Siglec-1 is a novel dendritic cell receptor that mediates HIV-1 trans-infection through recognition of viral membrane gangliosides.
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential antigen-presenting cells for the induction of immunity against pathogens. However, HIV-1 spread is strongly enhanced in clusters of DCs and CD4(+) T cells. Uninfected DCs capture HIV-1 and mediate viral transfer to bystander CD4(+) T cells through a process termed trans-infection. Initial studies identified the C-type lectin DC-SIGN as the HIV-1 binding factor on DCs, which interacts with the viral envelope glycoproteins. Upon DC maturation, however, DC-SIGN is down-regulated, while HIV-1 capture and trans-infection is strongly enhanced via a glycoprotein-independent capture pathway that recognizes sialyllactose-containing membrane gangliosides. Here we show that the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 (Siglec-1, CD169), which is highly expressed on mature DCs, specifically binds HIV-1 and vesicles carrying sialyllactose. Furthermore, Siglec-1 is essential for trans-infection by mature DCs. These findings identify Siglec-1 as a key factor for HIV-1 spread via infectious DC/T-cell synapses, highlighting a novel mechanism that mediates HIV-1 dissemination in activated tissues.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) serve a key function in host defense, linking innate detection of microbes to activation of pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses. DCs express cell surface receptors for HIV-1 entry, but are relatively resistant to productive viral replication. They do, however, facilitate infection of co-cultured T-helper cells through a process referred to as trans-infection. We previously showed that tetraspanin 7 (TSPAN7), a transmembrane protein, is involved, through positive regulation of actin nucleation, in the transfer of HIV-1 from the dendrites of immature monocyte-derived DCs (iMDDCs) to activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Various molecular mechanisms have been described regarding HIV-1 trans-infection and seem to depend on DC maturation status. We sought to investigate the crosstalk between DC maturation status, TSPAN7 expression and trans-infection. We followed trans-infection through co-culture of iMDDCs with CD4+ T lymphocytes, in the presence of CXCR4-tropic replicative-competent HIV-1 expressing GFP. T cell infection, DC maturation status and dendrite morphogenesis were assessed through time both by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Our previously described TSPAN7/actin nucleation-dependent mechanism of HIV-1 transfer appeared to be mostly observed during the first 20 h of co-culture experiments and to be independent of HIV replication. In the course of co-culture experiments, we observed a progressive maturation of MDDCs, correlated with a decrease in TSPAN7 expression, a drastic loss of dendrites and a change in the shape of DCs. A TSPAN7 and actin nucleation-independent mechanism of trans-infection, relying on HIV-1 replication, was then at play. We discovered that TSPAN7 expression is downregulated in response to different innate immune stimuli driving DC maturation, explaining the requirement for a TSPAN7/actin nucleation-independent mechanism of HIV transfer from mature MDDCs (mMDDCs) to T lymphocytes. As previously described, this mechanism relies on the capture of HIV-1 by the I-type lectin CD169/Siglec-1 on mMDDCs and the formation of a "big invaginated pocket" at the surface of DCs, both events being tightly regulated by DC maturation. Interestingly, in iMDDCs, although CD169/Siglec-1 can capture HIV-1, this capture does not lead to HIV-1 transfer to T lymphocytes.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells encountered by human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) following mucosal infection. Because these cells efficiently capture and transmit virus to T cells, they may play a major role in mediating HIV and SIV infection. Recently, a C-type lectin protein present on DCs, DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), was shown to efficiently bind and present HIV and SIV to CD4(+), coreceptor-positive cells in trans. However, the significance of DC-SIGN for virus transmission and pathogenesis in vivo remains unclear. Because SIV infection of macaques may represent the best model to study the importance of DC-SIGN in HIV infection, we cloned and characterized pig-tailed macaque DC-SIGN and generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against it. We demonstrate that, like human DC-SIGN, pig-tailed macaque DC-SIGN (ptDC-SIGN) is expressed on DCs and macrophages but not on monocytes, T cells, or B cells. Moderate levels of ptDC-SIGN expression were detected on the surface of DCs, and low-level expression was found on macrophages. Additionally, we show that ptDC-SIGN efficiently binds and transmits replication-competent SIVmne variants to CD4(+), coreceptor-positive cells. Moreover, transmission of virus between pig-tailed macaque DCs and CD4(+) T cells is largely ptDC-SIGN dependent. Interestingly, MAbs directed against ptDC-SIGN vary in the capacity to block transmission of different SIVmne variants. These data demonstrate that ptDC-SIGN plays a central role in transmitting virus from macaque DCs to T cells, and they suggest that SIVmne variants may differ in their interactions with ptDC-SIGN. Thus, SIVmne infection of pig-tailed macaques may provide an opportunity to investigate the significance of DC-SIGN in primate lentiviral infections.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) efficiently capture HIV-1 and mediate transmission to T cells, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still being debated. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN is important in HIV-1 transmission by DCs. However, various studies strongly suggest that another HIV-1 receptor on DCs is involved in the capture of HIV-1. Here we have identified syndecan-3 as a major HIV-1 attachment receptor on DCs. Syndecan-3 is a DC-specific heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan that captures HIV-1 through interaction with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. Syndecan-3 stabilizes the captured virus, enhances DC infection in cis, and promotes transmission to T cells. Removal of the HSs from the cell surface by heparinase III or by silencing syndecan-3 by siRNA partially inhibited HIV-1 transmission by immature DCs, whereas neutralizing both syndecan-3 and DC-SIGN completely abrogated HIV-1 capture and subsequent transmission. Thus, HIV-1 exploits both syndecan-3 and DC-SIGN to mediate HIV-1 transmission, and an effective microbicide should target both syndecan-3 and DC-SIGN on DCs to prevent transmission.
Project description:Mannose-binding C-type lectin receptors, expressed on Langerhans cells and subepithelial dendritic cells (DCs) of cervico-vaginal tissues, play an important role in HIV-1 capture and subsequent dissemination to lymph nodes. DC-SIGN has been implicated in both productive infection of DCs and the DC-mediated trans infection of CD4(+) T cells that occurs in the absence of replication. However, the molecular events that underlie this efficient transmission have not been fully defined. In this study, we have examined the effect of the extracellular domains of DC-SIGN and Langerin on the stability of the interaction of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with CD4 and also on replication in permissive cells. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that DC-SIGN increases the binding affinity of trimeric gp140 envelope glycoproteins to CD4. In contrast, Langerin had no effect on the stability of the gp140:CD4 complex. In vitro infection experiments to compare DC-SIGN enhancement of CD4-dependent and CD4-independent strains demonstrated significantly lower enhancement of the CD4-independent strain. In addition DC-SIGN increased the relative rate of infection of the CD4-dependent strain but had no effect on the CD4-independent strain. DC-SIGN binding to the HIV envelope protein effectively increases exposure of the CD4 binding site, which in turn contributes to enhancement of infection.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) interactions with myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) can result in virus dissemination to CD4? T cells via a trans infection pathway dependent on virion incorporation of the host cell derived glycosphingolipid (GSL), GM3. The mechanism of DC-mediated trans infection is extremely efficacious and can result in infection of multiple CD4? T cells as these cells make exploratory contacts on the DC surface. While it has long been appreciated that activation of DCs with ligands that induce type I IFN signaling pathway dramatically enhances DC-mediated T cell trans infection, the mechanism by which this occurs has remained unclear until now. Here, we demonstrate that the type I IFN-inducible Siglec-1, CD169, is the DC receptor that captures HIV in a GM3-dependent manner. Selective downregulation of CD169 expression, neutralizing CD169 function, or depletion of GSLs from virions, abrogated DC-mediated HIV-1 capture and trans infection, while exogenous expression of CD169 in receptor-naïve cells rescued GSL-dependent capture and trans infection. HIV-1 particles co-localized with CD169 on DC surface immediately following capture and subsequently within non-lysosomal compartments that redistributed to the DC--T cell infectious synapses upon initiation of T cell contact. Together, these findings describe a novel mechanism of pathogen parasitization of host encoded cellular recognition machinery (GM3--CD169 interaction) for DC-dependent HIV dissemination.
Project description:Antigen presenting cells from the cervical mucosa are thought to amplify incoming HIV-1 and spread infection systemically without being productively infected. Yet, the molecular mechanism at the cervical mucosa underlying this viral transmission pathway remains unknown. Here we identified a subset of HLA-DR+ CD14+ CD11c+ cervical DCs at the lamina propria of the ectocervix and the endocervix that expressed the type-I interferon inducible lectin Siglec-1 (CD169), which promoted viral uptake. In the cervical biopsy of a viremic HIV-1+ patient, Siglec-1+ cells harbored HIV-1-containing compartments, demonstrating that in vivo, these cells trap viruses. Ex vivo, a type-I interferon antiviral environment enhanced viral capture and trans-infection via Siglec-1. Nonetheless, HIV-1 transfer via cervical DCs was effectively prevented with antibodies against Siglec-1. Our findings contribute to decipher how cervical DCs may boost HIV-1 replication and promote systemic viral spread from the cervical mucosa, and highlight the importance of including inhibitors against Siglec-1 in microbicidal strategies.
Project description:Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) can capture HIV-1 via the receptor CD169/Siglec-1 that binds to the ganglioside, GM3, in the virus particle membrane. In turn, HIV-1 particles captured by CD169, an I-type lectin, whose expression on DCs is enhanced upon maturation with LPS, are protected from degradation in CD169+ virus-containing compartments (VCCs) and disseminated to CD4? T cells, a mechanism of DC-mediated HIV-1 trans-infection. In this study, we describe the mechanism of VCC formation and its role in immune evasion mechanisms of HIV-1. We find HIV-1-induced formation of VCCs is restricted to myeloid cells, and that the cytoplasmic tail of CD169 is dispensable for HIV-1 trafficking and retention within VCCs and subsequent trans-infection to CD4? T cells. Interestingly, introduction of a di-aromatic endocytic motif in the cytoplasmic tail of CD169 that results in endocytosis of HIV-1 particles, suppressed CD169-mediated HIV-1 trans-infection. Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy revealed close association of CD169 and HIV-1 particles in surface-accessible but deep plasma membrane invaginations. Intriguingly, HIV-1 particles in deep VCCs were inefficiently accessed by anti-gp120 broadly neutralizing antibodies, VRC01 and NIH45-46 G54W, and thus were less susceptible to neutralization. Our study suggests that HIV-1 capture by CD169 can provide virus evasion from both innate (phagocytosis) and adaptive immune responses.
Project description:Measles virus (MV) is among the most infectious viruses that affect humans and is transmitted via the respiratory route. In macaques, MV primarily infects lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). Little is known about the initial target cell for MV infection. Since DCs bridge the peripheral mucosal tissues with lymphoid tissues, we hypothesize that DCs are the initial target cells that capture MV in the respiratory tract and transport the virus to the lymphoid tissues where MV is transmitted to lymphocytes. Recently, we have demonstrated that the C-type lectin DC-SIGN interacts with MV and enhances infection of DCs in cis. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN+ DCs are abundantly present just below the epithelia of the respiratory tract. DC-SIGN+ DCs efficiently present MV-derived antigens to CD4+ T-lymphocytes after antigen uptake via either CD150 or DC-SIGN in vitro. However, DC-SIGN+ DCs also mediate transmission of MV to CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes. We distinguished two different transmission routes that were either dependent or independent on direct DC infection. DC-SIGN and CD150 are both involved in direct DC infection and subsequent transmission of de novo synthesized virus. However, DC-SIGN, but not CD150, mediates trans-infection of MV to T-lymphocytes independent of DC infection. Together these data suggest a prominent role for DCs during the initiation, dissemination, and clearance of MV infection.
Project description:Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and aggressive primary brain tumour for which total tumour lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination is currently under clinical evaluation. Glioblastoma extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent an enriched cell-free source of tumour-associated (neo-) antigens to pulse dendritic cells (DCs) for the initiation of an anti-tumour immune response. Capture and uptake of EVs by DCs could occur in a receptor-mediated and presumably glycan-dependent way, yet the glycan composition of glioblastoma EVs is unknown. Here, we set out to characterize the glycocalyx composition of glioblastoma EVs by lectin-binding ELISA and comprehensive immunogold transmission electron microscopy (immuno-TEM). The surface glycan profile of human glioblastoma cell line-derived EVs (50-200 nm) was dominated by ?-2,3- and ?-2,6 linked sialic acid-capped complex N-glycans and bi-antennary N-glycans. Since sialic acids can trigger immune inhibitory sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) receptors, we screened for Siglec ligands on the EVs. Glioblastoma EVs showed significant binding to Siglec-9, which is highly expressed on DCs. Surprisingly, however, glioblastoma EVs lack glycans that could bind Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), a receptor that mediates uptake and induction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation. Therefore, we explored whether modification of the EV glycan surface could reduce immune inhibitory Siglec binding, while enhancing EV internalization by DCs in a DC-SIGN dependent manner. Desialylation with a pan-sialic acid hydrolase led to reduction of sialic acid expression on EVs. Moreover, insertion of a high-affinity ligand (LewisY) for DC-SIGN resulted in a four-fold increase of uptake by monocyte-derived DCs. In conclusion, we show that the glycocalyx composition of EVs is a key factor of efficient DC targeting and that modification of the EV glycocalyx potentiates EVs as anti-cancer vaccine.
Project description:The HIV-1 envelope (Env) surface is shrouded with an assortment of oligomannose-, hybrid-, and complex-type glycans that enable virus interaction with carbohydrate-recognizing lectins. This study examined the importance of glycan heterogeneity for HIV-1 transmission through the trans-infection pathway by the host mannose-binding lectin DC-SIGN. A diversity of glycan content was observed among HIV-1 strains and associated with varying degrees of trans-infection via DC-SIGN and sensitivity to trans-infection blockage by antiviral lectins. When Env glycans were modified to display only the oligomannose type, DC-SIGN-mediated virus capture was enhanced; however, virus trans-infection was diminished because of increased degradation, which was alleviated by incorporation with hybrid-type glycans. Amino acid changes in the Env signal peptide (SP) modulated the Env glycan content, leading to alterations in DC-SIGN-dependent trans-infection and virus sensitivity to antiviral lectins. Hence, SP variation and glycosylation that confer varied types of oligosaccharides to HIV-1 Env are critical determinants for virus fitness and phenotypic diversity.