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Siglec-1 is a novel dendritic cell receptor that mediates HIV-1 trans-infection through recognition of viral membrane gangliosides.

ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential antigen-presenting cells for the induction of immunity against pathogens. However, HIV-1 spread is strongly enhanced in clusters of DCs and CD4(+) T cells. Uninfected DCs capture HIV-1 and mediate viral transfer to bystander CD4(+) T cells through a process termed trans-infection. Initial studies identified the C-type lectin DC-SIGN as the HIV-1 binding factor on DCs, which interacts with the viral envelope glycoproteins. Upon DC maturation, however, DC-SIGN is down-regulated, while HIV-1 capture and trans-infection is strongly enhanced via a glycoprotein-independent capture pathway that recognizes sialyllactose-containing membrane gangliosides. Here we show that the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 (Siglec-1, CD169), which is highly expressed on mature DCs, specifically binds HIV-1 and vesicles carrying sialyllactose. Furthermore, Siglec-1 is essential for trans-infection by mature DCs. These findings identify Siglec-1 as a key factor for HIV-1 spread via infectious DC/T-cell synapses, highlighting a novel mechanism that mediates HIV-1 dissemination in activated tissues.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3525531 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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