Exome sequencing identifies a founder frameshift mutation in an alternative exon of USH1C as the cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa with late-onset hearing loss.
ABSTRACT: We used a combined approach of homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing (WES) to search for the genetic cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in families of Yemenite Jewish origin. Homozygosity mapping of two arRP Yemenite Jewish families revealed a few homozygous regions. A subsequent WES analysis of the two index cases revealed a shared homozygous novel nucleotide deletion (c.1220delG) leading to a frameshift (p.Gly407Glufs*56) in an alternative exon (#15) of USH1C. Screening of additional Yemenite Jewish patients revealed a total of 16 homozygous RP patients (with a carrier frequency of 0.008 in controls). Funduscopic and electroretinography findings were within the spectrum of typical RP. While other USH1C mutations usually cause Usher type I (including RP, vestibular dysfunction and congenital deafness), audiometric screening of 10 patients who are homozygous for c.1220delG revealed that patients under 40 years of age had normal hearing while older patients showed mild to severe high tone sensorineural hearing loss. This is the first report of a mutation in a known USH1 gene that causes late onset rather than congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The c.1220delG mutation of USH1C accounts for 23% of RP among Yemenite Jewish patients in our cohort.
Project description:Usher syndrome is a syndromic form of hereditary hearing impairment that includes sensorineural hearing loss and delayed-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Type 1 Usher syndrome (USH1) is characterized by congenital profound sensorineural hearing impairment and vestibular areflexia, with adolescent-onset RP. Systemic treatment with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting the human USH1C c.216G>A splicing mutation in a knockin mouse model of USH1 restores hearing and balance. Herein, we explore the effect of delivering ASOs locally to the ear to treat hearing and vestibular dysfunction associated with Usher syndrome. Three localized delivery strategies were investigated in USH1C mice: inner ear injection, trans-tympanic membrane injection, and topical tympanic membrane application. We demonstrate, for the first time, that ASOs delivered directly to the ear correct Ush1c expression in inner ear tissue, improve cochlear hair cell transduction currents, restore vestibular afferent irregularity, spontaneous firing rate, and sensitivity to head rotation, and successfully recover hearing thresholds and balance behaviors in USH1C mice. We conclude that local delivery of ASOs to the middle and inner ear reach hair cells and can rescue both hearing and balance. These results also demonstrate the therapeutic potential of ASOs to treat hearing and balance deficits associated with Usher syndrome and other ear diseases.
Project description:Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal degenerations caused by mutations in at least 50 genes. Using homozygosity mapping in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) patients with autosomal-recessive RP (arRP), we identified a shared 1.7 Mb homozygous region on chromosome 1p36.11. Sequence analysis revealed a founder homozygous missense mutation, c.124A>G (p.Lys42Glu), in the dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase gene (DHDDS) in 20 AJ patients with RP of 15 unrelated families. The mutation was not identified in an additional set of 109 AJ patients with RP, in 20 AJ patients with other inherited retinal diseases, or in 70 patients with retinal degeneration of other ethnic origins. The mutation was found heterozygously in 1 out of 322 ethnically matched normal control individuals. RT-PCR analysis in 21 human tissues revealed ubiquitous expression of DHDDS. Immunohistochemical analysis of the human retina with anti-DHDDS antibodies revealed intense labeling of the cone and rod photoreceptor inner segments. Clinical manifestations of patients who are homozygous for the c.124A>G mutation were within the spectrum associated with arRP. Most patients had symptoms of night and peripheral vision loss, nondetectable electroretinographic responses, constriction of visual fields, and funduscopic hallmarks of retinal degeneration. DHDDS is a key enzyme in the pathway of dolichol, which plays an important role in N-glycosylation of many glycoproteins, including rhodopsin. Our results support a pivotal role of DHDDS in retinal function and may allow for new therapeutic interventions for RP.
Project description:Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a rare heterogeneous genetic retinal dystrophy disease, and despite years of research, known genetic mutations can explain only approximately 60% of RP cases. We sought to identify the underlying genetic mutations in a cohort of fourteen Indian autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) families and 100 Indian sporadic RP cases. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the probands of the arRP families and sporadic RP patients, and direct Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the causal mutations identified by WES. We found that the mutations of EYS are likely pathogenic mutations in two arRP families and eight sporadic patients. Specifically, we found a novel pair of compound heterozygous mutations and a novel homozygous mutation in two separate arRP families, and found two novel heterozygous mutations in two sporadic RP patients, whereas we found six novel homozygous mutations in six sporadic RP patients. Of these, one was a frameshift mutation, two were stop-gain mutations, one was a splicing mutation, and the others were missense mutations. In conclusion, our findings expand the spectrum of EYS mutations in RP in the Indian population and provide further support for the role of EYS in the pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis of RP.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Mutations in USH2A cause both isolated Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) and Usher syndrome (that implies RP and hearing impairment). One of the most frequent variants identified in this gene and among these patients is the p.(Cys759Phe) change. However, the pathogenic role of this allele has been questioned since it was found in homozygosity in two healthy siblings of a Spanish family. To assess the causative role of USH2A p.(Cys759Phe) in autosomal recessive RP (ARRP) and Usher syndrome type II (USH2) and to establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations associated with p.(Cys759Phe), we performed a comprehensive genetic and clinical study in patients suffering from any of the two above-mentioned diseases and carrying at least one p.(Cys759Phe) allele. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Diagnosis was set according to previously reported protocols. Genetic analyses were performed by using classical molecular and Next-Generation Sequencing approaches. Probands of 57 unrelated families were molecularly studied and 63 patients belonging to these families were phenotypically evaluated. RESULTS:Molecular analysis characterized 100% of the cases, identifying: 11 homozygous patients for USH2A p.(Cys759Phe), 42 compound heterozygous patients (12 of them with another missense USH2A pathogenic variant and 30 with a truncating USH2A variant), and 4 patients carrying the p.(Cys759Phe) allele and a pathogenic variant in another RP gene (PROM1, CNGB1 or RP1). No additional causative variants were identified in symptomatic homozygous patients. Statistical analysis of clinical differences between zygosity states yielded differences (p?0.05) in age at diagnosis of RP and hypoacusis, and progression of visual field loss. Homozygosity of p.(Cys759Phe) and compound heterozygosity with another USH2A missense variant is associated with ARRP or ARRP plus late onset hypoacusis (OR = 20.62, CI = 95%, p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS:The present study supports the role of USH2A p.(Cys759Phe) in ARRP and USH2 pathogenesis, and demonstrates the clinical differences between different zygosity states. Phenotype-genotype correlations may guide the genetic characterization based upon specific clinical signs and may advise on the clinical management and prognosis based upon a specific genotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder with congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have identified a consanguineous Lebanese family with two affected members displaying progressive hearing loss, RP and cataracts, therefore clinically diagnosed as USH type 3 (USH3). Our study was aimed at the identification of the causative mutation in this USH3-like family. METHODS: Candidate loci were identified using genomewide SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping followed by targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Using a capture array targeting the three identified homozygosity-by-descent regions on chromosomes 1q43-q44, 20p13-p12.2 and 20p11.23-q12, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation, p.Arg65X, in ABHD12 segregating with the phenotype. CONCLUSION: Mutations of ABHD12, an enzyme hydrolyzing an endocannabinoid lipid transmitter, cause PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract). After the identification of the ABHD12 mutation in this family, one patient underwent neurological examination which revealed ataxia, but no polyneuropathy. ABHD12 is not known to be related to the USH protein interactome. The phenotype of our patient represents a variant of PHARC, an entity that should be taken into account as differential diagnosis for USH3. Our study demonstrates the potential of comprehensive genetic analysis for improving the clinical diagnosis.
Project description:PURPOSE: To identify genes underlying autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (ARRP) by homozygosity mapping. METHODS: Families with ARRP were recruited after complete ophthalmic evaluation of all members and diagnosis of RP by predefined criteria. Genomic DNA from affected members of 26 families was genotyped on Illumina single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 K arrays with standard procedures. Genotypes were evaluated for homozygous regions that were common and concordant between affected members of each family. The genes mapping to homozygous intervals within these families were screened for pathogenic changes with PCR amplification and sequencing of coding regions. Co-segegration of sequence changes with disease was determined within each pedigree, and each variation was tested for presence in 100 unrelated normal controls. RESULTS: A genome-wide scan for homozygosity showed homozygous regions harboring the tubby like protein 1 gene (TULP1; chromosome 6) in one family, the nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 3 gene (NR2E3; chromosome 15) in three families, and the membrane frizzled-related protein gene (MFRP; chromosome 11) in one family. Screening of the three genes in the respective families revealed homozygous disease-causing mutations in three families. These included a missense mutation in TULP1, a deletion-cum-insertion in NR2E3, and a single base deletion in MFRP. Patients from all three families had a rod-cone type of dystrophy with night blindness initially. The NR2E3 and MFRP genes were associated with fundus features atypical of RP. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows involvement of the TULP1, NR2E3, and MFRP genes in ARRP in Indian cases. Genome-wide screening with SNP arrays followed by a prioritized candidate gene evaluation is useful in identifying genes in these patients.
Project description:To identify the disease-causing genes in families with autosomal recessive RP (ARRP).Families were screened for homozygosity at candidate gene loci followed by screening of the selected gene for pathogenic mutations if homozygosity was present at a given locus. A total of 34 families were included, of which 24 were consanguineous. Twenty-three genes were selected for screening. The presence of homozygosity was assessed by genotyping flanking microsatellite markers at each locus in affected individuals. Mutations were detected by sequencing of coding regions of genes. Sequence changes were tested for presence in 100 or more unrelated normal control subjects and for cosegregation in family members.Homozygosity was detected at one or more loci in affected individuals of 10 of 34 families. Homozygous disease cosegregating sequence changes (two frame-shift, two missense, and one nonsense; four novel) were found in the TULP1, RLBP1, ABCA4, RPE65, and RP1 genes in 5 of 10 families. These changes were absent in 100 normal control subjects. In addition, several polymorphisms and novel variants were found. All the putative pathogenic changes were associated with severe forms of RP with onset in childhood. Associated macular degeneration was found in three families with mutations in TULP1, ABCA4, and RP1 genes.Novel mutations were found in different ARRP genes. Mutations were detected in approximately 15% (5/34) of ARRP families tested, suggesting involvement of other genes in the remaining families.
Project description:PURPOSE: To identify the gene mutations responsible for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in Pakistani families. METHODS: A cohort of consanguineous families with typical RP phenotype in patients was screened by homozygosity mapping using microsatellite markers that mapped close to 21 known arRP genes and five arRP loci. Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the candidate gene. RESULTS: In two families, RP21 and RP53, homozygosity mapping suggested RHO, the gene encoding rhodopsin, as a candidate disease gene on chromosome 3q21. In six out of seven affected members from the two families, direct sequencing of RHO identified a homozygous c.448G>A mutation resulting in the p.Glu150Lys amino acid change. This variant was first reported in PMK197, an Indian arRP family. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis in RP21, RP53, and PMK197 showed a common disease-associated haplotype in the three families. CONCLUSIONS: In two consanguineous Pakistani families with typical arRP phenotype in the patients, we identified a disease-causing mutation (p.Glu150Lys) in the RHO gene. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis suggests that the previously reported Indian family (PMK197) and the two Pakistani families studied here share the RHO p.Glu150Lys mutation due to a common ancestry.
Project description:Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are retinal degenerative diseases which cause severe retinal dystrophy affecting the photoreceptors. LCA is predominantly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and contributes to 5% of all retinal dystrophies; whereas RP is inherited by all the Mendelian pattern of inheritance and both are leading causes of visual impairment in children and young adults. Homozygosity mapping is an efficient strategy for mapping both known and novel disease loci in recessive conditions, especially in a consanguineous mating, exploiting the fact that the regions adjacent to the disease locus will also be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. Here we have studied eleven consanguineous LCA and one autosomal recessive RP (arRP) south Indian families to know the prevalence of mutations in known genes and also to know the involvement of novel loci, if any. Complete ophthalmic examination was done for all the affected individuals including electroretinogram, fundus photograph, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography. Homozygosity mapping using Affymetrix 250K HMA GeneChip on eleven LCA families followed by screening of candidate gene(s) in the homozygous block identified mutations in ten families; AIPL1 - 3 families, RPE65- 2 families, GUCY2D, CRB1, RDH12, IQCB1 and SPATA7 in one family each, respectively. Six of the ten (60%) mutations identified are novel. Homozygosity mapping using Affymetrix 10K HMA GeneChip on the arRP family identified a novel nonsense mutation in MERTK. The mutations segregated within the family and was absent in 200 control chromosomes screened. In one of the eleven LCA families, the causative gene/mutation was not identified but many homozygous blocks were noted indicating that a possible novel locus/gene might be involved. The genotype and phenotype features, especially the fundus changes for AIPL1, RPE65, CRB1, RDH12 genes were as reported earlier.
Project description:PURPOSE: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP; MIM 268000) is a hereditary disease characterized by poor night vision and progressive loss of photoreceptors, eventually leading to blindness. This degenerative process primarily affects peripheral vision due to the loss of rods. Autosomal recessive RP (arRP) is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. It has been associated with mutations in different genes, including CRB1 (crumbs homolog 1). The aim of this study was to determine the causative gene in a Tunisian patient with arRP born to non-consanguineous parents. METHODS: Four accessible family members were included. They underwent full ophthalmic examination with best-corrected Snellen visual acuity, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Haplotype analysis was used to evaluate homozygosity in the family to 20 arRP loci. All exons and intron-exon junctions of candidate genes not excluded by haplotype analysis were PCR amplified and directly sequenced. RESULTS: The proband was a 43-year-old female patient. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/63 (right eye) and 20/80 (left eye). Visual loss began during the third decade. Funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography revealed typical advanced RP changes with bone spicule-like pigment deposits in the posterior pole and the midperiphery along with retinal atrophy, narrowing of the vessels, and waxy optic discs. Haplotype analysis revealed homozygosity with microsatellite markers D1S412 and D1S413 on chromosome 1q31.3. These markers flanked CRB1. Our results excluded linkage of all the other arRP loci/genes tested. Sequencing of the 12 coding exons and splice sites of CRB1 disclosed a homozygous missense mutation in exon 7 at nucleotide c. 2291G>A, resulting in an arginine to histidine substitution (p.R764H). CONCLUSIONS: R764H is a novel mutation associated with CRB1-related arRP. Previously, an R764C mutation was reported. Extending the mutation spectrum of CRB1 with additional families is important for genotype-phenotype correlations and characterization of the scope of mutation.