Synthesis and evaluation of ?-thymidine analogues as novel antimalarials.
ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum thymidylate kinase (PfTMPK) is a key enzyme in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-chloro-phenyl-urea-?-thymidine has been reported as an inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TMPK (MtTMPK). Starting from this point, we designed, synthesized and evaluated a number of thymidine analogues as antimalarials. Both 5'-urea-?- and ?-thymidine derivatives were moderate inhibitors of PfTMPK and furthermore showed moderate inhibition of parasite growth. The structure of several enzyme-inhibitor complexes provides a basis for improved inhibitor design. However, we found that certain 5'-urea-?-thymidine analogues had antimalarial activity where inhibition of PfTMPK is not the major mode of action. Optimization of this series resulted in a compound with potent antimalarial activity (EC(50) = 28 nM; CC(50) = 29 ?M).
Project description:It is known that the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-encoded thymidine kinase (TK) co-purifies with an associated thymidylate kinase (TMPK) activity and that thymidylate (TMP) inhibits the phosphorylation of thymidine by the HSV-1 TK. Here we demonstrate that: (i) TMP phosphorylation catalysed by the viral TMPK is competitively inhibited by thymidine (TdR) with a Ki equal to its Km as substrate for the viral TK; (ii) L-thymidine (L-TdR), the enantiomer of the naturally occurring D-TdR and a substrate for the HSV-1 TK [Spadari, Maga, Focher, Ciarrocchi, Manservigi, Arcamone, Capobianco, Caruso, Colonna, Iotti and Garbesi (1992) J. Med. Chem. 35, 4214-4220], is a powerful inhibitor of the HSV-1 TMPK activity with a Ki value identical with its Km as a substrate for the viral TK; (iii) both viral TK and TMPK activities are inhibited, in a competitive way and with identical Ki values, by novel, non-substrate inhibitors of HSV-1 TK, N2-phenylguanines; (iv) L-TdR is phosphorylated to L-TMP by the viral TK, but L-TMP is not phosphorylated to L-TDP by the viral TMPK activity; and (v) L-TMP inhibits competitively and with identical potencies the phosphorylation of TdR and TMP catalysed respectively by the HSV-1 TK and TMPK activities. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that both TK and TMPK activities encoded by HSV-1 share a common active site which is very tolerant in accepting modified nucleosides, but cannot readily accommodate modified nucleoside monophosphates.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Malaria has always been a major public health problem in Yemen. Several studies in developing countries have demonstrated ineffective and poor quality drugs including antimalarials. Therefore, quality assessment of antimalarial drugs is of crucial importance. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials (chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) available in Yemen and to determine whether the quality of these products was related to the level of the distribution chain at which the samples were collected or related to the manufacturers. METHODS: Four samples from each antimalarial product were collected from each of the various levels of the distribution chain. One sample was kept with the research team. Two were tested at Sana'a and Aden Drug Quality Control Laboratories. The fourth was sent to the Centre for Quality Assurance of Medicines in Potchefstroom, South Africa, for analysis. Quality indicators measured were the content of the active ingredient and dissolution rate (for tablets only) in comparison to standard specifications for these products in the relevant pharmacopoeia. RESULTS: The results identified several problems of sub-standard products within the drug distribution chain. They included high and low failures in ingredient content for chloroquine tablets and chloroquine syrup. There was some dissolution failure for chloroquine tablets, and high sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets dissolution failures. Failures with the dissolution of the pyrimethamine were found at most of the collection points. No clear relationship neither between the quality products and the level of the distribution chain, nor between locally manufactured and imported products was observed. CONCLUSION: There are sub-standard antimalarial products circulating within the drug distribution chains in the country, which will have serious implications on the reduced therapeutic effectiveness and on the development of drug resistance. This appears to be due to non-compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines by manufacturers in the production of the antimalarials.
Project description:The peroxide bond of the artemisinins inspired the development of a class of fully synthetic 1,2,4-trioxolane-based antimalarials, collectively known as the ozonides. Similar to the artemisinins, heme-mediated degradation of the ozonides generates highly reactive radical species that are thought to mediate parasite killing by damaging critical parasite biomolecules. We examined the relationship between parasite dependent degradation and antimalarial activity for two ozonides, OZ277 (arterolane) and OZ439 (artefenomel), using a combination of in vitro drug stability and pulsed-exposure activity assays. Our results showed that drug degradation is parasite stage dependent and positively correlates with parasite load. Increasing trophozoite-stage parasitemia leads to substantially higher rates of degradation for both OZ277 and OZ439, and this is associated with a reduction in in vitro antimalarial activity. Under conditions of very high parasitemia (?90%), OZ277 and OZ439 were rapidly degraded and completely devoid of activity in trophozoite-stage parasite cultures exposed to a 3-h drug pulse. This study highlights the impact of increasing parasite load on ozonide stability and in vitro antimalarial activity and should be considered when investigating the antimalarial mode of action of the ozonide antimalarials under conditions of high parasitemia.
Project description:The increasing spread of drug-resistant malaria strains underscores the need for new antimalarial agents with novel modes of action (MOAs). Here, we describe a compound representative of a new class of antimalarials. This molecule, ACT-213615, potently inhibits in vitro erythrocytic growth of all tested Plasmodium falciparum strains, irrespective of their drug resistance properties, with IC(50) values in the low single-digit nanomolar range. Like the clinically used artemisinins, the compound equally and very rapidly affects all three asexual erythrocytic parasite stages. In contrast, microarray studies suggest that the MOA of ACT-213615 is different from that of the artemisinins and other known antimalarials. ACT-213615 is orally bioavailable in mice, exhibits activity in the murine P. berghei model and efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug chloroquine in the recently established P. falciparum SCID mouse model.ACT-213615 represents a new class of potent antimalarials that merits further investigation for its clinical potential. Histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitors are being intensively pursued as potential new antimalarial drugs, and are also emerging as valuable tools for investigating transcriptional control in malaria parasites. In this study, the genome-wide transcriptional effects of three structurally related hydroxamate HDAC inhibitors were profiled in Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal of the malaria parasite species that infects humans. Trophozoite-stage P. falciparum cells were treated with ACT-213615 for increasing amount of time at IC50 concentration and cells were harvested in parralled with DMSO treated controls for microarray-based transcriptional profiling.
Project description:Malaria is a protozoal parasitic disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas and causes more than 800,000 deaths per year. The continuing emergence of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum drives the ongoing need for the development of new and effective antimalarial drugs. Our previous work has explored the preliminary structural optimization of 4(1H)-quinolone ester derivatives, a new series of antimalarials related to the endochins. Herein, we report the lead optimization of 4(1H)-quinolones with a focus on improving both antimalarial potency and bioavailability. These studies led to the development of orally efficacious antimalarials including quinolone analogue 20g, a promising candidate for further optimization.
Project description:We created neutral antimalarial prodrugs that deliver bisthiazolium compounds with antimalarial activity in the nanomolar range. These drugs primarily affect early intraerythrocytic stages through rapid, nonreversible cytotoxicity. The compounds are suitable for both parenteral and oral use and plasma promotes rapid conversion of the prodrug into the drug. We demonstrate that very low doses offer protection in a murine model of malaria. The drugs show great potential for curing high parasitemia with short-course treatments. Oral administration of the TE3 prodrug completely cures Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in rhesus monkeys. The drugs specifically accumulate inside infected erythrocytes, block phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, and interact with hemozoin. To our knowledge, this class of compounds represents one of the most potent antimalarials tested to date. These unique properties signal a promising future for this class of antimalarial.
Project description:Malaria disease continues to be a major health problem worldwide due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In recent days, artemisinin (ART)-based drugs and combination therapies remain the drugs of choice for resistant P. falciparum malaria. However, resistance to ART-based drugs has begun to appear in some parts of the world. Endoperoxide compounds (natural/semisynthetic/synthetic) representing a huge number of antimalarial agents possess a wide structural diversity with a desired antimalarial effectiveness against resistant P. falciparum malaria. The 1,2,4-trioxane ring system lacking the lactone ring that constitutes the most important endoperoxide structural scaffold is believed to be the key pharmacophoric moiety and is primarily responsible for the pharmacodynamic potential of endoperoxide-based antimalarials. Due to this reason, research into endoperoxide, particularly 1,2,4-trioxane-, 1,2,4-trioxolane- and 1,2,4,5-teraoxane-based scaffolds, has gained significant interest in recent years for developing antimalarial drugs against resistant malaria. In this paper, a comprehensive effort has been made to review the development of endoperoxide antimalarials from traditional antimalarial leads (natural/semisynthetic) and structural diversity of endoperoxide molecules derived from 1,2,4-trioxane-, 1,2,4-trioxolane- and 1,2,4,5-teraoxane-based structural scaffolds, including their chimeric (hybrid) molecules, which are newer and potent antimalarial agents.
Project description:There is an urgent need for new antimalarial drugs with novel mechanisms of action to deliver effective control and eradication programs. Parasite resistance to all existing antimalarial classes, including the artemisinins, has been reported during their clinical use. A failure to generate new antimalarials with novel mechanisms of action that circumvent the current resistance challenges will contribute to a resurgence in the disease which would represent a global health emergency. Here we present a unique generation of quinolone lead antimalarials with a dual mechanism of action against two respiratory enzymes, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Plasmodium falciparum NDH2) and cytochrome bc(1). Inhibitor specificity for the two enzymes can be controlled subtly by manipulation of the privileged quinolone core at the 2 or 3 position. Inhibitors display potent (nanomolar) activity against both parasite enzymes and against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum parasites as evidenced by rapid and selective depolarization of the parasite mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to a disruption of pyrimidine metabolism and parasite death. Several analogs also display activity against liver-stage parasites (Plasmodium cynomolgi) as well as transmission-blocking properties. Lead optimized molecules also display potent oral antimalarial activity in the Plasmodium berghei mouse malaria model associated with favorable pharmacokinetic features that are aligned with a single-dose treatment. The ease and low cost of synthesis of these inhibitors fulfill the target product profile for the generation of a potent, safe, and inexpensive drug with the potential for eventual clinical deployment in the control and eradication of falciparum malaria.
Project description:Introduction. The aim of this study was to identify the antimalarials prescribed during the pregnancy and to document their timing. Method. From June to September 2009, a survey was conducted on 565 women who gave birth in the Castors maternity in Bangui. The antenatal clinics cards were checked in order to record the types of antimalarials prescribed during pregnancy according to gestational age. Results. A proportion of 28.8% ANC cards contained at least one antimalarial prescription. The commonest categories of antimalarials prescribed were: quinine (56.7%), artemisinin-based combinations (26.8%) and artemisinin monotherapy (14.4%). Among the prescriptions that occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy, artemisinin-based combinations and artemisinin monotherapies represented the proportions of (10.9%) and (13.3%). respectively. Conclusion. This study showed a relatively high rate (>80%) of the recommended antimalarials prescription regarding categories of indicated antimalarials from national guidelines. But, there is a concern about the prescription of the artemisinin derivatives in the first trimester of pregnancy, and the prescription of artemisinin monotherapy. Thus, the reinforcement of awareness activities of health care providers on the national malaria treatment during pregnancy is suggested.
Project description:The growing resistance to current first-line antimalarial drugs represents a major health challenge. To facilitate the discovery of new antimalarials, we have implemented an efficient and robust high-throughput cell-based screen (1,536-well format) based on proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) in erythrocytes. From a screen of approximately 1.7 million compounds, we identified a diverse collection of approximately 6,000 small molecules comprised of >530 distinct scaffolds, all of which show potent antimalarial activity (<1.25 microM). Most known antimalarials were identified in this screen, thus validating our approach. In addition, we identified many novel chemical scaffolds, which likely act through both known and novel pathways. We further show that in some cases the mechanism of action of these antimalarials can be determined by in silico compound activity profiling. This method uses large datasets from unrelated cellular and biochemical screens and the guilt-by-association principle to predict which cellular pathway and/or protein target is being inhibited by select compounds. In addition, the screening method has the potential to provide the malaria community with many new starting points for the development of biological probes and drugs with novel antiparasitic activities.