Cellular internalization mechanism and intracellular trafficking of filamentous M13 phages displaying a cell-penetrating transbody and TAT peptide.
ABSTRACT: Cellular internalization of bacteriophage by surface-displayed cell penetrating peptides has been reported, though the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we describe in detail the internalization mechanism and intracellular trafficking and stability of filamentous M13 phages, the cellular entry of which is mediated by surface-displayed cell-penetrating light chain variable domain 3D8 VL transbody (3D8 VL-M13) or TAT peptide (TAT-M13). Recombinant 3D8 VL-M13 and TAT-M13 phages were efficiently internalized into living mammalian cells via physiologically relevant, energy-dependent endocytosis and were recovered from the cells in their infective form with the yield of 3D8 VL-M13 being higher (0.005 ? 0.01%) than that of TAT-M13 (0.001 ? 0.005%). Biochemical and genetic studies revealed that 3D8 VL-M13 was internalized principally by caveolae-mediated endocytosis via interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycans as cell surface receptors, whereas TAT-M13 was internalized by clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis utilizing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans as cell surface receptors, suggesting that phage internalization occurs by physiological endocytotic mechanism through specific cell surface receptors rather than non-specific transcytotic pathways. Internalized 3D8 VL-M13 phages routed to the cytosol and remained stable for more than 18 h without further trafficking to other subcellular compartments, whereas TAT-M13 phages routed to several subcellular compartments before being degraded in lysosomes even after 2 h of internalization. Our results suggest that the internalizing mechanism and intracellular trafficking of filamentous M13 bacteriophages largely follow the attributes of the displayed cell-penetrating moiety. Efficient internalization and cytosolic localization of 3D8 VL transbody-displayed phages will provide a useful tool for intracellular delivery of polar macromolecules such as proteins, peptides, and siRNAs.
Project description:Targeting particular mRNAs for degradation is a fascinating approach to achieve gene silencing. Here we describe a new gene silencing tool exploiting a cell-penetrating, nucleic-acid hydrolyzing, single-domain antibody of the light-chain variable domain, 3D8 VL. We generated a synthetic library of 3D8 VL on the yeast surface by randomizing residues located in one of two beta-sheets. Using 18-bp single-stranded nucleic acids as target substrates, including the human Her2/neu-targeting sequence, we selected 3D8 VL variants that had approximately 100-1000-fold higher affinity and approximately 2-5-fold greater selective hydrolyzing activity for target substrates than for off targets. 3D8 VL variants efficiently penetrated into living cells to be accumulated in the cytosol and selectively decreased the amount of target sequence-carrying mRNAs as well as the proteins encoded by these mRNAs with minimal effects on off-target genes. In particular, one 3D8 VL variant targeting the Her2 sequence showed more efficient downregulation of Her2 expression than a small-interfering RNA targeting the same Her2 sequence, resulting in apoptotic cell death of Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that cell-penetrating 3D8 VL variants with sequence-selective, nucleic-acid-hydrolyzing activity can selectively degrade target mRNAs in the cytosol, providing a new gene silencing tool mediated by antibody.
Project description:Short peptide sequences that are able to transport molecules across the cell membrane have been developed as tools for intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules. This work describes a novel family of cell-penetrating peptides named Vectocell peptides [also termed DPVs (Diatos peptide vectors)]. These peptides, originating from human heparin binding proteins and/or anti-DNA antibodies, once conjugated to a therapeutic molecule, can deliver the molecule to either the cytoplasm or the nucleus of mammalian cells. Vectocell peptides can drive intracellular delivery of molecules of varying molecular mass, including full-length active immunoglobulins, with efficiency often greater than that of the well-characterized cell-penetrating peptide Tat. The internalization of Vectocell peptides has been demonstrated to occur in both adherent and suspension cell lines as well as in primary cells through an energy-dependent endocytosis process, involving cell-membrane lipid rafts. This endocytosis occurs after binding of the cell-penetrating peptides to extracellular heparan sulphate proteoglycans, except for one particular peptide (DPV1047) that partially originates from an anti-DNA antibody and is internalized in a caveolar independent manner. These new therapeutic tools are currently being developed for intracellular delivery of a number of active molecules and their potentiality for in vivo transduction investigated.
Project description:The mechanism of cell-penetrating peptides entry into cells is unclear, preventing the development of more efficient vectors for biotechnological or therapeutic purposes. Here, we developed a protocol relying on fluorometry to distinguish endocytosis from direct membrane translocation, using Penetratin, TAT and R9. The quantities of internalized CPPs measured by fluorometry in cell lysates converge with those obtained by our previously reported mass spectrometry quantification method. By contrast, flow cytometry quantification faces several limitations due to fluorescence quenching processes that depend on the cell line and occur at peptide/cell ratio >6.10(8) for CF-Penetratin. The analysis of cellular internalization of a doubly labeled fluorescent and biotinylated Penetratin analogue by the two independent techniques, fluorometry and mass spectrometry, gave consistent results at the quantitative and qualitative levels. Both techniques revealed the use of two alternative translocation and endocytosis pathways, whose relative efficacy depends on cell-surface sugars and peptide concentration. We confirmed that Penetratin translocates at low concentration and uses endocytosis at high ?M concentrations. We further demonstrate that the hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature of the N-terminal extremity impacts on the internalization efficiency of CPPs. We expect these results and the associated protocols to help unraveling the translocation pathway to the cytosol of cells.
Project description:We describe the synthesis and cellular delivery properties of multivalent and branched delivery systems consisting of cell-penetrating peptides assembled onto a peptide scaffold using native chemical ligation. A trimeric delivery system presenting three copies of the prototypical cell-penetrating peptide TAT shows an endosomolytic activity much higher than its monomeric and dimeric counterparts. This novel reagent promotes the endosomal release of macromolecules internalized into cells by endocytosis, and as a result, it can be used to achieve cytosolic delivery of bioactive but cell-impermeable macromolecules in either cis (covalent conjugation) or trans (simple coincubation).
Project description:In the present study, we examine the effects of internalized peptide-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their ability to locally convert alternating magnetic field (AMF) energy into other forms of energy (e.g., heat and rotational work).Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were functionalized with a cell penetrating peptide and after internalization by A549 and H358 cells were activated by an AMF.TAT-functionalized nanoparticles and AMF exposure increased reactive oxygen species generation compared with the nanoparticle system alone. The TAT-functionalized nanoparticles induced lysosomal membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, but these effects were not further enhanced by AMF treatment. Although not statistically significant, there are trends suggesting an increase in apoptosis via the Caspase 3/7 pathways when cells are exposed to TAT-functionalized nanoparticles combined with AMF.Our results indicate that internalized TAT-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles activated by an AMF elicit cellular responses without a measurable temperature rise.
Project description:Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat (48-60) and oligoarginines, have been applied as carriers for delivery of cargo molecules, because of their capacity to internalize into cells and penetrate biological membranes. Despite the fact that they have been extensively studied, the factors required for the efficient internalization of CPPs are still unclear. In this report, we evaluated the internalization efficiencies of seven CPPs derived from DNA/RNA-binding peptides, and discovered that a peptide derived from the flock house virus (FHV) coat protein was internalized most efficiently into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1), HeLa, and Jurkat cells. Comparison of the factors facilitating the internalization with those of the Tat peptide revealed that the FHV peptide induces macropinocytosis much more efficiently than the Tat peptide, which leads to its high cellular uptake efficiency. Additionally, the strong adsorption of the FHV peptide on cell membranes via glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was shown to be a key factor for induction of macropinocytosis, and these steps were successfully monitored by live imaging of the peptide internalization into cells in relation to the actin organization. The remarkable methods of FHV peptide internalization thus highlighted the critical factors for internalizations of the arginine-rich CPPs.
Project description:Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) share the property of cellular internalization. The question of how these peptides reach the cytoplasm of cells is still widely debated. Herein, we have used a mass spectrometry-based method that enables quantification of internalized and membrane-bound peptides. Internalization of the most used CPP was studied at 37 degrees C (endocytosis and translocation) and 4 degrees C (translocation) in wild type and proteoglycan-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both translocation and endocytosis are internalization pathways used by CPP. The choice of one pathway versus the other depends on the peptide sequence (not the number of positive changes), the extracellular peptide concentration, and the membrane components. There is no relationship between the high affinity of these peptides for the cell membrane and their internalization efficacy. Translocation occurs at low extracellular peptide concentration, whereas endocytosis, a saturable and cooperative phenomenon, is activated at higher concentrations. Translocation operates in a narrow time window, which implies a specific lipid/peptide co-import in cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The cell-penetrating peptide derived from the Human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein Tat possesses the capacity to promote the effective uptake of various cargo molecules across the plasma membrane in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to characterize the uptake and delivery mechanisms of a novel streptavidin fusion construct, TAT47-57-streptavidin (TAT-SA, 60 kD). SA represents a potentially useful TAT-fusion partner due to its ability to perform as a versatile intracellular delivery vector for a wide array of biotinylated molecules or cargoes.<h4>Results</h4>By confocal and immunoelectron microscopy the majority of internalized TAT-SA was shown to accumulate in perinuclear vesicles in both cancer and non-cancer cell lines. The uptake studies in living cells with various fluorescent endocytic markers and inhibiting agents suggested that TAT-SA is internalized into cells efficiently, using both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. When endosomal release of TAT-SA was enhanced through the incorporation of a biotinylated, pH-responsive polymer poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA), nuclear localization of TAT-SA and TAT-SA bound to biotin was markedly improved. Additionally, no significant cytotoxicity was detected in the TAT-SA constructs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrates that TAT-SA-PPAA is a potential non-viral vector to be utilized in protein therapeutics to deliver biotinylated molecules both into cytoplasm and nucleus of human cells.
Project description:Cellular uptake of several viruses and polybasic macromolecules requires the expression of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) through as yet ill defined mechanisms. We unexpectedly found that among several cell-surface-binding single chain variable fragment (scFv) anti-HS antibody (alphaHS) clones, only one, AO4B08, efficiently translocated macromolecular cargo to intracellular vesicles through induction of HSPG endocytosis. Interestingly, AO4B08-induced PG internalization was strictly dependent on HS 2-O-sulfation and appeared independent of intact N-sulfation. AO4B08 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Tat, i.e. a well known cell-penetrating peptide, were shown to compete for the internalizing PG population. To obtain a more detailed characterization of this pathway, we have developed a procedure for the isolation of endocytic vesicles by conjugating AO4B08 with superparamagnetic nanoparticles. [(35)S]sulfate-labeled HSPG was found to accumulate in isolated, AO4B08-containing vesicles, providing the first biochemical evidence for intact HSPG co-internalization with its ligand. Further analysis revealed the existence of both syndecan, i.e. a transmembrane HSPG, and glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored glypican in purified vesicles. Importantly, internalized syndecan and glypican were found to co-localize in AO4B08-containing vesicles. Our data establish HSPGs as true internalizing receptors of macromolecular cargo and indicate that the sorting of cell-surface HSPG to endocytic vesicles is determined by a specific HS epitope that can be carried by both syndecan and glypican core protein.
Project description:A subset of monoclonal anti-DNA autoantibodies enters a variety of living cells. Here, we aimed to identify the endocytic receptors recognized by an internalizing anti-nucleic acid autoantibody, the 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (scFv). We found that cell surface binding and internalization of 3D8 scFv were inhibited markedly in soluble heparan sulfate (HS)/chondroitin sulfate (CS)-deficient or -removed cells and in the presence of soluble HS and CS. 3D8 scFv colocalized intracellularly with either HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) or CSPGs in HeLa cells. 3D8 scFv was co-endocytosed and co-precipitated with representative individual HSPG and CSPG molecules: syndecan-2 (a transmembrane HSPG), glypican-3 (a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored HSPG); CD44 (a transmembrane CSPG); and brevican (a GPI-anchored CSPG). Collected data indicate that 3D8 scFv binds to the negatively charged sugar chains of both HSPGs and CSPGs and is then internalized along with these molecules, irrespective of how these proteoglycans are associated with the cell membrane. This is the first study to show that anti-DNA antibodies enter cells via both HSPGs and CSPGs simultaneously. The data may aid understanding of endocytic receptors that bind anti-DNA autoantibodies. The study also provides insight into potential cell membrane targets for macromolecular delivery.