Interestingly, Abeta(1-42) significantly increased the expression of G2A in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas knockdown of G2A using siRNA reduced the effects of LPC on Abeta(1-42)-induced neurotoxicity. CONCLUSION: The effects of LPC on Abeta(1-42)-induced apoptosis may occur through the signal pathways of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor.
Project description:Background:Tamoxifen (TAM) is a cell type-specific anti-estrogen and is applied to improve the survival of patients with estrogen receptor positive (ER?+) breast cancer. However, long-term TAM use can induce serious drug resistance, leading to breast cancer recurrence and death in patients. Further, it is almost useless among patients with estrogen receptor negative (ER?-) breast cancer. Shikonin (SK) is a natural product broadly explored in cancer therapy. Some studies have demonstrated the combined treatment of SK and clinical anticancer drugs including TAM on various tumors. However, the combined effect of SK and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) on ER- breast cancer is not known. The current study aimed to assess the combination effects of SK and 4-OHT on human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (ER?+) and MDA-MB-435S (ER?-), in vitro and in vivo and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods:CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry were conducted to determine the cell viability and apoptotic profiles of human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435S) treated with SK, 4-OHT, and the combination. ROS and JC-1 assays were used to determine ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate proteins that are associated with apoptosis. Haematoxylin & Eosin (HE) staining was used to detect the tumor and kidney morphology of mice. TUNEL and immunohistochemical staining were performed to detect Ki67 expression level and cell apoptotic profile in tumor tissues. Results:SK and 4-OHT synergistically inhibited MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435S cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing the intracellular ROS level. The combination of SK and 4-OHT activated the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and the death receptor pathways, significantly regulating the PI3K/AKT/Caspase 9 signaling pathway. Compared with SK and 4-OHT alone, the combination of SK and 4-OHT could better inhibit tumor growth in mice. Conclusion:The combination of SK and 4-OHT shows highly efficient anticancer effects on breast cancer therapy. SK may be a promising candidate as an adjuvant to 4-OHT for breast cancer treatments, especially for ER- breast cancer.
Project description:PURPOSE:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, with a rising prevalence worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play important roles in the development and treatment of AD. However, the exact role of lncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in neuronal damage in AD is largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The AD model was established in SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells via treatment with amyloid β1-42 (Aβ). The expression of NEAT1 and microRNA-107 (miR-107) was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected by MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. The expression of phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) was measured by Western blot. The interaction between NEAT1 and miR-107 was explored by bioinformatics analysis, luciferase activity, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS:NEAT1 expression was enhanced in Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells, and its knockdown attenuated Aβ-induced inhibition of viability and promotion of apoptosis and p-Tau levels. NEAT1 was indicated as a decoy of miR-107. miR-107 abundance was reduced in Aβ-treated cells, and its overexpression reversed Aβ-induced injury. Moreover, interference of miR-107 abated silencing of NEAT1-mediated inhibition of neuronal damage in Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells. CONCLUSION:LncRNA NEAT1 aggravated Aβ-induced neuronal damage by sponging miR-107, indicating a novel avenue for treatment of AD.
Project description:Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a promising target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been well elucidated. Additionally, most of current PDE4 inhibitors produce severe nausea and vomiting response in patients, which limit their clinical application. FCPR16 is a novel PDE4 inhibitor with little emetic potential. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism of FCPR16 against cellular apoptosis induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) were examined in SH-SY5Y cells. FCPR16 (12.5-50??M) dose-dependently reduced MPP+-induced loss of cell viability, accompanied by reductions in nuclear condensation and lactate dehydrogenase release. The level of cleaved caspase 3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were also decreased after treatment with FCPR16 in MPP+-treated cells. Furthermore, FCPR16 (25??M) significantly suppressed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevented the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and attenuated the expression of malonaldehyde level. Further studies disclosed that FCPR16 enhanced the levels of cAMP and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in SH-SY5Y cells. Western blotting analysis revealed that FCPR16 increased the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and protein kinase B (Akt) down-regulated by MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of FCPR16 on the production of ROS and ??m loss could be blocked by PKA inhibitor H-89 and Akt inhibitor KRX-0401. Collectively, these results suggest that FCPR16 attenuates MPP+-induced dopaminergic degeneration via lowering ROS and preventing the loss of ??m in SH-SY5Y cells. Mechanistically, cAMP/PKA/CREB and Epac/Akt signaling pathways are involved in these processes. Our findings indicate that FCPR16 is a promising pre-clinical candidate for the treatment of PD and possibly other oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases.
Project description:Sesamin is a well-known antioxidant extracted from sesame seeds that exhibits various curative effects. The present study investigated whether sesamin would protect neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against mechanical stretch injury-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Additionally, the mechanisms underlying these actives were investigated. Following exposure to mechanical stretch injury, cells were incubated for further investigations. Lactate dehydrogenase and Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were used to assess cell viability, and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to evaluate changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). Furthermore, intracellular levels of ROS production were measured by 20, 70-dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining, the mRNA levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the determinations had also been made on related proteins by Western blot analysis.Exposure to mechanical stretch injury significantly decreased cell viability but this decrease was attenuated by pretreatment with sesamin (50 ?M). Sesamin also significantly inhibited mechanical stretch injury-induced increases in intracellular ROS production, attenuated declines in ??m, diminished the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins, and decreased cell apoptosis. Stretch injury increased Bax and cleaved caspase 3 levels, enhanced the gene expression of MMP-9, increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt, p38, and JNK and decreased Bcl-2 levels in the cells. However, pretreatment with sesamin reduced the mechanical stretch injury-induced overexpression of MMP-9.Sesamin protected SH-SY5Y cells against stretch injury by attenuating increases in ROS levels and suppressing apoptosis. Accordingly, sesamin seems to be a potentially therapeutic agent in the treatment of traumatic brain injury.
Project description:Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant and reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alpha-tocopherol (ATF) is the most widely studied form of vitamin E besides gamma-tocopherol (GTF) which also shows beneficial effects in AD. The levels of amyloid-beta (A?) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased in the brains of AD patients, and mutations in the APP gene are known to enhance the production of A?. Mitochondrial function was shown to be affected by the increased level of A? and may induce cell death. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of ATF and GTF on their ability to reduce A? level, modulate mitochondrial function and reduce the apoptosis marker in SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with the wild-type or mutant form of the APP gene. The A? level was measured by ELISA, the mitochondrial ROS and ATP level were quantified by fluorescence and luciferase assay respectively whereas the complex V enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry. The expressions of genes involved in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability such as voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC1), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), and cyclophilin D (CYPD) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), while the expressions of cyclophilin D (CypD), cytochrome c, Bcl2 associated X (BAX), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and pro-caspase-3 were determined by western blot. Our results showed that mitochondrial ROS level was elevated accompanied by decreased ATP level and complex V enzyme activity in SH-SY5Y cells expressing the mutant APP gene (p?<?0.05). Treatment with both ATF and GTF reduced the mitochondrial ROS level with maximum reduction was observed in the cells treated with high concentrations of ATF and GTF (p?<?0.05). However, only GTF at 80?µM significantly increase the ATP level and complex V enzyme activity (p?<?0.05). VDAC1 and CYPD were downregulated and CypD protein was significantly overexpressed in cells transfected with the wild-type (WT) and mutant APP gene (p?<?0.05). Cytochrome c release, the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2, and pro-caspase-3 expression increased in cells expressing mutated APP gene (p?<?0.05). The expression of CypD and pro-caspase 3 protein, and the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2 were increased in the following order; SH-SY5Y-APP-WT?<?SH-SY5Y-APP Swe <SH-SY5Y-APP Swe/Ind. Treatment with both ATF and GTF reduced the release of cytochrome c and the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2. However, only GTF significantly reduced the expression of CypD and pro-caspase-3, suggestive of its unique role in AD. In conclusion, GTF has an effect that was not shown by ATF and thus suggest its potential role in the development of therapeutic agents for AD.
Project description:Hypoxia (HYPX) induced-overload Ca2+ entry results in increase of mitochondrial oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in several neurons. Ca2+ permeable TRPM2 channel was gated by ADP-ribose (ADPR) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), although its activity was modulated in HYPX-exposed neurons by resveratrol (RSV). The aim of this study was to evaluate if a therapy of RSV can modulate the effect of HYPX in the TRPM2 expressing SH-SY5Y neuronal and HEK293 (no expression of TRPM2) cell lines. The SH-SY5Y and HEK293 cells were divided into four groups as control, RSV (50??M and 24?hours), and HYPX and RSV?+?HYPX. For induction of HYPX in the cells, CoCl2 (200??M and 24?hours) incubation was used. HYPX-induced intracellular Ca2+ responses to TRPM2 activation were increased in the SH-SY5Y cells but not in the HEK293 cells from coming H2O2 and ADPR. RSV treatment improved intracellular Ca2+ responses, mitochondrial function, suppressed the generation of cytokine (IL-1? and TNF-?), cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS in the SH-SY5Y cells. Intracellular free Zn2+, apoptosis, cell death, PARP-1, TRPM2 expression, caspase -3 and -9 levels are increased through activating TRPM2 in the SH-SY5Y cells exposed to the HYPX. However, the values were decreased in the cells by RSV and TRPM2 blockers (ACA and 2-APB). In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells exposed to HYPX conditions, the neuroprotective effects of RSV were shown to be exerted via modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and death through modulation of TRPM2 channel. RSV could be used as an effective agent in the treatment of neurodegeneration exposure to HYPX.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SH-SY5Y cells exhibit a neuronal phenotype when treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA), but the molecular mechanism of activation in the signalling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the gene expression profiles in SK-N-SH cells and two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y-A and SH-SY5Y-E), each of which show a different phenotype during RA-mediated differentiation. FINDINGS: SH-SY5Y-A cells differentiated in the presence of RA, whereas RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells required additional treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for full differentiation. After exposing cells to a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, we identified 386 genes and categorised these genes into two clusters dependent on the PI3K signalling pathway during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y-A cells. Transcriptional regulation of the gene cluster, including 158 neural genes, was greatly reduced in SK-N-SH cells and partially impaired in SH-SY5Y-E cells, which is consistent with a defect in the neuronal phenotype of these cells. Additional stimulation with BDNF induced a set of neural genes that were down-regulated in RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells but were abundant in differentiated SH-SY5Y-A cells. CONCLUSION: We identified gene clusters controlled by PI3K- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during the differentiation of two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells. The TRKB-mediated bypass pathway compensates for impaired neural function generated by defects in several signalling pathways, including PI3K in SH-SY5Y-E cells. Our expression profiling data will be useful for further elucidation of the signal transduction-transcriptional network involving PI3K or TRKB.