Role of Met(58) in the regulation of electron/proton transfer in trihaem cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens.
ABSTRACT: The bacterium Gs (Geobacter sulfurreducens) is capable of oxidizing a large variety of compounds relaying electrons out of the cytoplasm and across the membranes in a process designated as extracellular electron transfer. The trihaem cytochrome PpcA is highly abundant in Gs and is most probably the reservoir of electrons destined for the outer surface. In addition to its role in electron transfer pathways, we have previously shown that this protein could perform e(-)/H(+) energy transduction. This mechanism is achieved by selecting the specific redox states that the protein can access during the redox cycle and might be related to the formation of proton electrochemical potential gradient across the periplasmic membrane. The regulatory role of haem III in the functional mechanism of PpcA was probed by replacing Met(58), a residue that controls the solvent accessibility of haem III, with serine, aspartic acid, asparagine or lysine. The data obtained from the mutants showed that the preferred e(-)/H(+) transfer pathway observed for PpcA is strongly dependent on the reduction potential of haem III. It is striking to note that one residue can fine tune the redox states that can be accessed by the trihaem cytochrome enough to alter the functional pathways.
Project description:PpcA is the most abundant member of a family of five triheme cytochromes c7 in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs) and is the most likely carrier of electrons destined for outer surface during respiration on solid metal oxides, a process that requires extracellular electron transfer. This cytochrome has the highest content of lysine residues (24%) among the family, and it was suggested to be involved in e-/H(+) energy transduction processes. In the present work, we investigated the functional role of lysine residues strategically located in the vicinity of each heme group. Each lysine was replaced by glutamine or glutamic acid to evaluate the effects of a neutral or negatively charged residue in each position. The results showed that replacing Lys9 (located near heme IV), Lys18 (near heme I) or Lys22 (between hemes I and III) has essentially no effect on the redox properties of the heme groups and are probably involved in redox partner recognition. On the other hand, Lys43 (near heme IV), Lys52 (between hemes III and IV) and Lys60 (near heme III) are crucial in the regulation of the functional mechanism of PpcA, namely in the selection of microstates that allow the protein to establish preferential e-/H(+) transfer pathways. The results showed that the preferred e-/H(+) transfer pathways are only established when heme III is the last heme to oxidize, a feature reinforced by a higher difference between its reduction potential and that of its predecessor in the order of oxidation. We also showed that K43 and K52 mutants keep the mechanistic features of PpcA by establishing preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values than the wild-type protein, a property that can enable rational design of Gs strains with optimized extracellular electron transfer capabilities.
Project description:A 9.6 kDa periplasmic c -type cytochrome, designated PpcA, was purified from the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens and characterized. The purified protein is basic (pI 9.5), contains three haems and has an N-terminal amino acid sequence closely related to those of the previously described trihaem c (7) cytochromes of Geobacter metallireducens and Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. The gene encoding PpcA was identified from the G. sulfurreducens genome using the N-terminal sequence, and encodes a protein of 71 amino acids (molecular mass 9.58 kDa) with 49% identity to the c (7) cytochrome of D. acetoxidans. In order to determine the physiological role of PpcA, a knockout mutant was prepared with a single-step recombination method. Acetate-dependent Fe(III) reduction was significantly inhibited in both growing cultures and cell suspensions of the mutant. When ppcA was expressed in trans, the full capacity for Fe(III) reduction with acetate was restored. The transfer of electrons from acetate to anthraquinone 2,6-disulphonate (AQDS; a humic acid analogue) and to U(VI) was also compromised in the mutant, but acetate-dependent reduction of fumarate was not altered. The rates of reduction of Fe(III), AQDS, U(VI) and fumarate were also the same in the wild type and ppcA mutant when hydrogen was supplied as the electron donor. When taken together with previous studies on other electron transport proteins in G. sulfurreducens, these results suggest that PpcA serves as an intermediary electron carrier from acetate to terminal Fe(III) reductases in the outer membrane, and is also involved in the transfer of electrons from acetate to U(VI) and humics.
Project description:Geobacter bacteria are able to transfer electrons to the exterior of the cell and reduce extracellular electron acceptors including toxic/radioactive metals and electrode surfaces, with potential applications in bioremediation or electricity harvesting. The triheme c-type cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter metallireducens plays a crucial role in bridging the electron transfer from the inner to the outer membrane, ensuring an effective extracellular electron transfer. This cytochrome shares 80% identity with PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens, but their redox properties are markedly different, thus determining the distinctive working redox potential ranges in the two bacteria. PpcA from G. metallireducens possesses two extra aromatic amino acids (Phe-6 and Trp-45) in its hydrophobic heme core, whereas PpcA from G. sulfurreducens has a leucine and a methionine in the equivalent positions. Given the different nature of these residues in the two cytochromes, we have hypothesized that the extra aromatic amino acids could be partially responsible for the observed functional differences. In this work, we have replaced Phe-6 and Trp-45 residues by their nonaromatic counterparts in PpcA from G. sulfurreducens. Using redox titrations followed by UV-visible and NMR spectroscopy we observed that residue Trp-45 shifted the redox potential range 33% toward that of PpcA from G. sulfurreducens, whereas Phe-6 produced a negligible effect. For the first time, it is shown that the inclusion of an aromatic residue at the heme core can modulate the working redox range in abundant periplasmic proteins, paving the way to engineer bacterial strains for optimal microbial bioelectrochemical applications.
Project description:Geobacter sulfurreducens bacterium exhibits an enormous respiratory versatility, including the utilization of several toxic and radioactive metals as electron acceptors. This versatility is also replicated in the capability of the most abundant cytochrome in G. sulfurreducens, the periplasmic triheme cytochrome PpcA, to reduce uranium, chromium and other metal ions. From all possible electron transfer pathways in G. sulfurreducens, those involved in the iron reduction are the best characterized to date. Previously, we provided structural evidence for the complex interface established between PpcA and the electron acceptor Fe(III)-citrate. However, genetic studies suggested that this acceptor is mainly reduced by outer membrane cytochomes. In the present work, we used UV-visible measurements to demonstrate that PpcA is able to directly reduce the electron acceptor ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA), a more outer membrane permeable iron chelated form. In addition, the molecular interactions between PpcA and Fe-NTA were probed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR spectra obtained for PpcA samples in the absence and presence of Fe-NTA showed that the interaction is reversible and encompasses a positively charged surface region located in the vicinity of the heme IV. Overall, the study elucidates the formation of an electron transfer complex between PpcA and a readily outer-membrane permeable iron chelated form. The structural and functional relationships obtained explain how a single cytochrome is designed to effectively interact with a wide range of G. sulfurreducens electron acceptors, a feature that can be explored for optimal bioelectrochemical applications.
Project description:Geobacter sulfurreducens is capable of anaerobic respiration with Fe(III) as a terminal electron acceptor via a membrane-bound Fe(III) reductase activity associated with a large molecular mass cytochrome c. This cytochrome was purified by detergent extraction of the membrane fraction, Q-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography, preparative electrophoresis, and MonoQ ion-exchange chromatography. Spectrophotometric analysis of the purified cytochrome reveals a c-type haem, with no evidence of haem a, haem b or sirohaem. The cytochrome has an M(r) of 89000 as determined by denaturing PAGE, and has an isoelectric point of 5.2 as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing. Dithionite-reduced cytochrome can donate electrons to Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid and synthetic ferrihydrite, thus demonstrating that the cytochrome has redox and thermodynamic properties required for reduction of Fe(III). Analysis using cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the reduced cytochrome can catalytically transfer electrons to ferrihydrite, further demonstrating its ability to be an electron transport mediator in anaerobic Fe(III) respiration. Sequence analysis of a cloned chromosomal DNA fragment revealed a 2307 bp open reading frame (ferA) encoding a 768 amino acid protein corresponding to the 89 kDa cytochrome. The deduced amino acid sequence (FerA) translated from the open reading frame contained 12 putative haem-binding motifs, as well as a hydrophobic N-terminal membrane anchor sequence, a lipid-attachment site and an ATP/GTP-binding site. FerA displayed 20% or less identity with amino acid sequences of other known cytochromes, although it does share some features with characterized polyhaem cytochromes c.
Project description:Periplasmic c7 type cytochrome A (PpcA) protein is determined in Geobacter sulfurreducens along with its other four homologs (PpcB-E). From the crystal structure viewpoint the observation emerges that PpcA protein can bind with Deoxycholate (DXCA), while its other homologs do not. But it is yet to be established with certainty the reason behind this from primary protein sequence information. This study is primarily based on primary protein sequence analysis through the chemical basis of embedded amino acids. Firstly, we look for the chemical group specific score of amino acids. Along with this, we have developed a new methodology for the phylogenetic analysis based on chemical group dissimilarities of amino acids. This new methodology is applied to the cytochrome c7 family members and pinpoint how a particular sequence is differing with others. Secondly, we build a graph theoretic model on using amino acid sequences which is also applied to the cytochrome c7 family members and some unique characteristics and their domains are highlighted. Thirdly, we search for unique patterns as subsequences which are common among the group or specific individual member. In all the cases, we are able to show some distinct features of PpcA that emerges PpcA as an outstanding protein compared to its other homologs, resulting towards its binding with deoxycholate. Similarly, some notable features for the structurally dissimilar protein PpcD compared to the other homologs are also brought out. Further, the five members of cytochrome family being homolog proteins, they must have some common significant features which are also enumerated in this study.
Project description:Cytochrome c'' (Methylophilus methylotrophus) is a soluble protein, Mr 15,000, possessing one haem which is high-spin in the reduced state but switches to a low-spin form on oxidation. Low-temperature electron-paramagnetic-resonance spectroscopy of the oxidized state shows a low-spin signal at gz = 3.65 with a folded line-shape typical of a haem of low rhombicity, and the near-infrared magnetic-circular-dichroism (m.c.d.) spectra reveal an unusually intense (delta epsilon = 400 M-1.cm-1 at 5 T, 4.2 K) charge-transfer band at 1560 nm, establishing that the oxidized haem is co-ordinated by two His residues in a near-perpendicular orientation. This conformation is well established for transmembrane b cytochromes, but this appears to be the first example in a water-soluble cytochrome. The low-temperature m.c.d. spectra of the reduced form of the protein confirms that the haem contains a high-spin Fe2+ ligated by one His residue. The redox-linked spin-state change releases a His group. Since this residue is likely to bind a proton at pH values less than 6.5, this cytochrome may provide a useful model of a molecular mechanism of a redox-linked proton uptake and release process.
Project description:The 'Covalent Switching' hypothesis suggests that a strongly conserved tryptophan residue acts as a mediator of electron-transfer flow between redox partners in cytochrome P-450 systems [Baldwin, Morris and Richards (1991) Proc. R. Soc. London B 245, 43-51]. We have investigated the effect of alteration of the conserved tryptophan (Trp-97) in cytochrome P-450 BM3 (P-450 102) from Bacillus megaterium. Replacement of Trp-97 with Ala, Phe or Tyr results in a decrease in the natural haem content and alters the resting spin state of the remaining haem in the purified mutant enzymes. However, kinetic analyses indicate that the mutant enzymes retain high levels of catalytic activity. C.d. and e.p.r. spectroscopy also reveal little alteration in secondary structure or change in the pattern of haem ligation. These findings cast doubt on the covalent switching mechanism of intermolecular electron flow in the P-450s, but indicate that this residue plays a role in the association of the haem prosthetic group.
Project description:A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization.
Project description:Human MIA40, an intermembrane space (IMS) import receptor of mitochondria harbors twin CX9C motifs for stability while its CPC motif is known to facilitate the import of IMS bound proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis complemented by MALDI on in vivo hMIA40 protein shows that a portion of MIA40 undergoes reversible S-glutathionylation at three cysteines in the twin CX9C motifs and the lone cysteine 4 residue. We find that HEK293T cells expressing hMIA40 mutant defective for glutathionylation are compromised in the activities of complexes III and IV of the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and enhance Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels. Immunocapture studies show MIA40 interacting with complex III. Interestingly, glutathionylated MIA40 can transfer electrons to cytochrome C directly. However, Fe-S clusters associated with the CPC motif are essential to facilitate the two-electron to one-electron transfer for reducing cytochrome C. These results suggest that hMIA40 undergoes glutathionylation to maintain ROS levels and for optimum function of complexes III and IV of ETC. Our studies shed light on a novel post-translational modification of hMIA40 and its ability to act as a redox switch to regulate the ETC and cellular redox homeostasis.