ABSTRACT: Sirt1, the closest mammalian homolog of the Sir2 yeast longevity protein, has been extensively investigated in the last few years as an avenue to understand the connection linking nutrients and energy metabolism with aging and related diseases. From this research effort the picture has emerged of an enzyme at the hub of a complex array of molecular interactions whereby nutrient-triggered signals are translated into several levels of adaptive cell responses, the failure of which underlies diseases as diverse as diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. Sirt1 thus connects moderate calorie intake to "healthspan," and a decline of Sirt-centered protective circuits over time may explain the "catastrophic" nature of aging.
Project description:Genomic instability and alterations in gene expression are hallmarks of eukaryotic aging. The yeast histone deacetylase Sir2 silences transcription and stabilizes repetitive DNA, but during aging or in response to a DNA break, the Sir complex relocalizes to sites of genomic instability, resulting in the desilencing of genes that cause sterility, a characteristic of yeast aging. Using embryonic stem cells, we show that mammalian Sir2, SIRT1, represses repetitive DNA and a functionally diverse set of genes across the mouse genome. In response to DNA damage, SIRT1 dissociates from these loci and relocalizes to DNA breaks to promote repair, resulting in transcriptional changes that parallel those in the aging mouse brain. Increased SIRT1 expression promotes survival in a mouse model of genomic instability and suppresses age-dependent transcriptional changes. Thus, DNA damage-induced redistribution of SIRT1 and other chromatin-modifying proteins may be a conserved mechanism of aging in eukaryotes.
Project description:The Sirtuin family of proteins (SIRT) encode a group of evolutionarily conserved, NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, involved in many biological pathways. SIRT1, the human homologue of the yeast Silent Information Regulator 2 (Sir2) gene, deacetylates histones, p300, p53, and the androgen receptor. Autophagy is required for the degradation of damaged organelles and long-lived proteins, as well as for the development of glands such as the breast and prostate. Herein, homozygous deletion of the Sirt1 gene in mice resulted in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) associated with reduced autophagy. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Sirt1(-/-) prostates demonstrated that endogenous Sirt1 repressed androgen responsive gene expression and induced autophagy in the prostate. Sirt1 induction of autophagy occurred at the level of autophagosome maturation and completion in cultured prostate cancer cells. These studies provide novel evidence for a checkpoint function of Sirt1 in the development of PIN and further highlight a role for SIRT1 as a tumor suppressor in the prostate.
Project description:Sirtuins, class III histone deacetylases, are proteins homologous to the yeast protein Sir2p. Mammalian Sirt1 has been shown to be involved in energy metabolism, brain functions, inflammation and aging through its deacetylase activity, acting on both histone and non-histone substrates. In order to verify whether Sirt1 can replace Sir2p in the yeast cells, we expressed the full-length human Sirt1 protein in S.cerevisiae sir2? mutant strain. The structure of chromatin is basically maintained from yeast to human. Thus, yeast chromatin is a favourable environment to evaluate, inhibit or activate an ectopic histone deacetylase activity in an in vivo substrate. Mutant sir2? shows a series of different phenotypes, all dependent on the deacetylase activity of Sir2p. We analyzed the three silent loci where normally Sir2p acts: ribosomal DNA, telomeres and the mating type loci. Moreover, we verified extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circles production and histone hyperacetylation levels, typical marks of sir2? strains. By strong SIRT1 overexpression in sir2? cells, we found that specific molecular phenotypes of the mutant revert almost to a wild-type condition. In particular, transcriptional silencing at rDNA was restored, extrachromosomal rDNA circles formation was repressed and histone acetylation at H3K9 and H4K16 decreased. The complementation at the other studied loci: HM loci, telomere and sub-telomere does not occur. Overall, our observations indicate that: i) SIRT1 gene is able to complement different molecular phenotypes of the sir2? mutant at rDNA ii) the in vivo screening of Sirt1 activity is possible in yeast.
Project description:Fatty liver diseases, which are commonly associated with high-fat/calorie diet, heavy alcohol consumption and/or other metabolic disorder causes, lead to serious medical concerns worldwide in recent years. It has been demonstrated that metabolic homeostasis disruption is most likely to be responsible for this global epidemic. Sirtuins are a group of conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) dependent histone and/or protein deacetylases belonging to the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) family. Among seven mammalian sirtuins, sirtuin 1 (SIRT 1) is the most extensively studied one and is involved in both alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. SIRT1 plays beneficial roles in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, controlling hepatic oxidative stress and mediating hepatic inflammation through deacetylating some transcriptional regulators against the progression of fatty liver diseases. Here we summarize the latest advances of the biological roles of SIRT1 in regulating lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver, and discuss the potential of SIRT1 as a therapeutic target for treating alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases.
Project description:A progressive loss of neurons with age underlies a variety of debilitating neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), yet few effective treatments are currently available. The SIR2 gene promotes longevity in a variety of organisms and may underlie the health benefits of caloric restriction, a diet that delays aging and neurodegeneration in mammals. Here, we report that a human homologue of SIR2, SIRT1, is upregulated in mouse models for AD, ALS and in primary neurons challenged with neurotoxic insults. In cell-based models for AD/tauopathies and ALS, SIRT1 and resveratrol, a SIRT1-activating molecule, both promote neuronal survival. In the inducible p25 transgenic mouse, a model of AD and tauopathies, resveratrol reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, prevented learning impairment, and decreased the acetylation of the known SIRT1 substrates PGC-1alpha and p53. Furthermore, injection of SIRT1 lentivirus in the hippocampus of p25 transgenic mice conferred significant protection against neurodegeneration. Thus, SIRT1 constitutes a unique molecular link between aging and human neurodegenerative disorders and provides a promising avenue for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Sir2 and insulin/IGF-1 are the major pathways that impinge upon aging in lower organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans a possible genetic link between Sir2 and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway has been reported. Here we investigate such a link in mammals. We show that Sirt1 positively regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Sirt1 represses the uncoupling protein (UCP) gene UCP2 by binding directly to the UCP2 promoter. In beta cell lines in which Sirt1 is reduced by SiRNA, UCP2 levels are elevated and insulin secretion is blunted. The up-regulation of UCP2 is associated with a failure of cells to increase ATP levels after glucose stimulation. Knockdown of UCP2 restores the ability to secrete insulin in cells with reduced Sirt1, showing that UCP2 causes the defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Food deprivation induces UCP2 in mouse pancreas, which may occur via a reduction in NAD (a derivative of niacin) levels in the pancreas and down-regulation of Sirt1. Sirt1 knockout mice display constitutively high UCP2 expression. Our findings show that Sirt1 regulates UCP2 in beta cells to affect insulin secretion.
Project description:Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) orthologs are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD-dependent protein deacetylases that regulate aging and longevity in model organisms. The mammalian Sir2 ortholog Sirt1 regulates metabolic and stress responses through the deacetylation of many transcriptional regulatory factors. To elucidate the mechanism by which Sirt1 controls gene expression in response to nutrient availability, we devised a bioinformatic screen combining gene expression analysis with phylogenetic footprinting to identify transcription factors as new candidate partners of Sirt1. One candidate target was HNF-1?, a homeodomain transcription factor that regulates pancreatic ?-cell and hepatocyte functions and is commonly mutated in patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Interestingly, Sirt1 physically interacts with HNF-1?in vitro but does so in vivo only in nutrient-restricting conditions. This interaction requires 12-24?h of nutrient restriction and is dependent on protein synthesis. Both nutrient restriction and Sirt1 suppress HNF-1? transcriptional activity and the expression of one of its target genes, C-reactive protein (Crp), in mouse primary hepatocytes. Pharmacological inhibition of Sirt1 blocks the suppression of Crp by nutrient restriction. Similarly, Crp expression is also suppressed in fasted and diet-restricted liver. Furthermore, Sirt1 and HNF-1? co-localize on two HNF-1? binding sites on the Crp promoter, leading to decreased acetylation of lysine 16 of histone H4 at these sites only in response to nutrient restriction. These findings reveal a novel nutrient-dependent interaction between Sirt1 and HNF-1? and provide important insight into the molecular mechanism by which Sirt1 mediates the anti-aging effects of diet restriction.
Project description:SIRT1, the closest mammalian homolog of yeast Sir2, is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase with relevant functions in cancer, aging, and metabolism among other processes. SIRT1 has a diffuse nuclear localization but is recruited to the PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) after PML upregulation. However, the functions of SIRT1 in the PML-NBs are unknown. In this study we show that primary mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking SIRT1 contain reduced PML protein levels that are increased after reintroduction of SIRT1. In addition, overexpression of SIRT1 in HEK-293 cells increases the amount of PML protein whereas knockdown of SIRT1 reduces the size and number of PML-NBs and the levels of PML protein in HeLa cells. SIRT1 stimulates PML sumoylation in vitro and in vivo in a deacetylase-independent manner. Importantly, the absence of SIRT1 reduces the apoptotic response of vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells and favors the extent of this PML-sensitive virus replication. These results show a novel function of SIRT1 in the control of PML and PML-NBs.
Project description:The Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family of NAD-dependent deacetylases regulates aging and longevity across a wide variety of organisms, including yeast, worms, and flies. In mammals, the Sir2 ortholog Sirt1 promotes fat mobilization, fatty acid oxidation, glucose production, and insulin secretion in response to nutrient availability. We previously reported that an increased dosage of Sirt1 in pancreatic beta cells enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and improves glucose tolerance in beta cell-specific Sirt1-overexpressing (BESTO) transgenic mice at 3 and 8 months of age. Here, we report that as this same cohort of BESTO mice reaches 18-24 months of age, the GSIS regulated by Sirt1 through repression of Ucp2 is blunted. Increased body weight and hyperlipidemia alone, which are observed in aged males and also induced by a Western-style high-fat diet, are not enough to abolish the positive effects of Sirt1 on beta cell function. Interestingly, plasma levels of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), an important metabolite for the maintenance of normal NAD biosynthesis and GSIS in beta cells, are significantly reduced in aged BESTO mice. Furthermore, NMN administration restores enhanced GSIS and improved glucose tolerance in the aged BESTO females, suggesting that Sirt1 activity decreases with advanced age due to a decline in systemic NAD biosynthesis. These findings provide insight into the age-dependent regulation of Sirt1 activity and suggest that enhancement of systemic NAD biosynthesis and Sirt1 activity in tissues such as beta cells may be an effective therapeutic intervention for age-associated metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes.
Project description:The NAD-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2 plays a key role in connecting cellular metabolism with gene silencing and aging. The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-regulated modular nuclear receptor governing prostate cancer cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in response to androgens, including dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Here, SIRT1 antagonists induce endogenous AR expression and enhance DHT-mediated AR expression. SIRT1 binds and deacetylates the AR at a conserved lysine motif. Human SIRT1 (hSIRT1) repression of DHT-induced AR signaling requires the NAD-dependent catalytic function of hSIRT1 and the AR lysine residues deacetylated by SIRT1. SIRT1 inhibited coactivator-induced interactions between the AR amino and carboxyl termini. DHT-induced prostate cancer cellular contact-independent growth is also blocked by SIRT1, providing a direct functional link between the AR, which is a critical determinant of progression of human prostate cancer, and the sirtuins.