Introduction of caveolae structural proteins into the protozoan Toxoplasma results in the formation of heterologous caveolae but not caveolar endocytosis.
ABSTRACT: Present on the plasma membrane of most metazoans, caveolae are specialized microdomains implicated in several endocytic and trafficking mechanisms. Caveolins and the more recently discovered cavins are the major protein components of caveolae. Previous studies reported that caveolar invaginations can be induced de novo on the surface of caveolae-negative mammalian cells upon heterologous expression of caveolin-1. However, it remains undocumented whether other components in the transfected cells participate in caveolae formation. To address this issue, we have exploited the protozoan Toxoplasma as a heterologous expression system to provide insights into the minimal requirements for caveogenesis and caveolar endocytosis. Upon expression of caveolin-1, Toxoplasma accumulates prototypical exocytic caveolae 'precursors' in the cytoplasm. Toxoplasma expressing caveolin-1 alone, or in conjunction with cavin-1, neither develops surface-located caveolae nor internalizes caveolar ligands. These data suggest that the formation of functional caveolae at the plasma membrane in Toxoplasma and, by inference in all non-mammalian cells, requires effectors other than caveolin-1 and cavin-1. Interestingly, Toxoplasma co-expressing caveolin-1 and cavin-1 displays an impressive spiraled network of membranes containing the two proteins, in the cytoplasm. This suggests a synergistic activity of caveolin-1 and cavin-1 in the morphogenesis and remodeling of membranes, as illustrated for Toxoplasma.
Project description:Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/Cavin is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is obligatory for caveola formation. Using biochemistry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approaches, we now show that a family of related proteins, PTRF/Cavin-1, serum deprivation response (SDR)/Cavin-2, SDR-related gene product that binds to C kinase (SRBC)/Cavin-3, and muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4, forms a multiprotein complex that associates with caveolae. This complex can constitutively assemble in the cytosol and associate with caveolin at plasma membrane caveolae. Cavin-1, but not other cavins, can induce caveola formation in a heterologous system and is required for the recruitment of the cavin complex to caveolae. The tissue-restricted expression of cavins suggests that caveolae may perform tissue-specific functions regulated by the composition of the cavin complex. Cavin-4 is expressed predominantly in muscle, and its distribution is perturbed in human muscle disease associated with Caveolin-3 dysfunction, identifying Cavin-4 as a novel muscle disease candidate caveolar protein.
Project description:Caveolae are an abundant feature of the plasma membrane of many mammalian cell types, and have key roles in mechano-transduction, metabolic regulation, and vascular permeability. Caveolin and cavin proteins, as well as EHD2 and pacsin 2, are all present in caveolae. How these proteins assemble to form a protein interaction network for caveolar morphogenesis is not known. Using in vivo crosslinking, velocity gradient centrifugation, immuno-isolation, and tandem mass spectrometry, we determine that cavins and caveolins assemble into a homogenous 80S complex, which we term the caveolar coat complex. There are no further abundant components within this complex, and the complex excludes EHD2 and pacsin 2. Cavin 1 forms trimers and interacts with caveolin 1 with a molar ratio of about 1?4. Cavins 2 and 3 compete for binding sites within the overall coat complex, and form distinct subcomplexes with cavin 1. The core interactions between caveolin 1 and cavin 1 are independent of cavin 2, cavin 3, and EHD2 expression, and the cavins themselves can still interact in the absence of caveolin 1. Using immuno-electron microscopy as well as a recently developed protein tag for electron microscopy (MiniSOG), we demonstrate that caveolar coat complexes form a distinct coat all around the caveolar bulb. In contrast, and consistent with our biochemical data, EHD2 defines a different domain at the caveolar neck. 3D electron tomograms of the caveolar coat, labeled using cavin-MiniSOG, show that the caveolar coat is composed of repeating units of a unitary caveolar coat complex.
Project description:Several studies have suggested crosstalk between different clathrin-independent endocytic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms and functional relevance of these interactions are unclear. Caveolins and cavins are crucial components of caveolae, specialized microdomains that also constitute an endocytic route. Here we show that specific caveolar proteins are independently acting negative regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis. Cavin-1 and Cavin-3, but not Cavin-2 or Cavin-4, are potent inhibitors of the clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-AP enriched early endosomal compartment (CLIC/GEEC) endocytic pathway, in a process independent of caveola formation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) and CAV3 also inhibit the CLIC/GEEC pathway upon over-expression. Expression of caveolar protein leads to reduction in formation of early CLIC/GEEC carriers, as detected by quantitative electron microscopy analysis. Furthermore, the CLIC/GEEC pathway is upregulated in cells lacking CAV1/Cavin-1 or with reduced expression of Cavin-1 and Cavin-3. Inhibition by caveolins can be mimicked by the isolated caveolin scaffolding domain and is associated with perturbed diffusion of lipid microdomain components, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies. In the absence of cavins (and caveolae) CAV1 is itself endocytosed preferentially through the CLIC/GEEC pathway, but the pathway loses polarization and sorting attributes with consequences for membrane dynamics and endocytic polarization in migrating cells and adult muscle tissue. We also found that noncaveolar Cavin-1 can act as a modulator for the activity of the key regulator of the CLIC/GEEC pathway, Cdc42. This work provides new insights into the regulation of noncaveolar clathrin-independent endocytosis by specific caveolar proteins, illustrating multiple levels of crosstalk between these pathways. We show for the first time a role for specific cavins in regulating the CLIC/GEEC pathway, provide a new tool to study this pathway, identify caveola-independent functions of the cavins and propose a novel mechanism for inhibition of the CLIC/GEEC pathway by caveolin.
Project description:Caveolae are abundant in endothelial cells and are thought to have important roles in endothelial cell biology. The cavin proteins are key components of caveolae, and are expressed at varied amounts in different tissues. Here we use knockout mice to determine the roles of cavins 2 and 3 in caveolar morphogenesis in vivo. Deletion of cavin 2 causes loss of endothelial caveolae in lung and adipose tissue, but has no effect on the abundance of endothelial caveolae in heart and other tissues. Changes in the morphology of endothelium in cavin 2 null mice correlate with changes in caveolar abundance. Cavin 3 is not required for making caveolae in the tissues examined. Cavin 2 determines the size of cavin complexes, and acts to shape caveolae. Cavin 1, however, is essential for normal oligomerization of caveolin 1. Our data reveal that endothelial caveolae are heterogeneous, and identify cavin 2 as a determinant of this heterogeneity.
Project description:Caveolae are invaginated plasma membrane domains involved in mechanosensing, signaling, endocytosis, and membrane homeostasis. Oligomers of membrane-embedded caveolins and peripherally attached cavins form the caveolar coat whose structure has remained elusive. Here, purified Cavin1 60S complexes were analyzed structurally in solution and after liposome reconstitution by electron cryotomography. Cavin1 adopted a flexible, net-like protein mesh able to form polyhedral lattices on phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles. Mutating the two coiled-coil domains in Cavin1 revealed that they mediate distinct assembly steps during 60S complex formation. The organization of the cavin coat corresponded to a polyhedral nano-net held together by coiled-coil segments. Positive residues around the C-terminal coiled-coil domain were required for membrane binding. Purified caveolin 8S oligomers assumed disc-shaped arrangements of sizes that are consistent with the discs occupying the faces in the caveolar polyhedra. Polygonal caveolar membrane profiles were revealed in tomograms of native caveolae inside cells. We propose a model with a regular dodecahedron as structural basis for the caveolae architecture.
Project description:Caveolae are membrane organelles that play roles in glucose and lipid metabolism and in vascular function. Formation of caveolae requires caveolins and cavins. The make-up of caveolae and their density is considered to reflect cell-specific transcriptional control mechanisms for caveolins and cavins, but knowledge regarding regulation of caveolae genes is incomplete. Myocardin (MYOCD) and its relative MRTF-A (MKL1) are transcriptional coactivators that control genes which promote smooth muscle differentiation. MRTF-A communicates changes in actin polymerization to nuclear gene transcription. Here we tested if myocardin family proteins control biogenesis of caveolae via activation of caveolin and cavin transcription. Using human coronary artery smooth muscle cells we found that jasplakinolide and latrunculin B (LatB), substances that promote and inhibit actin polymerization, increased and decreased protein levels of caveolins and cavins, respectively. The effect of LatB was associated with reduced mRNA levels for these genes and this was replicated by the MRTF inhibitor CCG-1423 which was non-additive with LatB. Overexpression of myocardin and MRTF-A caused 5-10-fold induction of caveolins whereas cavin-1 and cavin-2 were induced 2-3-fold. PACSIN2 also increased, establishing positive regulation of caveolae genes from three families. Full regulation of CAV1 was retained in its proximal promoter. Knock down of the serum response factor (SRF), which mediates many of the effects of myocardin, decreased cavin-1 but increased caveolin-1 and -2 mRNAs. Viral transduction of myocardin increased the density of caveolae 5-fold in vitro. A decrease of CAV1 was observed concomitant with a decrease of the smooth muscle marker calponin in aortic aneurysms from mice (C57Bl/6) infused with angiotensin II. Human expression data disclosed correlations of MYOCD with CAV1 in a majority of human tissues and in the heart, correlation with MKL2 (MRTF-B) was observed. The myocardin family of transcriptional coactivators therefore drives formation of caveolae and this effect is largely independent of SRF.
Project description:The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) increases expression of CD38 (a membrane-associated bifunctional enzyme regulating cyclic ADP ribose), and enhances agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) responses in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). We previously demonstrated that caveolae and their constituent protein caveolin-1 are important for ASM [Ca(2+)]i regulation, which is further enhanced by TNF?. Whether caveolae and CD38 are functionally linked in mediating TNF? effects is unknown. In this regard, whether the related cavin proteins (cavin-1 and -3) that maintain structure and function of caveolae play a role is also not known. In the present study, we hypothesized that TNF? effects on CD38 expression and function in human ASM involve caveolae. Caveolar fractions from isolated human ASM cells expressed CD38 and its expression was upregulated by exposure to 20ng/ml TNF? (48h). ASM cells expressed cavin-1 and cavin-3, which were also upregulated by TNF?. Knockdown of caveolin-1, cavin-1 or cavin-3 (using siRNA) all significantly reduced CD38 expression and ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the presence or absence of TNF?. Furthermore, caveolin-1, cavin-1 and cavin-3 siRNAs reduced [Ca(2+)]i responses to histamine under control conditions, and blunted the enhanced [Ca(2+)]i responses in TNF?-exposed cells. These data demonstrate that CD38 is expressed within caveolae and its function is linked to the caveolar regulatory proteins caveolin-1, cavin-1 and -3. The link between caveolae and CD38 is further enhanced during airway inflammation demonstrating the important role of caveolae in regulation of [Ca(2+)]i and contractility in the airway.
Project description:The cavins are a family of proteins associated with caveolae, cavin-1, -2 and -3 being widely expressed while cavin-4 is restricted to striated muscle. Deletion of cavin-1 results in phenotypes including metabolic changes consistent with adipocyte dysfunction, and caveolae are completely absent. Deletion of cavin-2 causes tissue-specific loss of caveolae. The consequences of cavin-3 deletion are less clear, as there are divergent data on the abundance of caveolae in cavin-3 null mice. Here we examine the consequences of cavin-3 deficiency in vivo by making cavin-3 knockout mice. We find that loss of cavin-3 has minimal or no effects on the levels of other caveolar proteins, does not appear to play a major role in formation of protein complexes important for caveolar morphogenesis, and has no significant effect on caveolae abundance. Cavin-3 null mice have the same body weight and fat mass as wild type animals at ages 8 through 30 weeks on both normal chow and high fat diets. Likewise, the two mouse strains exhibit identical glucose tolerance tests on both diets. Microarray analysis from adipose tissue shows that the changes in mRNA expression between cavin-3 null and wild type mouse are minimal. We conclude that cavin-3 is not absolutely required for making caveolae, and suggest that the mechanistic link between cavin-3 and metabolic regulation remains uncertain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Caveolae are membrane invaginations measuring 50-100 nm. These organelles, composed of caveolin and cavin proteins, are important for cellular signaling and survival. Caveolae play incompletely defined roles in human kidneys. Induction of caveolin-1/CAV1 in diseased tubules has been described previously, but the responsible mechanism remains to be defined. METHODS:Healthy and atrophying human kidneys were stained for caveolar proteins, (caveolin 1-3 and cavin 1-4) and examined by electron microscopy. Induction of caveolar proteins was studied in isolated proximal tubules and primary renal epithelial cells. These cells were challenged with hypoxia or H2O2. Primary tubular cells were also subjected to viral overexpression of megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) and MKL1 inhibition by the MKL1 inhibitor CCG-1423. Putative coregulators of MKL1 activity were investigated by Western blotting for suppressor of cancer cell invasion (SCAI) and filamin A (FLNA). Finally, correlative bioinformatic studies of mRNA expression of caveolar proteins and MKL1 were performed. RESULTS:In healthy kidneys, caveolar proteins were expressed by the parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of Bowman's capsule, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle. Electron microscopy confirmed caveolae in the PECs. No expression was seen in proximal tubules. In contrast, caveolar proteins were expressed in proximal tubules undergoing atrophy. Caveolar proteins were also induced in cultures of primary epithelial tubular cells. Expression was not enhanced by hypoxia or free radical stress (H2O2), but proved sensitive to inhibition of MKL1. Viral overexpression of MKL1 induced caveolin-1/CAV1, caveolin-2/CAV2 and SDPR/CAVIN2. In kidney tissue, the mRNA level of MKL1 correlated with the mRNA levels for caveolin-1/CAV1, caveolin-2/CAV2 and the archetypal MKL1 target tenascin C (TNC), as did the MKL1 coactivator FLNA. Costaining for TNC as readout for MKL1 activity demonstrated overlap with caveolin-1/CAV1 expression in PECs as well as in atrophic segments of proximal tubules. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings support the view that MKL1 contributes to the expression of caveolar proteins in healthy kidneys and orchestrates the induction of tubular caveolar proteins in renal injury.
Project description:Eps15 homology domain-containing 2 (EHD2) belongs to the EHD-containing protein family of dynamin-related ATPases involved in membrane remodeling in the endosomal system. EHD2 dimers oligomerize into rings on highly curved membranes, resulting in stimulation of the intrinsic ATPase activity. In this paper, we report that EHD2 is specifically and stably associated with caveolae at the plasma membrane and not involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis or endosomal recycling, as previously suggested. EHD2 interacts with pacsin2 and cavin1, and ordered membrane assembly of EHD2 is dependent on cavin1 and caveolar integrity. While the EHD of EHD2 is dispensable for targeting, we identified a loop in the nucleotide-binding domain that, together with ATP binding, is required for caveolar localization. EHD2 was not essential for the formation or shaping of caveolae, but high levels of EHD2 caused distortion and loss of endogenous caveolae. Assembly of EHD2 stabilized and constrained caveolae to the plasma membrane to control turnover, and depletion of EHD2, resulting in endocytic and more dynamic and short-lived caveolae. Thus, following the identification of caveolin and cavins, EHD2 constitutes a third structural component of caveolae involved in controlling the stability and turnover of this organelle.