T-bet and GATA3 orchestrate Th1 and Th2 differentiation through lineage-specific targeting of distal regulatory elements.
ABSTRACT: T-bet and GATA3 regulate the CD4+ T cell Th1/Th2 cell fate decision but little is known about the interplay between these factors outside of the murine Ifng and Il4/Il5/Il13 loci. Here we show that T-bet and GATA3 bind to multiple distal sites at immune regulatory genes in human effector T cells. These sites display markers of functional elements, act as enhancers in reporter assays and are associated with a requirement for T-bet and GATA3. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both factors bind distal sites at Tbx21 and that T-bet directly activates its own expression. We also show that in Th1 cells, GATA3 is distributed away from Th2 genes, instead occupying T-bet binding sites at Th1 genes, and that T-bet is sufficient to induce GATA3 binding at these sites. We propose these aspects of T-bet and GATA3 function are important for Th1/Th2 differentiation and for understanding transcription factor interactions in other T cell lineage decisions.
Project description:T-bet and GATA3 induce differentiation of CD4+ T-cells into Th1 or Th2 effectors. These exhibit a range of different properties but understanding of T-bet and GATA3 function is mostly limited to the murine Ifng and Il4/Il5/Il13 loci. We hypothesised that extending such analyses across the human genome would allow further insight into T-bet and GATA3 function. We have discovered that T-bet and GATA3 bind to multiple distal sites at a set of key immune regulatory genes. These sites display markers of functional elements, act as enhancers in reporter assays and are associated with lineage-specific expression regulated by T-bet and GATA3. Our approach also reveals that GATA3 is distributed at T-bet binding sites in Th1 cells and that T-bet directly activates its own expression. We propose that these aspects of T-bet and GATA3 function are critical for Th1/ Th2 differentiation and provide a model for the relationship between other lineage-specific regulators. ChIP was performed using antibody against T-bet in Th1 cells and against GATA3 in Th1 cells as well as Th2 cells. A sample of whole cell extract (WCE) from Th1 cells and Th2 cells was sequenced. Th1 WCE was used as the background to determine enrichment.
Project description:Th2 cells produce Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, but repress Th1 cytokine IFN?. Recent studies have revealed various distinct memory-type Th2 cell subsets, one of which produces a substantial amount of IFN? in addition to Th2 cytokines, however it remains unclear precisely how these Th2 cells produce IFN?. We herein show that phosphorylation of Gata3 at Ser308, Thr315 and Ser316 induces dissociation of a histone deacetylase Hdac2 from the Gata3/Chd4 repressive complex in Th2 cells. We also identify Akt1 as a Gata3-phosphorylating kinase, and the activation of Akt1 induces derepression of Tbx21 and Ifng expression in Th2 cells. Moreover, T-bet-dependent IFN? expression in IFN?-producing memory Th2 cells appears to be controlled by the phosphorylation status of Gata3 in human and murine systems. Thus, this study highlights the molecular basis for posttranslational modifications of Gata3 that control the regulation of IFN? expression in memory Th2 cells.
Project description:GATA binding protein 3 (Gata3) is a GATA family transcription factor that controls differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells. However, it is unknown how Gata3 simultaneously activates Th2-specific genes while repressing those of other Th lineages. Here we show that chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (Chd4) forms a complex with Gata3 in Th2 cells that both activates Th2 cytokine transcription and represses the Th1 cytokine IFN-?. We define a Gata3/Chd4/p300 transcriptional activation complex at the Th2 cytokine loci and a Gata3/Chd4-nucleosome remodeling histone deacetylase repression complex at the Tbx21 locus in Th2 cells. We also demonstrate a physiological role for Chd4 in Th2-dependent inflammation in an in vivo model of asthmatic inflammation. Thus, Gata3/Chd4 forms functionally distinct complexes, which mediate both positive and negative gene regulation to facilitate Th2 cell differentiation.
Project description:The transcription factor GATA3 is crucial for the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Here, we show that deletion of Gata3 allowed the appearance of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing cells in the absence of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IFN-gamma. Such IFN-gamma production was transcription factor T-bet independent. Another T-box-containing transcription factor Eomes, but not T-bet, was induced both in GATA3-deficient CD4(+) T cells differentiated under Th2 cell conditions and in Th2 cells with enforced Runx3 expression, contributing to IFN-gamma production. GATA3 overexpression blocked Runx3-mediated Eomes induction and IFN-gamma production, and GATA3 protein physically interacted with Runx3 protein. Furthermore, we found that Runx3 directly bound to multiple regulatory elements of the Ifng gene and that blocking Runx3 function in either Th1 or GATA3-deficient "Th2" cells results in diminished IFN-gamma production by these cells. Thus, the Runx3-mediated pathway, actively suppressed by GATA3, induces IFN-gamma production in a STAT4- and T-bet-independent manner.
Project description:The clinical symptomatology in the X-linked Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), a combined immunodeficiency and autoimmune disease resulting from WAS protein (WASp) deficiency, reflects the underlying coexistence of an impaired T helper 1 (TH1) immunity alongside intact TH2 immunity. This suggests a role for WASp in patterning T(H) subtype immunity, yet the molecular basis for the TH1-TH2 imbalance in human WAS is unknown. We have discovered a nuclear role for WASp in the transcriptional regulation of the TH1 regulator gene TBX21 at the chromatin level. In primary TH1-differentiating cells, a fraction of WASp is found in the nucleus, where it is recruited to the proximal promoter locus of the TBX21 gene, but not to the core promoter of GATA3 (a TH2 regulator gene) or RORc (a TH17 regulator gene). Genome-wide mapping demonstrates association of WASp in vivo with the gene-regulatory network that orchestrates TH1 cell fate choice in the human TH cell genome. Functionally, nuclear WASp associates with H3K4 trimethyltransferase [RBBP5 (retinoblastoma-binding protein 5)] and H3K9/H3K36 tridemethylase [JMJD2A (Jumonji domain-containing protein 2A)] proteins, and their enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo is required for achieving transcription-permissive chromatin dynamics at the TBX21 proximal promoter in primary differentiating TH1 cells. During TH1 differentiation, the loss of WASp accompanies decreased enrichment of RBBP5 and, in a subset of WAS patients, also of filamentous actin at the TBX21 proximal promoter locus. Accordingly, human WASp-deficient TH cells, from natural mutation or RNA interference-mediated depletion, demonstrate repressed TBX21 promoter dynamics when driven under TH1-differentiating conditions. These chromatin derangements accompany deficient T-BET messenger RNA and protein expression and impaired TH1 function, defects that are ameliorated by reintroducing WASp. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of WASp in the epigenetic control of T-BET transcription and provide a new mechanism for the pathogenesis of WAS by linking aberrant histone methylation at the TBX21 promoter to dysregulated adaptive immunity.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) possess a diverse array of regulatory functions including activation and silencing of gene transcription, regulation of splicing, and coordinating epigenetic modifications. GATA3-AS1 is a divergent lncRNA gene neighboring GATA3. GATA3 is considered the master regulator of TH2 lineage commitment enabling TH2 effector cells to efficiently transcribe genes encoding cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Here, we show that the GATA3-AS1 lncRNA is selectively expressed under TH2 polarizing conditions and is necessary for efficient transcription of GATA3, IL5, and IL13 genes, while being sufficient for GATA3 transcription. GATA3-AS1 is required for formation of permissive chromatin marks, H3K27 acetylation and H3K4 di/tri-methylation, at the GATA3-AS1-GATA3 locus. Further, GATA3-AS1 binds components of the MLL methyltransferase and forms a DNA-RNA hybrid (R-loop) thus tethering the MLL methyltransferase to the gene locus. Our results indicate a novel regulatory function for a divergent lncRNA and provide new insight into the function of lncRNAs in T helper cell differentiation.
Project description:GATA-binding protein 3 (Gata3) controls the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells by induction of chromatin remodeling of the Th2 cytokine gene loci, direct transactivation of Il5 and Il13 genes, and inhibition of Ifng. Gata3 also facilitates Th2 cell proliferation via additional mechanisms that are far less well understood. We herein found that Gata3 associates with RuvB-like protein 2 (Ruvbl2) and represses the expression of a CDK inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2c (Cdkn2c) to facilitate the proliferation of Th2 cells. Gata3 directly bound to the Cdkn2c locus in an Ruvbl2-dependent manner. The defect in the proliferation of Gata3-deficient Th2 cells is rescued by the knockdown of Cdkn2c, indicating that Cdkn2c is a key molecule involved in the Gata3-mediated induction of Th2 cell proliferation. Ruvbl2-knockdown Th2 cells showed decreased antigen-induced expansion and caused less airway inflammation in vivo. We therefore have identified a functional Gata3/Ruvbl2 complex that regulates the proliferation of differentiating Th2 cells through the repression of a CDK inhibitor, Cdkn2c.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-10, a non-redundant anti-inflammatory cytokine is produced by different cells and its production involves activation of cell-specific transcriptional regulatory machinery in response to specific pathogen. We have previously demonstrated downregulated levels of IL-10 in severe falciparum malaria. The present study investigated transcriptional regulation of IL-10 in severe malaria. Comparative expression analysis of cell-specific signalling proteins and transcription factors for IL-10 production during the stage of active infection and with resolution of parasitaemia was performed. Interestingly, T-bet and GATA3, the Th1 and Th2 transcription factors, respectively, were downregulated in severe malaria with fold change values of 0.59 and 0.86. Increase in the levels of both the factors with resolution of parasitaemia implicated a role for parasite in depressed levels of these factors. Further support for probable parasite manipulation of GATA3 was obtained from negative correlation of GATA3 with parasitaemia. In addition, a role for interferon-? in suppressing IL-10 transcription was evident from its negative correlation with GATA3 and IL-10 levels. In summary, IL-10 transcription in Th1 and Th2 is defective and appears to have major contribution to low levels in severe malaria.
Project description:CD4+ T cells can be instructed by nonantigen-specific signals to differentiate into functionally distinct lineages with mutually exclusive patterns of cytokine production. The molecular events that drive interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) production during Th1 development are well understood, but mechanisms that silence this cytokine during Th2 polarization are not clear. In this study, we find that the tbx21 gene encoding the Th1 master regulator T-bet is a direct target of the transcriptional repressor Ikaros. In Th2 cells, which do not express T-bet, strong Ikaros binding could be detected at the endogenous tbx21 promoter, whereas this gene was not occupied by Ikaros in T-bet-expressing Th1 cells. Inhibition of Ikaros DNA binding activity during Th2 polarization resulted in loss of Ikaros promoter occupancy, increased T-bet expression, and inappropriate T-bet-dependent production of IFN gamma. Ikaros was also required for epigenetic imprinting of the ifn gamma locus during Th2 polarization, and loss of Ikaros function in vivo led to an inappropriate Th1 response to the parasite Shistosoma mansoni. These studies demonstrate that Ikaros, a factor with an established role in lymphocyte development, also regulates the development of peripheral T helper responses.
Project description:Differentiation of progenitor cells into mature cell types is commonly associated with the expression of lineage-determining transcription factors (LD-TFs) specific to that lineage. In CD4+ T cells, T-bet dictates differentiation of the TH1 lineage, whereas GATA3 drives differentiation of the alternative TH2 lineage. LD-TFs, including T-bet and GATA3, are frequently co-expressed, both in vitro and in vivo. How co-expression of two mutually antagonistic LD-TFs affects their function and lineage determination is not known. By expressing T-bet and GATA3 separately or together, we show that T-bet sequesters GATA3 at its target sites, thereby removing GATA3 from TH2 genes. T-bet interacts with the GATA3 DNA binding domain, changing its DNA sequence binding preference. This mechanism allows T-bet to dominate and drive the TH1 gene expression program in the presence of the GATA3. We propose that redistribution of one LD-TF by another may be a common mechanism that could explain how specific cell fate choices can be made even in the presence of other TFs driving alternative differentiation pathways. Overall design: ChIP-seq for FLAG-T-bet and HA-GATA3 in T-bet-expressing, GATA3-expressing and T-bet and GATA3 co-expressing EL4 cells. ChIP-seq for H3K27ac in T-bet-expressing, GATA3-expressing and T-bet and GATA3 co-expressing EL4 cells and EL4 cells expressing neither protein.