Dataset Information


Variation in the schedules of somite and neural development in frogs.

ABSTRACT: The timing of notochord, somite, and neural development was analyzed in the embryos of six different frog species, which have been divided into two groups, according to their developmental speed. Rapid developing species investigated were Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), Engystomops coloradorum, and Engystomops randi (Leiuperidae). The slow developers were Epipedobates machalilla and Epipedobates tricolor (Dendrobatidae) and Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae). Blastopore closure, notochord formation, somite development, neural tube closure, and the formation of cranial neural crest cell-streams were detected by light and scanning electron microscopy and by immuno-histochemical detection of somite and neural crest marker proteins. The data were analyzed using event pairing to determine common developmental aspects and their relationship to life-history traits. In embryos of rapidly developing frogs, elongation of the notochord occurred earlier relative to the time point of blastopore closure in comparison with slowly developing species. The development of cranial neural crest cell-streams relative to somite formation is accelerated in rapidly developing frogs, and it is delayed in slowly developing frogs. The timing of neural tube closure seemed to be temporally uncoupled with somite formation. We propose that these changes are achieved through differential timing of developmental modules that begin with the elongation of the notochord during gastrulation in the rapidly developing species. The differences might be related to the necessity of developing a free-living tadpole quickly in rapid developers.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3528599 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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