A QTL for genotype by sex interaction for anthropometric measurements in Alaskan Eskimos (GOCADAN Study) on chromosome 19q12-13.
ABSTRACT: Variation in anthropometric measurements due to sexual dimorphism can be the result of genotype by sex interactions (G×S). The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-specific genetic architecture in anthropometric measurements in Alaskan Eskimos from the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) study. Maximum likelihood-based variance components decomposition methods, implemented in SOLAR, were used for G×S analyses. Anthropometric measurements included BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist/height ratio, percent body fat (%BF), and subscapular and triceps skinfolds. Except for WC, mean values of all phenotypes were significantly different in men and women (P < 0.05). All anthropometric measures were significantly heritable (P < 0.001). In a preliminary analysis not allowing for G×S interaction, evidence of linkage was detected between markers D19S414 and D19S220 on chromosome 19 for WC (logarithm of odds (lod) = 3.5), %BF (lod = 1.7), BMI (lod = 2.4), waist/height ratio (lod = 2.5), subscapular (lod = 2.1), and triceps skinfolds (lod = 1.9). In subsequent analyses which allowed for G×S interaction, linkage was again found between these traits and the same two markers on chromosome 19 with significantly improved lod scores for: WC (lod = 4.5), %BF (lod = 3.8), BMI (lod = 3.5), waist/height ratio (lod = 3.2), subscapular (lod = 3.0), and triceps skinfolds (lod = 2.9). These results support the evidence of a G×S interaction in the expression of genetic effects resulting in sexual dimorphism in anthropometric phenotypes and identify the chromosome 19q12-13 region as important for adiposity-related traits in Alaskan Eskimos.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate different clusters of anthropometric indicators (body mass index | BMI |, waist circumference | WC |, waist-to-height ratio | WHtR |, triceps skinfold |TR SF|, subscapular skinfold |SE SF|, sum of the triceps and subscapular skinfolds | ?TR + SE |, and sum of the triceps, subscapular and suprailiac folds | ?TR + SE + SI|) associated with the VO2max levels in adolescents.The study included 1,132 adolescents (aged 14-19 years) enrolled in public schools of São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in the 2014 academic year. The dependent variable was the cluster of anthropometric indicators (BMI, WC, WHtR, TR SF, SE SF, SI SF, ?TR + SE and ?TR + SE + SI) of excess body fat. The independent variable was maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), estimated by the modified Canadian aerobic fitness test-mCAFT. Control variables were: age, skin color, economic level, maternal education, physical activity and sexual maturation. Multinomial logistic regression was used for associations between the dependent and independent variables. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the association between adolescents with all anthropometric indicators in excess and independent variables.One in ten adolescents presented all anthropometric indicators of excess body fat. Multinomial regression showed that with each increase of one VO2max unit, the odds of adolescents having three, four, five or more anthropometric indicators of excess body fat decreased by 0.92, 0.85 and 0.73 times, respectively. In the binary regression, this fact was reconfirmed, demonstrating that with each increase of one VO2max unit, the odds of adolescents having simultaneously the eight anthropometric indicators of excess body fat decreased by 0.55.It was concluded that with each increase of one VO2max unit, adolescents decreased the odds of simultaneously presenting three or more anthropometric indicators of excess body fat, regardless of biological, economic and lifestyle factors. In addition, the present study identified that one in ten adolescents had all anthropometric indicators of excess body fat.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skinfold thickness (ST), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) measurements are simple methods for assessing fat tissue at defined body parts. We examined these parameters in a cohort of healthy children and adolescents in Leipzig. Our study provides current percentile curves for biceps, triceps, subscapular and iliac crest ST, plus WC, HC, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. METHODS:6,344 visits were recorded involving 2,363 individuals from 3 to 16 years in age. Continuous age- and gender-related percentiles (3rd, 10th, median, 90th, 97th percentiles) were estimated using Cole's LMS method. RESULTS:For biceps and triceps ST, boys show a peak at the beginning of adolescence with a subsequent decrease, while percentile values among girls rise across the age range. Subscapular and iliac crest percentiles also show increasing curves with disproportionately high values for P90 and P97. Boys show higher values of WC, girls have higher levels of HC. WC and HC median percentiles constantly increase in both sexes with a plateau at the age of 16 for girls. CONCLUSION:Trends for all parameters of body fat are in line with other national and international studies. Unlike the KiGGS study, our study provides circumference data across the whole of our age range, i.e. from 3 to 16 years.
Project description:Asian populations have a higher percentage body fat (%BF) and are at higher risk for CVD and related complications at a given BMI compared with those of European descent. We explored whether %BF was disproportionately elevated in rural Bangladeshi women with low BMI. Height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured in 1555 women at 3 months postpartum. %BF was assessed by skinfolds and by BIA. BMI was calculated in adults and BMI Z-scores were calculated for females <20 years old. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves found the BMI and BMI Z-score cut-offs that optimally classified women as having moderately excessive adipose tissue (defined as >30 % body fat). Linear regressions estimated the association between BMI and BMI Z-score (among adolescents) and %BF. Mean BMI was 19·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m(2), and mean %BF was calculated as 23·7 (sd 4·8) % by skinfolds and 23·3 (sd 4·9) % by BIA. ROC analyses indicated that a BMI value of approximately 21 kg/m(2) optimised sensitivity (83·6 %) and specificity (84·2 %) for classifying subjects with >30 % body fat according to BIA among adults. This BMI level is substantially lower than the WHO recommended standard cut-off point of BMI ? 25 kg/m(2). The equivalent cut-off among adolescents was a BMI Z-score of -0·36, with a sensitivity of 81·3 % and specificity of 80·9 %. These findings suggest that Bangladeshi women exhibit excess adipose tissue at substantially lower BMI compared with non-South Asian populations. This is important for the identification and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and because of its use in many consumer products, exposure is ubiquitous. Gestational BPA exposure has been associated with excess adiposity in rodent studies, but not consistently in human studies. We investigated the relation between gestational BPA exposure and early childhood adiposity in a prospective cohort study of 719 mother-child pairs. METHODS:We used data from the MIREC Study, a prospective Pan-Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort study. We measured BPA in urine samples collected at an average of 12.1 weeks (range: 6.3-15 weeks) gestation and measured children's weight, height, waist/hip circumference, and subscapular/triceps skinfold thickness at an average age of 3.5 years (range: 1.9-6.2). We estimated covariate-adjusted associations of log2-transformed BPA concentrations with child adiposity measures and examined whether these associations differed in boys and girls. RESULTS:Median BPA concentrations were 0.8?ng/mL (IQR: 0.5-1.4). Among both boys and girls, each 2-fold increase in BPA concentrations was associated with higher waist-to-hip ratio (?: 0.003; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.005). The association of BPA with waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness was modified by sex (sex x BPA interaction p-values<0.2). In girls, each 2-fold increase in BPA concentrations was associated with a 0.2?cm (95% CI: 0.0, 0.5) and 0.15?mm (95% CI: 0.01, 0.30) increase in waist circumference and subscapular skinfolds, respectively. Associations were generally null or slightly inverse in boys. CONCLUSIONS:In this cohort, gestational urinary BPA concentrations were associated with subtle increases in girl's central adiposity during early childhood.
Project description:Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies identified several common variants for obesity: rs9939609 in FTO, rs7566605 near INSIG2 and both rs17782313 and rs17700633 near the MC4R gene. This study aimed to assess the influence of these polymorphisms on development of adiposity in European- (EA) and African-American (AA) youth in two ongoing longitudinal studies including 986 and 606 participants with age ranges of 10-25.8 and 4.0-23.9 years, respectively. Individual growth curve modeling was conducted separately in the two studies. We tested the effect of the SNPs on levels and increase with age (i.e., slope) of weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and skinfolds from childhood to adulthood, and potential moderation by ethnicity or gender. Beta coefficients computed in the two studies were pooled using meta-analysis. Rs9939609 was associated with logtransformed levels of BMI (? = 0.021, P = 0.01), weight (? = 0.019, P = 0.04) and waist circumference (? = 0.012, P = 0.04). Rs17782313 was associated with triceps (? = 0.05, P = 0.02). Significant interactions of rs17700633 with gender were observed on subscapular-, suprailiac- and sum of skinfolds, with significant associations limited to males (P < 0.05). No significant interactions with ethnicity were found. Only one effect on the slope was observed, rs17700633 showed a significant interaction with age on triceps (? = 0.004, P = 0.04). In two longitudinal studies of EA and AA youth, we replicated the effect of FTO and common variants near MC4R on general and central adiposity. These variants did not affect the increase with age of adiposity from childhood to adulthood with one exception. Common variants for obesity identified in GWA studies have detectable but modest effects on growth curves for adiposity in EA and AA youth.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We investigated cross-sectionally and longitudinally the relationship between FTO rs9939609 and obesity-related characteristics in the European children of the IDEFICS project and the interaction of this variant with a lifestyle intervention.<h4>Population and methods</h4>A cohort of 16224 children (2-9 years) was recruited into a population-based survey (T0) from eight European countries. A second survey (T1) reassessed the children two years later. A random sample of 4405 children was extracted for genetic studies. 3168 children were re-examined two years later. Half of them underwent a lifestyle intervention program. The FTO rs9939609 was genotyped. Weight, height, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured at T0 and T1.<h4>Results</h4>At T0, the risk A allele of rs9939609 was significantly associated with higher values of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and skinfolds (age, sex, and country-adjusted p-values: all p<0.001) and with a statistically significant increased risk of overweight/obesity. Over the two year follow-up, no interaction between genotype and intervention was observed. The A allele was associated to a significantly higher increase in all the anthropometric variables examined at T0 independently from the study group (intervention versus control) (p-values: all p<0.002, adjusted for age, sex, country, intervention/control study group, T0 values, and individual time interval between T0 and T1). Over the two-year follow-up, 210 new cases of overweight/obesity occurred. A statistically significant higher incidence of overweight/obesity was associated to the A allele [OR(A)?=?1.95, 95% CI?=?(1.29; 2.97)].<h4>Conclusions</h4>We confirmed the association between the FTO rs9939609 and body mass and overweight/obesity risk in European children. The main finding of the study is that the A allele carriers present higher increase of body mass and central adiposity over time and higher risk of developing overweight/obesity during growth, independently from intervention measures.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Obesity and hypertension (HTN) have become increasingly prevalent in Taiwan. People with obesity are more likely to have HTN. In this study, we evaluated several anthropometric measurements for the prediction of HTN in middle-aged and elderly populations in Taiwan. DESIGN:Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING:Community-based investigation in Guishan Township of northern Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 396 people were recruited from a northern Taiwan community for a cross-sectional study. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured at the annual health exam. The obesity indices included body mass index (BMI), body fat (BF) percentage and waist circumference (WC). OUTCOME MEASURES:Statistical analyses, including Pearson's correlation, multiple logistic regression and the area under ROC curves (AUCs) between HTN and anthropometric measurements, were used in this study. RESULTS:Of the 396 people recruited, 200 had HTN. The age-adjusted Pearson's coefficients of BMI, BF percentage and WC were 0.23 (p<0.001), 0.14 (p=0.01) and 0.26 (p<0.001), respectively. Multiple logistic regression of the HTN-related obesity indices showed that the ORs of BMI, BF percentage and WC were 1.15 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.23, p<0.001), 1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.11, p<0.001) and 1.06 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.08, p<0.001), respectively. The AUCs of BMI, BF percentage and WC were 0.626 (95% CI 0.572 to 0.681, p<0.001), 0.556 (95% CI 0.500 to 0.613, p=0.052) and 0.640 (95% CI 0.586 to 0.694, p<0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:WC is a more reliable predictor of HTN than BMI or BF percentage. The effect of abdominal fat distribution on blood pressure is greater than that of total BF amount.
Project description:Background: Malnutrition affects body growth, size, and composition of children. Yet, few functional biomarkers are known to be associated with childhood morphology.Objective: This cross-sectional study examined associations of anthropometric indicators of height, musculature, and fat mass with plasma proteins by using proteomics in a population cohort of school-aged Nepalese children.Methods: Height, weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps and subscapular skinfolds, upper arm muscle area (AMA), and arm fat area (AFA) were assessed in 500 children 6-8 y of age. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs), weight-for-age z scores (WAZs), and body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZs) were derived from the WHO growth reference. Relative protein abundance was quantified by using tandem mass spectrometry. Protein-anthropometry associations were evaluated by linear mixed-effects models and identified as having a false discovery rate (q) <5%.Results: Among 982 proteins, 1, 10, 14, and 17 proteins were associated with BAZ, HAZ, MUAC, and AMA, respectively (q < 0.05). Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, 2 IGF-binding proteins, and carnosinase-1 were associated with both HAZ and AMA. Proteins involved in nutrient transport, activation of innate immunity, and bone mineralization were associated with HAZ. Several extracellular matrix proteins were positively associated with AMA alone. The proteomes of MUAC and AMA substantially overlapped, whereas no proteins were associated with AFA or triceps and subscapular skinfolds. Myosin light-chain kinase, possibly reflecting leakage from muscle, was inversely associated with BAZ. The proteome of WAZ was the largest (n = 33) and most comprehensive, including proteins involved in neural development and oxidative stress response, among others.Conclusions: Plasma proteomics confirmed known biomarkers of childhood growth and revealed novel proteins associated with lean mass in chronically undernourished children. Identified proteins may serve as candidates for assessing growth and nutritional status of children in similar undernourished settings. The antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial yielding the study cohort of children was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00115271.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the effect of auricular acupoint stimulation on overweight and obese adults. Methods:We searched databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the PerioPath Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature. The modified Jadad scale was used to assess study quality. We investigated the effect of auricular acupoint stimulation on anthropometric measurements. Results:Eighteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our systematic review. Thirteen RCTs were pooled in a meta-analysis that revealed a significant reduction in body weight (BW) with a mean difference (MD) of -1.21?kg and a 95% confidence interval (CI) from -1.94 to -0.47 with a heterogeneity of I2 = 88%. Significant decreases in body mass index (BMI; MD: -0.57?kg/m2; 95% CI -0.82 to -0.33; I2 = 78%), body fat (BF; MD: -0.83%; 95% CI -1.43 to -0.24; I2 = 0%), and waist circumference (WC; MD: -1.75?cm; 95% CI -2.95 to -0.55; I2 = 87%) were also revealed. Conclusions:This meta-analysis shows that auricular acupoint stimulation improves physical anthropometric parameters including BW, BMI, BF, and WC in overweight and obese adults. These methods are less effective on hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine the associations of TV parameters with adiposity in early life. METHODS:Data were collected as part of the Born in Bradford (BiB) longitudinal birth cohort study. Child TV viewing duration was parent reported, and BMI, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at ~12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age in 1,338 children. Mixed effects models were used to quantify adjusted associations of TV viewing duration with adiposity markers, incorporating data from all time points. Linear regression was used to investigate differences in adiposity levels across frequencies of eating meals and snacks while watching TV at age ~24 months and between children who did and did not have a TV in their bedroom at age ~36 months. RESULTS:Every 1 h/d of TV viewing was associated with a 0.075-cm larger (95% CI: 0.0034-0.15) waist circumference, independent of covariates including sleep duration, dietary factors, and physical activity level. There was no evidence for any other associations. CONCLUSIONS:TV viewing duration is independently associated with abdominal adiposity in young children. Limiting TV viewing from an early age may be important for primary prevention of obesity.