Listeria monocytogenes infection causes metabolic shifts in Drosophila melanogaster.
ABSTRACT: Immunity and metabolism are intimately linked; manipulating metabolism, either through diet or genetics, has the power to alter survival during infection. However, despite metabolism's powerful ability to alter the course of infections, little is known about what being "sick" means metabolically. Here we describe the metabolic changes occurring in a model system when Listeria monocytogenes causes a lethal infection in Drosophila melanogaster. L. monocytogenes infection alters energy metabolism; the flies gradually lose both of their energy stores, triglycerides and glycogen, and show decreases in both intermediate metabolites and enzyme message for the two main energy pathways, beta-oxidation and glycolysis. L. monocytogenes infection also causes enzymatic reduction in the anti-oxidant uric acid, and knocking out the enzyme uric oxidase has a complicated effect on immunity. Free amino acid levels also change during infection, including a drop in tyrosine levels which may be due to robust L. monocytogenes induced melanization.
Project description:Health is a multidimensional landscape. If we just consider the host, there are many outputs that interest us: evolutionary fitness determining parameters like fecundity, survival and pathogen clearance as well as medically important health parameters like sleep, energy stores and appetite. Hosts use a variety of effector pathways to fight infections and these effectors are brought to bear differentially. Each pathogen causes a different disease as they have distinct virulence factors and niches; they each warp the health landscape in unique ways. Therefore, mutations affecting immunity can have complex phenotypes and distinct effects on each pathogen. Here we describe how two components of the fly's immune response, melanization and phagocytosis, contribute to the health landscape generated by the transcription factor ets21c (CG2914) and its putative effector, the signaling molecule wntD (CG8458). To probe the landscape, we infect with two pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, which primarily lives intracellularly, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is an extracellular pathogen. Using the diversity of phenotypes generated by these mutants, we propose that survival during a L. monocytogenes infection is mediated by a combination of two host mechanisms: phagocytic activity and melanization; while survival during a S. pneumoniae infection is determined by phagocytic activity. In addition, increased phagocytic activity is beneficial during S. pneumoniae infection but detrimental during L. monocytogenes infection, demonstrating an inherent trade-off in the immune response.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a food-borne bacterial pathogen. Innate immunity to L. monocytogenes is profoundly affected by type I interferons (IFN-I). Here we investigated host metabolism in L. monocytogenes-infected mice and its potential control by IFN-I. Accordingly, we used animals lacking either the IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) or IRF9, a subunit of ISGF3, the master regulator of IFN-I-induced genes. Transcriptomes and metabolite profiles showed that L. monocytogenes infection induces metabolic rewiring of the liver. This affects various metabolic pathways including fatty acid (FA) metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation and is partially dependent on IFN-I signaling. Livers and macrophages from Ifnar1-/- mice employ increased glutaminolysis in an IRF9-independent manner, possibly to readjust TCA metabolite levels due to reduced FA oxidation. Moreover, FA oxidation inhibition provides protection from L. monocytogenes infection, explaining part of the protection of Irf9-/- and Ifnar1-/- mice. Our findings define a role of IFN-I in metabolic regulation during L. monocytogenes infection. Metabolic differences between Irf9-/- and Ifnar1-/- mice may underlie the different susceptibility of these mice against lethal infection with L. monocytogenes.
Project description:Malaria has had the largest impact of any infectious disease on shaping the human genome, exerting enormous selective pressure on genes that improve survival in severe malaria infections. Modern humans originated in Africa and lost skin melanization as they migrated to temperate regions of the globe. Although it is well documented that loss of melanization improved cutaneous Vitamin D synthesis, melanin plays an evolutionary ancient role in insect immunity to malaria and in some instances melanin has been implicated to play an immunoregulatory role in vertebrates. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that melanization may be protective in malaria infections using mouse models. Congenic C57BL/6 mice that differed only in the gene encoding tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin, showed no difference in the clinical course of infection by Plasmodium yoelii 17XL, that causes severe anemia, Plasmodium berghei ANKA, that causes severe cerebral malaria or Plasmodium chabaudi AS that causes uncomplicated chronic disease. Moreover, neither genetic deficiencies in vitamin D synthesis nor vitamin D supplementation had an effect on survival in cerebral malaria. Taken together, these results indicate that neither melanin nor vitamin D production improve survival in severe malaria.
Project description:Hemolymph melanization is a conserved immune response in insects and other arthropods. However, the physiological process of the hemolymph system in the melanization response is hardly studied. Here, alterations of hemocytes in immune melanization were observed by <i>Escherichia coli</i> infection in <i>Bombyx mori</i>. Results first showed that there were cells aggregating into clusters. However, it vanished, and only part of clustered hemocytes were melanized during the period of intense immunity. The hemocyte numbers immediately decreased following an immune challenge, slowly increased to a peak, then reduced and finally returned to normalization. Granulocytes participated in cells aggregation at the early and later immune stage, while plasmatocytes were responsible for hemocytes agglomerate and melanization for the longest time, and more oenocytoids appeared at the peak stage of melanization. Moreover, hemocytes played a crucial role in resisting invasion of pathogens by agglomerate and melanization, and the circulatory system maintained higher hemocyte numbers and stronger antibacterial activity in fifth than fourth instar larvae after infection. In vitro immune melanization was most likely preferentially implemented in an independent process. These were the main characteristics reflecting the physiological process of hemolymph immune melanization, which provided an important foundation for further study of the complete mechanisms in the immunity of silkworm.
Project description:The yellow mealworm beetle (<i>Tenebrio molitor</i>) has been exploited as an experimental model to unravel the intricacies of cellular and humoral immunity against pathogenic infections. Studies on this insect model have provided valuable insights into the phenotypic plasticity of immune defenses against parasites and pathogens. It has thus been possible to characterize the hemocoelic defenses of <i>T. molitor</i> that rely on the recognition of non-self-components of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The subsequent signaling cascade activating pathways such as the NF-κB controlled by Toll and IMD pathways lead to the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), onset of hemocyte-driven phagocytosis, and activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade regulating the process of melanization. Nevertheless, the activation of autophagy-mediated defenses of <i>T. molitor</i> against the facultative intracellular gram-positive bacterium <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> provides clear evidence of the existence of a cross-talk between autophagy and the IMD pathway. Moreover, the identification of several autophagy-related genes (<i>Atgs</i>) in <i>T. molitor</i> transcriptome and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has contributed to the understanding of the autophagy-signaling cascade triggered by <i>L. monocytogenes</i> challenge. Providing further evidence of the cross-talk hypothesis, <i>TmRelish</i> has been shown to be required not only for regulating the synthesis of AMPs through the PGRP-LE/IMD pathway activation but also for the expression of <i>Atgs</i> in <i>T. molitor</i> larvae following <i>L. monocytogenes</i> challenge. Notably, <i>L. monocytogenes</i> can stimulate the <i>T. molitor</i> innate immune system by producing molecules recognized by the multifunctional PRR (<i>Tm</i>PGRP-LE), which stimulates intracellular activation of the IMD pathway and autophagy. Considering the conservation of autophagy components involved in combating intracellular pathogens, it will be interesting to extrapolate a dynamic cross-talk model of immune activation. This review summarizes the most significant findings on the regulation of autophagy in <i>T. molitor</i> during <i>L. monocytogenes</i> infection and on the role of the innate immunity machinery, including the NF-κB pathway, in the control of pathogenic load.
Project description:Macrophages perform critical functions in both innate immunity and cholesterol metabolism. Here, we report that activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages causes lanosterol, the first sterol intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, to accumulate. This effect is due to type I interferon (IFN)-dependent histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) transcriptional repression of lanosterol-14?-demethylase, the gene product of Cyp51A1. Lanosterol accumulation in macrophages, because of either treatment with ketoconazole or induced conditional disruption of Cyp51A1 in mouse macrophages in vitro, decreases IFN?-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1-STAT2 activation and IFN?-stimulated gene expression. These effects translate into increased survival to endotoxemic shock by reducing cytokine secretion. In addition, lanosterol accumulation increases membrane fluidity and ROS production, thus potentiating phagocytosis and the ability to kill bacteria. This improves resistance of mice to Listeria monocytogenes infection by increasing bacterial clearance in the spleen and liver. Overall, our data indicate that lanosterol is an endogenous selective regulator of macrophage immunity.
Project description:To identify new Drosophila genes involved in the immune response, we monitored the gene expression profile of adult flies in response to microbial infection by using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays encompassing nearly the full Drosophila genome. Of 13,197 genes tested, we have characterized 230 induced and 170 repressed by microbial infection, most of which had not previously been associated with the immune response. Many of these genes can be assigned to specific aspects of the immune response, including recognition, phagocytosis, coagulation, melanization, activation of NF-kappaB transcription factors, synthesis of antimicrobial peptides, production of reactive oxygen species, and regulation of iron metabolism. Additionally, we found a large number of genes with unknown function that may be involved in control and execution of the immune response. Determining the function of these genes represents an important challenge for improving our knowledge of innate immunity. Complete results may be found at http://www.fruitfly.org/expression/immunity/.
Project description:Mutations in mitochondrial genes impairing energy production cause mitochondrial diseases (MDs), and clinical studies have shown that MD patients are prone to bacterial infections. However, the relationship between mitochondrial (dys)function and infection remains largely unexplored, especially in epithelial cells, the first barrier to many pathogens. Here, we generate an epithelial cell model for one of the most common mitochondrial diseases, Leigh syndrome, by deleting surfeit locus protein 1 (SURF1), an assembly factor for respiratory chain complex IV. We use this genetic model and a complementary, nutrient-based approach to modulate mitochondrial respiration rates and show that impaired mitochondrial respiration favors entry of the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a well-established bacterial infection model. Reversely, enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism decreases infection efficiency. We further demonstrate that endocytic recycling is reduced in mitochondrial respiration-dependent cells, dampening L. monocytogenes infection by slowing the recycling of its host cell receptor c-Met, highlighting a previously undescribed role of mitochondrial respiration during infection.
Project description:Infection with Listeria monocytogenes strains that enter the host cell cytosol leads to a robust cytotoxic T cell response resulting in long-lived cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Upon entry into the cytosol, L. monocytogenes secretes cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) which activates the innate immune sensor STING leading to the expression of IFN-? and co-regulated genes. In this study, we examined the role of STING in the development of protective CMI to L. monocytogenes. Mice deficient for STING or its downstream effector IRF3 restricted a secondary lethal challenge with L. monocytogenes and exhibited enhanced immunity that was MyD88-independent. Conversely, enhancing STING activation during immunization by co-administration of c-di-AMP or by infection with a L. monocytogenes mutant that secretes elevated levels of c-di-AMP resulted in decreased protective immunity that was largely dependent on the type I interferon receptor. These data suggest that L. monocytogenes activation of STING downregulates CMI by induction of type I interferon.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne bacterial pathogen that causes systemic infection by traversing the intestinal mucosa. Although MyD88-mediated signals are essential for defense against systemic L. monocytogenes infection, the role of Toll-like receptor and MyD88 signaling in intestinal immunity against this pathogen has not been defined. We show that clearance of L. monocytogenes from the lumen of the distal small intestine is impaired in MyD88(-/-) mice. The distal ileum of wild-type (wt) mice expresses high levels of RegIII gamma, which is a bactericidal lectin that is secreted into the bowel lumen, whereas RegIII gamma expression in MyD88(-/-) mice is nearly undetectable. In vivo depletion of RegIII gamma from the small intestine of wt mice diminishes killing of luminal L. monocytogenes, whereas reconstitution of MyD88-deficient mice with recombinant RegIII gamma enhances intestinal bacterial clearance. Experiments with bone marrow chimeric mice reveal that MyD88-mediated signals in nonhematopoietic cells induce RegIII gamma expression in the small intestine, thereby enhancing bacterial killing. Our findings support a model of MyD88-mediated epithelial conditioning that protects the intestinal mucosa against bacterial invasion by inducing RegIII gamma.